Abstract

We describe resonant excitation of a plasmon by the Gaussian-like leaky mode of an effectively single mode photonic crystal (PC) waveguide. Plasmon is phase matched by design with a waveguide mode, and travels in a metallic layer on the top of a PC waveguide. We observe that small changes in the ambient refractive index just outside the metal film lead to strong variations in the losses of a waveguide core mode, making such a device a good candidate for compact sensor applications. Using low refractive index core PC waveguides makes phase matching between the plasmon and PC core mode relatively easy to enforce at any wavelength of operation as modal effective refractive index in such waveguides can be readily varied in a wide range.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. V. M. Agranovich, and D. L. Mills. Surface Polaritons - Electromagnetic Waves at Surfaces and Interfaces, (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1982).
  2. E. Kretschmann, and H. Raether, "Radiative decay of non radiative surface plasmons excited by light," Z. Naturforsch. A: Phys. Sci. 23, 2135 (1968).
  3. B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, "Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing," Sens. Actuators B 4, 299 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. L. Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. A. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. S. Yee, C. E. Furlong, and R. G. Woodbury, "A commercial solution for surface plasmon sensing," Sens. Actuators B 35, 212 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. M. Zhang and D. Uttamchandani, "Optical chemical sensing employing surface plasmon resonance," Electron. Lett. 23, 1469 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. V. Kabashin and P. Nikitin, "Surface plasmon resonance interferometer for bio- and chemical-sensors," Opt. Commun. 150, 5 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. N. Grigorenko, P. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, "Phase jumps and interferometric surface plasmon resonance imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Schuck, "Use of surface plasmon resonance to probe the equilibrium and dynamic aspects of interactions between biological macromolecules," Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 26, 541 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. P. Lavers, and J. S. Wilkinson, "A waveguide-coupled surface-plasmon sensor for an aqueous environment," Sens. Actuators B 22, 75 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Harris and J. S. Wilkinson, "Waveguide surface plasmon resonance sensors," Sens. Actuators B 29, 261 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. N. Weiss, R. Srivastava, and H. Grogner, "Experimental investigation of a surface plasmon-based integratedoptic humidity sensor," Electron. Lett. 32, 842 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Homola, J. Ctyroky, M. Skalky, J. Hradiliva, and P. Kolarova, "A surface plasmon resonance based integrated optical sensor," Sens. Actuators B 39, 286 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Dostalek, J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spirkova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, "Surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on integrated optical waveguide," Sens. Actuators B 76, 8 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. K. Sheridan, R. D. Harris, P. N. Bartlett, and J. S. Wilkinson, "Phase interrogation of an integrated optical SPR sensor," Sens. Actuators B 97, 114 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. C. Jorgenson and S. S. Yee, "A fiber-optic chemical sensor based on surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 12, 213 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Trouillet, C. Ronot-Trioli, C. Veillas, and H. Gagnaire, "Chemical sensing by surface plasmon resonance in a multimode optical fibre," Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 227 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, P. V. Lambeck, S. Musa, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, B. Usievich, and N. M. Lyndin "Theory and modelling of optical waveguide sensors utilising surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 54, 66 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Weisser, B. Menges, and S. Mittler-Neher, "Refractive index and thickness determination of monolayers by multi mode waveguide coupled surface plasmons," Sens. Actuators B 56, 189 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. D. Gupta, and A. K. Sharma, "Sensitivity evaluation of a multi-layered surface plasmon resonance-based fiber optic sensor: a theoretical study," Sens. Actuators B 107, 40 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Skorobogatiy, "Transverse lightguides in microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 30, 2991 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. H. Shin, M. F. Yanik, S. H. Fan, R. Zia, and M. L. Brongersma, "Omnidirectional resonance in a metal-dielectricmetal geometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4421 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. Shin and S. H. Fan, "All-angle negative refraction for surface plasmon waves using a metal-dielectric-metal structure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 073907 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A. Karalis, E. Lidorikis, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljacic, "Surface-plasmon-assisted guiding of broadband slow and subwavelength light in air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063901 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. Skorobogatiy, O. Weiseberg, T. D. Engeness, M. Soljacic, S. A. Jacobs, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Low-loss asymptotically single-mode propagation in large core OmniGuide fibers," Opt. Express 9, 748 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

H. Shin and S. H. Fan, "All-angle negative refraction for surface plasmon waves using a metal-dielectric-metal structure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 073907 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

