Abstract

We propose the use of tapered microstructured fibers with collapsed air-holes coated with thin layers for gas sensing. The collapsing of the holes allows having access to the evanescent fields which can be absorbed or attenuated with gas-permeable thin films. On the other hand, a section of the holey fiber is transformed into a solid multimode fiber. The beating between the multiple modes of the latter makes the transmission spectra of the device to exhibit an oscillatory pattern. This evanescent-fields-plus-modal-interferometer structure may offer interesting properties for gas and chemical sensing. As an example we demonstrate a hydrogen sensor.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Bagget, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, "Sensing with microstructured optical fibers," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854-858 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, C. Shi, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, and S. C. Ruan, "Design and modeling of a photonic crystal fiber gas sensor," Appl. Opt. 42, 3509-3515 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. C. Petersen, T. Sørensen, T. P. Hansen, and H. R. Simonsen, "Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 12,4080-4087 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Pickrell, W. Peng, and A. Wang, "Random-hole optical fiber evanescent-wave gas sensing," Opt. Lett. 29, 1476-1478 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. V. Matejec, J. Mrázek, M. Hayer, I. Kašík, P. Peterka, J. Kaňka, P. Honzátko, and D. Berková, "Microstructure fibers for gas detection," Mater. Sci. Eng. C 26, 317-321 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. K. Lize, E. C. Magi, V. G. Ta’eed, J. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, and B. J. Eggleton, "Microstructured optical fiber photonic wires with subwavelength core diameter," Opt. Express 12, 3209-3217 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. V. P. Minkovich, J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández, S. Calixto, A. B. Sotsky, and L. I. Sotskaya, "Holey fiber tapers with resonance transmission for high-resolution refractive index sensing," Opt. Express 13, 7609-7614 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. D. T. Cassidy, D. C. Johnson, and K. O. Hill, "Wavelength-dependent transmission of monomode optical fiber tapers," Appl. Opt. 24, 945-950 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Lacroix, R. Bourbonnais, F. Gonthier, and J. Bures, "Tapered monomode optical fibers: understanding large power transfer," Appl. Opt. 25, 4421-4425 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Wang, A. Mandelis, and J. A. Garcia, "Detectivity comparison between thin-film Pd/PVDF photopyroelectric interferometric and optical reflectance hydrogen sensors," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4370-4376 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Villatoro, A. Diez, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andres, "In-line highly sensitive hydrogen sensors based on Pd-coated single-mode tapered fibers," IEEE Sens. J. 3, 533-537 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Ortigosa-Blanch, A. Díez, A. González-Segura, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, "Wavelength-codified fiber laser hydrogen detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201104 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Lin, T. Gao, J. Fantini, and M. J. Sailor, "A porous silicon-palladium composite film for optical interferometric sensing of hydrogen," Langmuir 20, 5104-5108(2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. Xu, M. P. Zach, Z. L. Xiao, D. Rosenmann, U. Welp, W. K. Kwok, and G. W. Crabtree, "Self-assembled monolayer-enhanced hydrogen sensing with ultrathin palladium films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 203104 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2006

V. Matejec, J. Mrázek, M. Hayer, I. Kašík, P. Peterka, J. Kaňka, P. Honzátko, and D. Berková, "Microstructure fibers for gas detection," Mater. Sci. Eng. C 26, 317-321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhao, M. A. Carpenter, H. Xia and D. Welch, "All-optical hydrogen sensor based on a high alloy content palladium thin film," Sens. Actuators B 113, 532-538 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

2003

J. Villatoro, A. Diez, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andres, "In-line highly sensitive hydrogen sensors based on Pd-coated single-mode tapered fibers," IEEE Sens. J. 3, 533-537 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, C. Shi, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, and S. C. Ruan, "Design and modeling of a photonic crystal fiber gas sensor," Appl. Opt. 42, 3509-3515 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Bagget, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, "Sensing with microstructured optical fibers," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854-858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

C. Wang, A. Mandelis, and J. A. Garcia, "Detectivity comparison between thin-film Pd/PVDF photopyroelectric interferometric and optical reflectance hydrogen sensors," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4370-4376 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1992

A. Bearzotti, C. Caliendo, and E. V. A. D'Amico, "Integrated optic sensor for the detection of H2 concentrations," Sens. Actuators B 7, 685-688 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1986

1985

1984

M. A. Buttler, "Optical fiber hydrogen sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 1007-1009 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1970

A. W. Snyder, "Coupling of modes on a tapered dielectric cylinder," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT- 18, 383-392 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Andres, M. V.

