Abstract

The design, testing and operation of a system for telecentric imaging of dynamic objects is presented. The simple system is capable of rapid electronic scanning of a single focal plane within a specimen or of simultaneous focusing on multiple planes whose depth and relative spacing within the specimen can be changed electronically. Application to studies of dynamic processes in microscopy is considered.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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2006 (3)

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

G. Muyo and A.R. Harvey , “ Wavefront coding for athermalization of infrared imaging systems ,” in Electro-optical and infrared systems: technology and applications , R.G. Driggers and D.A. Huckridge , eds. ( Proc. SPIE   5612 , 227 – 235 , 2004 )
[Crossref]

A.K. Kirby and G.D. Love , “ Fast, large and controllable phase modulation using dual frequency liquid crystals ,” Opt. Express   12 , 1470 – 1475 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

D.J. Stephens and V.J. Allan , “ Light microscopy techniques for live cell imaging ,” Science   300 , 82 – 86 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

G. Seisenberger , et al., “ Real-time single-molecule imaging of the infection pathway of an adeno-associated virus ,” Science   294 , 1929 – 1932 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

P.M. Blanchard and A.H. Greenaway , “ Broadband simultaneous multiplane imaging ,” Opt. Commun   183 , 29 – 36 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

1997 (1)

Allan, V.J.

D.J. Stephens and V.J. Allan , “ Light microscopy techniques for live cell imaging ,” Science   300 , 82 – 86 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blanchard, P.M.

P.M. Blanchard and A.H. Greenaway , “ Broadband simultaneous multiplane imaging ,” Opt. Commun   183 , 29 – 36 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

P.M. Blanchard and A.H. Greenaway , “ Simultaneous multiplane imaging with a distorted diffraction grating ,” Appl. Opt.   38 , 6692 – 6699 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Bradburn, S.

Cathey, W.T.

Djidel, S.

S. Djidel and A.H. Greenaway , “ Nanometric wavefront sensing ,” in 3rd International Workshop on Adaptive Optics in Industry and Medicine , S.R. Restaino and S. Teare , eds. ( Starline Printing Inc. , 2002 ).

Dowski, E.R.

Dyson, H.M.

Greenaway, A.H.

P.M. Blanchard and A.H. Greenaway , “ Broadband simultaneous multiplane imaging ,” Opt. Commun   183 , 29 – 36 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

P.M. Blanchard and A.H. Greenaway , “ Simultaneous multiplane imaging with a distorted diffraction grating ,” Appl. Opt.   38 , 6692 – 6699 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

S. Djidel and A.H. Greenaway , “ Nanometric wavefront sensing ,” in 3rd International Workshop on Adaptive Optics in Industry and Medicine , S.R. Restaino and S. Teare , eds. ( Starline Printing Inc. , 2002 ).

Griot, Melles

Melles Griot , “ Optics Guide ”, http://www.mellesgriot.com/products/optics/toc.htm , ( accessed March 2006 )

Harvey, A.R.

G. Muyo and A.R. Harvey , “ Wavefront coding for athermalization of infrared imaging systems ,” in Electro-optical and infrared systems: technology and applications , R.G. Driggers and D.A. Huckridge , eds. ( Proc. SPIE   5612 , 227 – 235 , 2004 )
[Crossref]

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht , “ Optics ” ( Addison Wesley Publishing Co. , 1997 )

Keen, J.H.

A.K. Warner , J.H. Keen , and Y.L. Wang , “ Dynamics of membrane clathrin-coated structures during cytokinesis ,” Traffic   7 , 205 – 215 ( 2006 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kirby, A.K.

Kurczynski, P.

Loktev, M.Yu.

Love, G.D.

Marquet, P.

Muyo, G.

G. Muyo and A.R. Harvey , “ Wavefront coding for athermalization of infrared imaging systems ,” in Electro-optical and infrared systems: technology and applications , R.G. Driggers and D.A. Huckridge , eds. ( Proc. SPIE   5612 , 227 – 235 , 2004 )
[Crossref]

Naumov, A.F.