A. Karalis, E. Lidorikis, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljacic, "Surface-plasmon-assisted guiding of broadband slow and subwavelength light in air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Gupta, and A. K. Sharma, "Sensitivity evaluation of a multi-layered surface plasmon resonance-based fiber optic sensor: a theoretical study," Sens. Actuators B 107, 40 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Skorobogatiy, "Transverse lightguides in microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 30, 2991 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

H. Shin, M. F. Yanik, S. H. Fan, R. Zia, and M. L. Brongersma, "Omnidirectional resonance in a metal-dielectricmetal geometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4421 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Sheridan, R. D. Harris, P. N. Bartlett, and J. S. Wilkinson, "Phase interrogation of an integrated optical SPR sensor," Sens. Actuators B 97, 114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spirkova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, "Surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on integrated optical waveguide," Sens. Actuators B 76, 8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. Skorobogatiy, O. Weiseberg, T. D. Engeness, M. Soljacic, S. A. Jacobs, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Low-loss asymptotically single-mode propagation in large core OmniGuide fibers," Opt. Express 9, 748 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, P. V. Lambeck, S. Musa, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, B. Usievich, and N. M. Lyndin "Theory and modelling of optical waveguide sensors utilising surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 54, 66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Weisser, B. Menges, and S. Mittler-Neher, "Refractive index and thickness determination of monolayers by multi mode waveguide coupled surface plasmons," Sens. Actuators B 56, 189 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Grigorenko, P. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, "Phase jumps and interferometric surface plasmon resonance imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. V. Kabashin and P. Nikitin, "Surface plasmon resonance interferometer for bio- and chemical-sensors," Opt. Commun. 150, 5 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

P. Schuck, "Use of surface plasmon resonance to probe the equilibrium and dynamic aspects of interactions between biological macromolecules," Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 26, 541 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Homola, J. Ctyroky, M. Skalky, J. Hradiliva, and P. Kolarova, "A surface plasmon resonance based integrated optical sensor," Sens. Actuators B 39, 286 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

M. N. Weiss, R. Srivastava, and H. Grogner, "Experimental investigation of a surface plasmon-based integratedoptic humidity sensor," Electron. Lett. 32, 842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. A. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. S. Yee, C. E. Furlong, and R. G. Woodbury, "A commercial solution for surface plasmon sensing," Sens. Actuators B 35, 212 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

R. Harris and J. S. Wilkinson, "Waveguide surface plasmon resonance sensors," Sens. Actuators B 29, 261 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Trouillet, C. Ronot-Trioli, C. Veillas, and H. Gagnaire, "Chemical sensing by surface plasmon resonance in a multimode optical fibre," Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 227 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

C. P. Lavers, and J. S. Wilkinson, "A waveguide-coupled surface-plasmon sensor for an aqueous environment," Sens. Actuators B 22, 75 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. C. Jorgenson and S. S. Yee, "A fiber-optic chemical sensor based on surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 12, 213 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

L. M. Zhang and D. Uttamchandani, "Optical chemical sensing employing surface plasmon resonance," Electron. Lett. 23, 1469 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, "Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing," Sens. Actuators B 4, 299 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

E. Kretschmann, and H. Raether, "Radiative decay of non radiative surface plasmons excited by light," Z. Naturforsch. A: Phys. Sci. 23, 2135 (1968).

Bartholomew, D. U.

J. L. Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. A. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. S. Yee, C. E. Furlong, and R. G. Woodbury, "A commercial solution for surface plasmon sensing," Sens. Actuators B 35, 212 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bartlett, P.N.

A. K. Sheridan, R. D. Harris, P. N. Bartlett, and J. S. Wilkinson, "Phase interrogation of an integrated optical SPR sensor," Sens. Actuators B 97, 114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

H. Shin, M. F. Yanik, S. H. Fan, R. Zia, and M. L. Brongersma, "Omnidirectional resonance in a metal-dielectricmetal geometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4421 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brynda, E.

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spirkova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, "Surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on integrated optical waveguide," Sens. Actuators B 76, 8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Carr, R.

J. L. Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. A. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. S. Yee, C. E. Furlong, and R. G. Woodbury, "A commercial solution for surface plasmon sensing," Sens. Actuators B 35, 212 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ctyroky, J.