J. Villatoro, A. Diez, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andres, "In-line highly sensitive hydrogen sensors based on Pd-coated single-mode tapered fibers," IEEE Sens. J. 3, 533-537 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Andrés, M. V.

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, A. Díez, A. González-Segura, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, "Wavelength-codified fiber laser hydrogen detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bagget, J. C.

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Bagget, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, "Sensing with microstructured optical fibers," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854-858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bearzotti, A.

A. Bearzotti, C. Caliendo, and E. V. A. D'Amico, "Integrated optic sensor for the detection of H2 concentrations," Sens. Actuators B 7, 685-688 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Belardi, W.

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Bagget, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, "Sensing with microstructured optical fibers," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854-858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Berková, D.

V. Matejec, J. Mrázek, M. Hayer, I. Kašík, P. Peterka, J. Kaňka, P. Honzátko, and D. Berková, "Microstructure fibers for gas detection," Mater. Sci. Eng. C 26, 317-321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bolger, J. A.

Bourbonnais, R.

Broderick, N. G. R.

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Bagget, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, "Sensing with microstructured optical fibers," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854-858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bures, J.

Buttler, M. A.

M. A. Buttler, "Optical fiber hydrogen sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 1007-1009 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Caliendo, C.

A. Bearzotti, C. Caliendo, and E. V. A. D'Amico, "Integrated optic sensor for the detection of H2 concentrations," Sens. Actuators B 7, 685-688 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Calixto, S.

Carpenter, M. A.

Z. Zhao, M. A. Carpenter, H. Xia and D. Welch, "All-optical hydrogen sensor based on a high alloy content palladium thin film," Sens. Actuators B 113, 532-538 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cassidy, D. T.

Crabtree, G. W.

T. Xu, M. P. Zach, Z. L. Xiao, D. Rosenmann, U. Welp, W. K. Kwok, and G. W. Crabtree, "Self-assembled monolayer-enhanced hydrogen sensing with ultrathin palladium films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 203104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, J. L.

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, A. Díez, A. González-Segura, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, "Wavelength-codified fiber laser hydrogen detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Villatoro, A. Diez, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andres, "In-line highly sensitive hydrogen sensors based on Pd-coated single-mode tapered fibers," IEEE Sens. J. 3, 533-537 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D'Amico, E. V. A.

A. Bearzotti, C. Caliendo, and E. V. A. D'Amico, "Integrated optic sensor for the detection of H2 concentrations," Sens. Actuators B 7, 685-688 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Diez, A.

J. Villatoro, A. Diez, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andres, "In-line highly sensitive hydrogen sensors based on Pd-coated single-mode tapered fibers," IEEE Sens. J. 3, 533-537 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Díez, A.

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, A. Díez, A. González-Segura, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, "Wavelength-codified fiber laser hydrogen detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

Fantini, J.

H. Lin, T. Gao, J. Fantini, and M. J. Sailor, "A porous silicon-palladium composite film for optical interferometric sensing of hydrogen," Langmuir 20, 5104-5108(2004).
[CrossRef]

Fini, J. M.

J. M. Fini, "Microstructure fibers for optical sensing in gases and liquids," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1120-1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Furusawa, K.

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Bagget, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, "Sensing with microstructured optical fibers," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854-858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gao, T.

H. Lin, T. Gao, J. Fantini, and M. J. Sailor, "A porous silicon-palladium composite film for optical interferometric sensing of hydrogen," Langmuir 20, 5104-5108(2004).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, J. A.

C. Wang, A. Mandelis, and J. A. Garcia, "Detectivity comparison between thin-film Pd/PVDF photopyroelectric interferometric and optical reflectance hydrogen sensors," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4370-4376 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gonthier, F.

González-Segura, A.

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, A. Díez, A. González-Segura, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, "Wavelength-codified fiber laser hydrogen detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, T. P.

Hayer, M.