Sadoulet, B.

Saurei, L.

L. Saurei , et al., “ Tunable liquid lens based on electrowetting technology : principle, properties and applications ,” presented at the 10th Annual Micro-optics Conference, Jena, Germany, 1 – 3 Sept 2004 .

Seisenberger, G.

G. Seisenberger , et al., “ Real-time single-molecule imaging of the infection pathway of an adeno-associated virus ,” Science   294 , 1929 – 1932 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stephens, D.J.

D.J. Stephens and V.J. Allan , “ Light microscopy techniques for live cell imaging ,” Science   300 , 82 – 86 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Towers, C.E.

Vladimirov, F.L.

Wang, Y.L.

A.K. Warner , J.H. Keen , and Y.L. Wang , “ Dynamics of membrane clathrin-coated structures during cytokinesis ,” Traffic   7 , 205 – 215 ( 2006 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Warner, A.K.

A.K. Warner , J.H. Keen , and Y.L. Wang , “ Dynamics of membrane clathrin-coated structures during cytokinesis ,” Traffic   7 , 205 – 215 ( 2006 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wright, A.J.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Opt. Commun (1)

P.M. Blanchard and A.H. Greenaway , “ Broadband simultaneous multiplane imaging ,” Opt. Commun   183 , 29 – 36 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. Muyo and A.R. Harvey , “ Wavefront coding for athermalization of infrared imaging systems ,” in Electro-optical and infrared systems: technology and applications , R.G. Driggers and D.A. Huckridge , eds. ( Proc. SPIE   5612 , 227 – 235 , 2004 )
[Crossref]

Science (2)

D.J. Stephens and V.J. Allan , “ Light microscopy techniques for live cell imaging ,” Science   300 , 82 – 86 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Seisenberger , et al., “ Real-time single-molecule imaging of the infection pathway of an adeno-associated virus ,” Science   294 , 1929 – 1932 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Traffic (1)

A.K. Warner , J.H. Keen , and Y.L. Wang , “ Dynamics of membrane clathrin-coated structures during cytokinesis ,” Traffic   7 , 205 – 215 ( 2006 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

E. Hecht , “ Optics ” ( Addison Wesley Publishing Co. , 1997 )

Melles Griot , “ Optics Guide ”, http://www.mellesgriot.com/products/optics/toc.htm , ( accessed March 2006 )

L. Saurei , et al., “ Tunable liquid lens based on electrowetting technology : principle, properties and applications ,” presented at the 10th Annual Micro-optics Conference, Jena, Germany, 1 – 3 Sept 2004 .

S. Djidel and A.H. Greenaway , “ Nanometric wavefront sensing ,” in 3rd International Workshop on Adaptive Optics in Industry and Medicine , S.R. Restaino and S. Teare , eds. ( Starline Printing Inc. , 2002 ).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the optical system

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The distance to the in-focus object plane, for each diffraction order, as a function of the separation between the lens and the off-axis Fresnel lens.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The distance to the in-focus object plane, for each diffraction order, as a function of the separation between the lens and the off-axis Fresnel lens using a USAF bar chart as the object.

Fig.4.
Fig.4.

Magnification plot for experiment 2 showing image magnification in the diffraction orders as a function of lens to off-axis Fresnel lens separation.

Equations (15)

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1 f = 1 u + 1 v ,
m = v u = f v f .
f c = f 1 f 2 f 1 + f 2 s ,
p 1 = s f 1 f 1 + f 2 s
p 2 = s ( f 1 s ) f 1 + f 2 s
m = ( f 1 s ) ( v s ) f 1 f 2 + v f 1 f 1 .
u = f c ( v p 2 ) v p 2 f c p 1 .
f c = f 1
p 1 = f 1 2 f 2 .
p 2 = 0
u = v f 1 v f 1 f 1 2 f 2 .
Δ z q = f 1 2 q f 2
f c = f 1
p 1 = f 1 2 p f q = f 1 2 f p + f 1 2 q f 2 .
p 2 = 0

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