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spirkova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, "Surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on integrated optical waveguide," Sens. Actuators B 76, 8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, P. V. Lambeck, S. Musa, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, B. Usievich, and N. M. Lyndin "Theory and modelling of optical waveguide sensors utilising surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 54, 66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, J. Ctyroky, M. Skalky, J. Hradiliva, and P. Kolarova, "A surface plasmon resonance based integrated optical sensor," Sens. Actuators B 39, 286 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dostalek, J.

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spirkova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, "Surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on integrated optical waveguide," Sens. Actuators B 76, 8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Elkind, J.

J. L. Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. A. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. S. Yee, C. E. Furlong, and R. G. Woodbury, "A commercial solution for surface plasmon sensing," Sens. Actuators B 35, 212 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Engeness, T. D.

Fan, S. H.

H. Shin and S. H. Fan, "All-angle negative refraction for surface plasmon waves using a metal-dielectric-metal structure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 073907 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Shin, M. F. Yanik, S. H. Fan, R. Zia, and M. L. Brongersma, "Omnidirectional resonance in a metal-dielectricmetal geometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4421 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fink, Y.

Furlong, C.E.

J. L. Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. A. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. S. Yee, C. E. Furlong, and R. G. Woodbury, "A commercial solution for surface plasmon sensing," Sens. Actuators B 35, 212 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gagnaire, H.

A. Trouillet, C. Ronot-Trioli, C. Veillas, and H. Gagnaire, "Chemical sensing by surface plasmon resonance in a multimode optical fibre," Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 227 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Grigorenko, A. N.

A. N. Grigorenko, P. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, "Phase jumps and interferometric surface plasmon resonance imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grogner, H.

M. N. Weiss, R. Srivastava, and H. Grogner, "Experimental investigation of a surface plasmon-based integratedoptic humidity sensor," Electron. Lett. 32, 842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, B. D.

B. D. Gupta, and A. K. Sharma, "Sensitivity evaluation of a multi-layered surface plasmon resonance-based fiber optic sensor: a theoretical study," Sens. Actuators B 107, 40 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harris, R.

R. Harris and J. S. Wilkinson, "Waveguide surface plasmon resonance sensors," Sens. Actuators B 29, 261 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Harris, R. D.

J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, P. V. Lambeck, S. Musa, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, B. Usievich, and N. M. Lyndin "Theory and modelling of optical waveguide sensors utilising surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 54, 66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Harris, R.D.

A. K. Sheridan, R. D. Harris, P. N. Bartlett, and J. S. Wilkinson, "Phase interrogation of an integrated optical SPR sensor," Sens. Actuators B 97, 114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hoekstra, H. J. W. M.

J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, P. V. Lambeck, S. Musa, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, B. Usievich, and N. M. Lyndin "Theory and modelling of optical waveguide sensors utilising surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 54, 66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spirkova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, "Surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on integrated optical waveguide," Sens. Actuators B 76, 8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, P. V. Lambeck, S. Musa, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, B. Usievich, and N. M. Lyndin "Theory and modelling of optical waveguide sensors utilising surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 54, 66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, J. Ctyroky, M. Skalky, J. Hradiliva, and P. Kolarova, "A surface plasmon resonance based integrated optical sensor," Sens. Actuators B 39, 286 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hradiliva, J.

J. Homola, J. Ctyroky, M. Skalky, J. Hradiliva, and P. Kolarova, "A surface plasmon resonance based integrated optical sensor," Sens. Actuators B 39, 286 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ibanescu, M.

A. Karalis, E. Lidorikis, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljacic, "Surface-plasmon-assisted guiding of broadband slow and subwavelength light in air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. Skorobogatiy, O. Weiseberg, T. D. Engeness, M. Soljacic, S. A. Jacobs, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Low-loss asymptotically single-mode propagation in large core OmniGuide fibers," Opt. Express 9, 748 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobs, S. A.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

A. Karalis, E. Lidorikis, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljacic, "Surface-plasmon-assisted guiding of broadband slow and subwavelength light in air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. Skorobogatiy, O. Weiseberg, T. D. Engeness, M. Soljacic, S. A. Jacobs, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Low-loss asymptotically single-mode propagation in large core OmniGuide fibers," Opt. Express 9, 748 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, S. G.

Jorgenson, R.C.

R. C. Jorgenson and S. S. Yee, "A fiber-optic chemical sensor based on surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 12, 213 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kabashin, A. V.