V. Matejec, J. Mrázek, M. Hayer, I. Kašík, P. Peterka, J. Kaňka, P. Honzátko, and D. Berková, "Microstructure fibers for gas detection," Mater. Sci. Eng. C 26, 317-321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K. O.

Ho, H. L.

Honzátko, P.

V. Matejec, J. Mrázek, M. Hayer, I. Kašík, P. Peterka, J. Kaňka, P. Honzátko, and D. Berková, "Microstructure fibers for gas detection," Mater. Sci. Eng. C 26, 317-321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hoo, Y. L.

Jin, W.

Johnson, D. C.

Kanka, J.

V. Matejec, J. Mrázek, M. Hayer, I. Kašík, P. Peterka, J. Kaňka, P. Honzátko, and D. Berková, "Microstructure fibers for gas detection," Mater. Sci. Eng. C 26, 317-321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kašík, I.

V. Matejec, J. Mrázek, M. Hayer, I. Kašík, P. Peterka, J. Kaňka, P. Honzátko, and D. Berková, "Microstructure fibers for gas detection," Mater. Sci. Eng. C 26, 317-321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kiryanov, A. V.

Kwok, W. K.

T. Xu, M. P. Zach, Z. L. Xiao, D. Rosenmann, U. Welp, W. K. Kwok, and G. W. Crabtree, "Self-assembled monolayer-enhanced hydrogen sensing with ultrathin palladium films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 203104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lacroix, S.

Lin, H.

H. Lin, T. Gao, J. Fantini, and M. J. Sailor, "A porous silicon-palladium composite film for optical interferometric sensing of hydrogen," Langmuir 20, 5104-5108(2004).
[CrossRef]

Lize, Y. K.

Ludvigsen, H.

Magi, E. C.

Mandelis, A.

C. Wang, A. Mandelis, and J. A. Garcia, "Detectivity comparison between thin-film Pd/PVDF photopyroelectric interferometric and optical reflectance hydrogen sensors," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4370-4376 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matejec, V.

V. Matejec, J. Mrázek, M. Hayer, I. Kašík, P. Peterka, J. Kaňka, P. Honzátko, and D. Berková, "Microstructure fibers for gas detection," Mater. Sci. Eng. C 26, 317-321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Minkovich, V. P.

Monro, T. M.

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Bagget, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, "Sensing with microstructured optical fibers," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854-858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Monzón-Hernández, D.

Mrázek, J.

V. Matejec, J. Mrázek, M. Hayer, I. Kašík, P. Peterka, J. Kaňka, P. Honzátko, and D. Berková, "Microstructure fibers for gas detection," Mater. Sci. Eng. C 26, 317-321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. C.

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, A. Díez, A. González-Segura, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, "Wavelength-codified fiber laser hydrogen detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peng, W.

Peterka, P.

V. Matejec, J. Mrázek, M. Hayer, I. Kašík, P. Peterka, J. Kaňka, P. Honzátko, and D. Berková, "Microstructure fibers for gas detection," Mater. Sci. Eng. C 26, 317-321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, J. C.

Pickrell, G.

Richardson, D. J.

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Bagget, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, "Sensing with microstructured optical fibers," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854-858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ritari, T.

Rosenmann, D.

T. Xu, M. P. Zach, Z. L. Xiao, D. Rosenmann, U. Welp, W. K. Kwok, and G. W. Crabtree, "Self-assembled monolayer-enhanced hydrogen sensing with ultrathin palladium films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 203104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, S. C.

Sailor, M. J.

H. Lin, T. Gao, J. Fantini, and M. J. Sailor, "A porous silicon-palladium composite film for optical interferometric sensing of hydrogen," Langmuir 20, 5104-5108(2004).
[CrossRef]

Shi, C.

Simonsen, H. R.

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder, "Coupling of modes on a tapered dielectric cylinder," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT- 18, 383-392 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Sørensen, T.

Sotskaya, L. I.

Sotsky, A. B.

Steinvurzel, P.

Ta’eed, V. G.

Tuominen, J.

Villatoro, J.

Wang, A.

Wang, C.

C. Wang, A. Mandelis, and J. A. Garcia, "Detectivity comparison between thin-film Pd/PVDF photopyroelectric interferometric and optical reflectance hydrogen sensors," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4370-4376 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D. N.

Welch, D.