A. N. Grigorenko, P. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, "Phase jumps and interferometric surface plasmon resonance imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kabashin, A.V.

A. V. Kabashin and P. Nikitin, "Surface plasmon resonance interferometer for bio- and chemical-sensors," Opt. Commun. 150, 5 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Karalis, A.

A. Karalis, E. Lidorikis, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljacic, "Surface-plasmon-assisted guiding of broadband slow and subwavelength light in air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kolarova, P.

J. Homola, J. Ctyroky, M. Skalky, J. Hradiliva, and P. Kolarova, "A surface plasmon resonance based integrated optical sensor," Sens. Actuators B 39, 286 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kretschmann, E.

E. Kretschmann, and H. Raether, "Radiative decay of non radiative surface plasmons excited by light," Z. Naturforsch. A: Phys. Sci. 23, 2135 (1968).

Kukanskis, K. A.

J. L. Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. A. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. S. Yee, C. E. Furlong, and R. G. Woodbury, "A commercial solution for surface plasmon sensing," Sens. Actuators B 35, 212 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lambeck, P. V.

J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, P. V. Lambeck, S. Musa, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, B. Usievich, and N. M. Lyndin "Theory and modelling of optical waveguide sensors utilising surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 54, 66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lavers, C. P.

C. P. Lavers, and J. S. Wilkinson, "A waveguide-coupled surface-plasmon sensor for an aqueous environment," Sens. Actuators B 22, 75 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lidorikis, E.

A. Karalis, E. Lidorikis, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljacic, "Surface-plasmon-assisted guiding of broadband slow and subwavelength light in air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liedberg, B.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, "Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing," Sens. Actuators B 4, 299 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lundstrom, I.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, "Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing," Sens. Actuators B 4, 299 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lyndin, N. M.

J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, P. V. Lambeck, S. Musa, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, B. Usievich, and N. M. Lyndin "Theory and modelling of optical waveguide sensors utilising surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 54, 66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Melendez, J. L.

J. L. Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. A. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. S. Yee, C. E. Furlong, and R. G. Woodbury, "A commercial solution for surface plasmon sensing," Sens. Actuators B 35, 212 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Menges, B.

M. Weisser, B. Menges, and S. Mittler-Neher, "Refractive index and thickness determination of monolayers by multi mode waveguide coupled surface plasmons," Sens. Actuators B 56, 189 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mittler-Neher, S.

M. Weisser, B. Menges, and S. Mittler-Neher, "Refractive index and thickness determination of monolayers by multi mode waveguide coupled surface plasmons," Sens. Actuators B 56, 189 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Musa, S.

J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, P. V. Lambeck, S. Musa, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, B. Usievich, and N. M. Lyndin "Theory and modelling of optical waveguide sensors utilising surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 54, 66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nekvindova, P.

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spirkova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, "Surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on integrated optical waveguide," Sens. Actuators B 76, 8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, P.

A. N. Grigorenko, P. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, "Phase jumps and interferometric surface plasmon resonance imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kabashin and P. Nikitin, "Surface plasmon resonance interferometer for bio- and chemical-sensors," Opt. Commun. 150, 5 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nylander, C.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, "Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing," Sens. Actuators B 4, 299 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

E. Kretschmann, and H. Raether, "Radiative decay of non radiative surface plasmons excited by light," Z. Naturforsch. A: Phys. Sci. 23, 2135 (1968).

Ronot-Trioli, C.

A. Trouillet, C. Ronot-Trioli, C. Veillas, and H. Gagnaire, "Chemical sensing by surface plasmon resonance in a multimode optical fibre," Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 227 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schrofel, J.

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spirkova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, "Surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on integrated optical waveguide," Sens. Actuators B 76, 8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schuck, P.

P. Schuck, "Use of surface plasmon resonance to probe the equilibrium and dynamic aspects of interactions between biological macromolecules," Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 26, 541 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharma, A. K.

B. D. Gupta, and A. K. Sharma, "Sensitivity evaluation of a multi-layered surface plasmon resonance-based fiber optic sensor: a theoretical study," Sens. Actuators B 107, 40 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sheridan, A.K.

A. K. Sheridan, R. D. Harris, P. N. Bartlett, and J. S. Wilkinson, "Phase interrogation of an integrated optical SPR sensor," Sens. Actuators B 97, 114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shin, H.

H. Shin and S. H. Fan, "All-angle negative refraction for surface plasmon waves using a metal-dielectric-metal structure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 073907 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Shin, M. F. Yanik, S. H. Fan, R. Zia, and M. L. Brongersma, "Omnidirectional resonance in a metal-dielectricmetal geometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4421 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Skalky, M.

J. Homola, J. Ctyroky, M. Skalky, J. Hradiliva, and P. Kolarova, "A surface plasmon resonance based integrated optical sensor," Sens. Actuators B 39, 286 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Skalsky, M.

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spirkova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, "Surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on integrated optical waveguide," Sens. Actuators B 76, 8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Skorobogatiy, M.

Skvor, J.

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spirkova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, "Surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on integrated optical waveguide," Sens. Actuators B 76, 8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Soljacic, M.

A. Karalis, E. Lidorikis, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljacic, "Surface-plasmon-assisted guiding of broadband slow and subwavelength light in air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. Skorobogatiy, O. Weiseberg, T. D. Engeness, M. Soljacic, S. A. Jacobs, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Low-loss asymptotically single-mode propagation in large core OmniGuide fibers," Opt. Express 9, 748 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spirkova, J.

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spirkova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, "Surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on integrated optical waveguide," Sens. Actuators B 76, 8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, R.

M. N. Weiss, R. Srivastava, and H. Grogner, "Experimental investigation of a surface plasmon-based integratedoptic humidity sensor," Electron. Lett. 32, 842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Trouillet, A.

A. Trouillet, C. Ronot-Trioli, C. Veillas, and H. Gagnaire, "Chemical sensing by surface plasmon resonance in a multimode optical fibre," Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 227 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Usievich, B.

J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, P. V. Lambeck, S. Musa, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, B. Usievich, and N. M. Lyndin "Theory and modelling of optical waveguide sensors utilising surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 54, 66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Uttamchandani, D.

L. M. Zhang and D. Uttamchandani, "Optical chemical sensing employing surface plasmon resonance," Electron. Lett. 23, 1469 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Veillas, C.

A. Trouillet, C. Ronot-Trioli, C. Veillas, and H. Gagnaire, "Chemical sensing by surface plasmon resonance in a multimode optical fibre," Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 227 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weiseberg, O.

Weiss, M. N.

M. N. Weiss, R. Srivastava, and H. Grogner, "Experimental investigation of a surface plasmon-based integratedoptic humidity sensor," Electron. Lett. 32, 842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weisser, M.

M. Weisser, B. Menges, and S. Mittler-Neher, "Refractive index and thickness determination of monolayers by multi mode waveguide coupled surface plasmons," Sens. Actuators B 56, 189 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J. S.

J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, P. V. Lambeck, S. Musa, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, B. Usievich, and N. M. Lyndin "Theory and modelling of optical waveguide sensors utilising surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 54, 66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Lavers, and J. S. Wilkinson, "A waveguide-coupled surface-plasmon sensor for an aqueous environment," Sens. Actuators B 22, 75 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J.S.

A. K. Sheridan, R. D. Harris, P. N. Bartlett, and J. S. Wilkinson, "Phase interrogation of an integrated optical SPR sensor," Sens. Actuators B 97, 114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Harris and J. S. Wilkinson, "Waveguide surface plasmon resonance sensors," Sens. Actuators B 29, 261 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Woodbury, R. G.

J. L. Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. A. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. S. Yee, C. E. Furlong, and R. G. Woodbury, "A commercial solution for surface plasmon sensing," Sens. Actuators B 35, 212 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yanik, M. F.

H. Shin, M. F. Yanik, S. H. Fan, R. Zia, and M. L. Brongersma, "Omnidirectional resonance in a metal-dielectricmetal geometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4421 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S. S.

J. L. Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. A. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. S. Yee, C. E. Furlong, and R. G. Woodbury, "A commercial solution for surface plasmon sensing," Sens. Actuators B 35, 212 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S.S.

R. C. Jorgenson and S. S. Yee, "A fiber-optic chemical sensor based on surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 12, 213 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.M.

L. M. Zhang and D. Uttamchandani, "Optical chemical sensing employing surface plasmon resonance," Electron. Lett. 23, 1469 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Zia, R.