Z. Zhao, M. A. Carpenter, H. Xia and D. Welch, "All-optical hydrogen sensor based on a high alloy content palladium thin film," Sens. Actuators B 113, 532-538 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Welp, U.

T. Xu, M. P. Zach, Z. L. Xiao, D. Rosenmann, U. Welp, W. K. Kwok, and G. W. Crabtree, "Self-assembled monolayer-enhanced hydrogen sensing with ultrathin palladium films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 203104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xia, H.

Z. Zhao, M. A. Carpenter, H. Xia and D. Welch, "All-optical hydrogen sensor based on a high alloy content palladium thin film," Sens. Actuators B 113, 532-538 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, Z. L.

T. Xu, M. P. Zach, Z. L. Xiao, D. Rosenmann, U. Welp, W. K. Kwok, and G. W. Crabtree, "Self-assembled monolayer-enhanced hydrogen sensing with ultrathin palladium films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 203104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, T.

T. Xu, M. P. Zach, Z. L. Xiao, D. Rosenmann, U. Welp, W. K. Kwok, and G. W. Crabtree, "Self-assembled monolayer-enhanced hydrogen sensing with ultrathin palladium films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 203104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zach, M. P.

T. Xu, M. P. Zach, Z. L. Xiao, D. Rosenmann, U. Welp, W. K. Kwok, and G. W. Crabtree, "Self-assembled monolayer-enhanced hydrogen sensing with ultrathin palladium films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 203104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Z.

Z. Zhao, M. A. Carpenter, H. Xia and D. Welch, "All-optical hydrogen sensor based on a high alloy content palladium thin film," Sens. Actuators B 113, 532-538 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. A. Buttler, "Optical fiber hydrogen sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 1007-1009 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, A. Díez, A. González-Segura, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, "Wavelength-codified fiber laser hydrogen detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Xu, M. P. Zach, Z. L. Xiao, D. Rosenmann, U. Welp, W. K. Kwok, and G. W. Crabtree, "Self-assembled monolayer-enhanced hydrogen sensing with ultrathin palladium films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 203104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J.

J. Villatoro, A. Diez, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andres, "In-line highly sensitive hydrogen sensors based on Pd-coated single-mode tapered fibers," IEEE Sens. J. 3, 533-537 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT

A. W. Snyder, "Coupling of modes on a tapered dielectric cylinder," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT- 18, 383-392 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Langmuir

H. Lin, T. Gao, J. Fantini, and M. J. Sailor, "A porous silicon-palladium composite film for optical interferometric sensing of hydrogen," Langmuir 20, 5104-5108(2004).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. C

V. Matejec, J. Mrázek, M. Hayer, I. Kašík, P. Peterka, J. Kaňka, P. Honzátko, and D. Berková, "Microstructure fibers for gas detection," Mater. Sci. Eng. C 26, 317-321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Bagget, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, "Sensing with microstructured optical fibers," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854-858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Fini, "Microstructure fibers for optical sensing in gases and liquids," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1120-1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

C. Wang, A. Mandelis, and J. A. Garcia, "Detectivity comparison between thin-film Pd/PVDF photopyroelectric interferometric and optical reflectance hydrogen sensors," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4370-4376 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B

Z. Zhao, M. A. Carpenter, H. Xia and D. Welch, "All-optical hydrogen sensor based on a high alloy content palladium thin film," Sens. Actuators B 113, 532-538 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Bearzotti, C. Caliendo, and E. V. A. D'Amico, "Integrated optic sensor for the detection of H2 concentrations," Sens. Actuators B 7, 685-688 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Images of the cross section of an untapered MOF (top left) used to fabricate the tapers and of the expanding zone of the taper (top right). The draw illustrates a tapered MOF. The shadowed area represents the gas-permeable thin film. L0 is the length of the solid multimodal section and ρw is the taper waist diameter.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Normalized transmission spectra of a MOF before (dashed line) and after (solid line) the tapering. The light source was an LED with peak emission at 1280 nm. Taper parameters: ρw = 15 μm and L0 = 15 mm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmission spectra of a tapered MOF coated with an 8 nm-thick Pd film at different hydrogen concentrations (left) and relative increment of the peaks 1 to 4 as a function of hydrogen concentration (right). Parameters of the sensor: ρw = 28 μm, L0 = 10 mm.

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