H. Shin, M. F. Yanik, S. H. Fan, R. Zia, and M. L. Brongersma, "Omnidirectional resonance in a metal-dielectricmetal geometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4421 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. (1)

P. Schuck, "Use of surface plasmon resonance to probe the equilibrium and dynamic aspects of interactions between biological macromolecules," Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 26, 541 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. N. Grigorenko, P. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, "Phase jumps and interferometric surface plasmon resonance imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Shin, M. F. Yanik, S. H. Fan, R. Zia, and M. L. Brongersma, "Omnidirectional resonance in a metal-dielectricmetal geometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4421 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

L. M. Zhang and D. Uttamchandani, "Optical chemical sensing employing surface plasmon resonance," Electron. Lett. 23, 1469 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Weiss, R. Srivastava, and H. Grogner, "Experimental investigation of a surface plasmon-based integratedoptic humidity sensor," Electron. Lett. 32, 842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Naturforsch. A: Phys. Sci. (1)

E. Kretschmann, and H. Raether, "Radiative decay of non radiative surface plasmons excited by light," Z. Naturforsch. A: Phys. Sci. 23, 2135 (1968).

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. V. Kabashin and P. Nikitin, "Surface plasmon resonance interferometer for bio- and chemical-sensors," Opt. Commun. 150, 5 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

H. Shin and S. H. Fan, "All-angle negative refraction for surface plasmon waves using a metal-dielectric-metal structure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 073907 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Karalis, E. Lidorikis, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljacic, "Surface-plasmon-assisted guiding of broadband slow and subwavelength light in air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

A. Trouillet, C. Ronot-Trioli, C. Veillas, and H. Gagnaire, "Chemical sensing by surface plasmon resonance in a multimode optical fibre," Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 227 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (11)

J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, P. V. Lambeck, S. Musa, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, B. Usievich, and N. M. Lyndin "Theory and modelling of optical waveguide sensors utilising surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 54, 66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Weisser, B. Menges, and S. Mittler-Neher, "Refractive index and thickness determination of monolayers by multi mode waveguide coupled surface plasmons," Sens. Actuators B 56, 189 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Gupta, and A. K. Sharma, "Sensitivity evaluation of a multi-layered surface plasmon resonance-based fiber optic sensor: a theoretical study," Sens. Actuators B 107, 40 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, J. Ctyroky, M. Skalky, J. Hradiliva, and P. Kolarova, "A surface plasmon resonance based integrated optical sensor," Sens. Actuators B 39, 286 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spirkova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, "Surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on integrated optical waveguide," Sens. Actuators B 76, 8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Sheridan, R. D. Harris, P. N. Bartlett, and J. S. Wilkinson, "Phase interrogation of an integrated optical SPR sensor," Sens. Actuators B 97, 114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Jorgenson and S. S. Yee, "A fiber-optic chemical sensor based on surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 12, 213 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, "Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing," Sens. Actuators B 4, 299 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. A. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. S. Yee, C. E. Furlong, and R. G. Woodbury, "A commercial solution for surface plasmon sensing," Sens. Actuators B 35, 212 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Lavers, and J. S. Wilkinson, "A waveguide-coupled surface-plasmon sensor for an aqueous environment," Sens. Actuators B 22, 75 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Harris and J. S. Wilkinson, "Waveguide surface plasmon resonance sensors," Sens. Actuators B 29, 261 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

V. M. Agranovich, and D. L. Mills. Surface Polaritons - Electromagnetic Waves at Surfaces and Interfaces, (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1982).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Band diagrams of a) a SMW mode (red) and a plasmon (blue). Inset - coupler schematic; |Hy |2 of a plasmon (left) and a SMW mode (right). b) The MMW modes (red) and a plasmon (blue). Inset - coupler schematic; |Hy |2 of a plasmon (left) and a high order MMW mode (right) at the phase matching point (black circle). c) The core mode of a PC waveguide (red) and plasmon (blue). Two waveguide designs are presented demonstrating that phase matching point (black circles) can be chosen at will. Inset - coupler schematic; |Hy | of a plasmon (left) and a Gaussian-like core mode of a PC waveguide (right).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Solid lines with circles - loss of a waveguide mode near the phase matching point with a plasmon for different values of an ambient refractive index. Inset: |Hy | field distribution in the waveguide and plasmonic modes.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Sx energy flux in a multilayer waveguide for various values of the ambient refractive index. a) distribution across waveguide crossection after 1cm of propagation b) distribution over 2cm of propagation.

Metrics