Abstract

We have developed diffraction phase and fluorescence (DPF) microscopy as a new technique for simultaneous quantitative phase imaging and epi-fluorescence investigation of live cells. The DPF instrument consists of an interference microscope, which is incorporated into a conventional inverted fluorescence microscope. The quantitative phase images are characterized by sub-nanometer optical path-length stability over periods from milliseconds to a cell lifetime. The potential of the technique for quantifying rapid nanoscale motions in live cells is demonstrated by experiments on red blood cells, while the composite phase-fluorescence imaging mode is exemplified with mitotic kidney cells.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. S. Bajt , A. Barty , K. A. Nugent , M. McCartney , M. Wall , and D. Paganin , “ Quantitative phase-sensitive imaging in a transmission electron microscope ”, Ultramicroscopy   83 , 67 – 73 ( 2000 ).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. G. Popescu , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Observation of dynamic subdomains in red blood cells ,” J. Biomed. Opt. Lett.   11 , 040503 ( 2006 ).
    [Crossref]
  20. T. Ikeda , G. Popescu , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Hilbert phase microscopy for investigating fast dynamics in transparent systems ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 1165 – 1168 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. G. Popescu , T. Ikeda , C. A. Best , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy ,” J. Biomed. Opt. Lett.   10 , 060503 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref]
  22. G. Popescu , T. Ikeda , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Diffraction phase microscopy for quantifying cell structure and dynamics ,” Opt. Lett.   31 , 775 – 777 ( 2006 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. F. Brochard and J. F. Lennon , “ Frequency spectrum of the flicker phenomenon in erythrocytes ,” J. Physique   36 , 1035 – 1047 ( 1975 ).
    [Crossref]
  24. G. Popescu , T. Ikeda , K. Goda , C. A. Best , M. Laposata , S. Manley , R. R. Dasari , K. Badizadegan , and M. S. Feld , ” Optical measurement of cell membrane tension ,” Phys. Rev. Lett ., under review).
    [PubMed]

2006 (2)

G. Popescu , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Observation of dynamic subdomains in red blood cells ,” J. Biomed. Opt. Lett.   11 , 040503 ( 2006 ).
[Crossref]

G. Popescu , T. Ikeda , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Diffraction phase microscopy for quantifying cell structure and dynamics ,” Opt. Lett.   31 , 775 – 777 ( 2006 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (6)

2004 (5)

2003 (1)

D. J. Stephens and V. J. Allan , “ Light microscopy techniques for live cell imaging ,” Science   300 , 82 – 86 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

C. Yang , A. Wax , M. S. Hahn , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Phase-referenced interferometer with subwavelength and subhertz sensitivity applied to the study of cell membrane dynamics ,” Opt Lett.   26 , 1271 – 1273 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

2000 (3)

C. H. Yang , A. Wax , I. Georgakoudi , E. B. Hanlon , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Interferometric phase-dispersion microscopy ,” Opt Lett.   25 , 1526 – 1528 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

B. E. Allman , P. J. McMahon , J. B. Tiller , K. A. Nugent , D. Paganin , A. Barty , I. McNulty , S. P. Frigo , Y. X. Wang , and C. C. Retsch , “ Noninterferometric quantitative phase imaging with soft x rays ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A-Opt. Image Sci. Vis.   17 , 1732 – 1743 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Bajt , A. Barty , K. A. Nugent , M. McCartney , M. Wall , and D. Paganin , “ Quantitative phase-sensitive imaging in a transmission electron microscope ”, Ultramicroscopy   83 , 67 – 73 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

D. Zicha , E. Genot , G. A. Dunn , and I. M. Kramer , “ TGF beta 1 induces a cell-cycle-dependent increase in motility of epithelial cells ,” J. Cell Sci. ,   112 , 447 – 454 ( 1999 ).
[PubMed]

1998 (1)

D. Paganin and K. A. Nugent , “ Noninterferometric phase imaging with partially coherent light ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   80 , 2586 – 2589 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

G. A. Dunn , D. Zicha , and P. E. Fraylich , “ Rapid, microtubule-dependent fluctuations of the cell margin ,” J. Cell Sci.   110 , 3091 – 3098 ( 1997 ).

1995 (1)

D. Zicha and G. A. Dunn , “ An Image-Processing System For Cell Behavior Studies In Subconfluent Cultures ,” J. Microscopy ,   179 , 11 – 21 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

F. Brochard and J. F. Lennon , “ Frequency spectrum of the flicker phenomenon in erythrocytes ,” J. Physique   36 , 1035 – 1047 ( 1975 ).
[Crossref]

Akkin, T.

Allan, V. J.

D. J. Stephens and V. J. Allan , “ Light microscopy techniques for live cell imaging ,” Science   300 , 82 – 86 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allman, B. E.

B. E. Allman , P. J. McMahon , J. B. Tiller , K. A. Nugent , D. Paganin , A. Barty , I. McNulty , S. P. Frigo , Y. X. Wang , and C. C. Retsch , “ Noninterferometric quantitative phase imaging with soft x rays ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A-Opt. Image Sci. Vis.   17 , 1732 – 1743 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Badizadegan, K.

G. Popescu , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Observation of dynamic subdomains in red blood cells ,” J. Biomed. Opt. Lett.   11 , 040503 ( 2006 ).
[Crossref]

G. Popescu , T. Ikeda , C. A. Best , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy ,” J. Biomed. Opt. Lett.   10 , 060503 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

H. Iwai , C. Fang-Yen , G. Popescu , A. Wax , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Quantitative phase imaging using actively stabilized phase-shifting low-coherence interferometry ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2399 – 2401 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu , L. P. Deflores , J. C. Vaughan , K. Badizadegan , H. Iwai , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Fourier phase microscopy for investigation of biological structures and dynamics ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2503 – 2505 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Yang , A. Wax , M. S. Hahn , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Phase-referenced interferometer with subwavelength and subhertz sensitivity applied to the study of cell membrane dynamics ,” Opt Lett.   26 , 1271 – 1273 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

C. H. Yang , A. Wax , I. Georgakoudi , E. B. Hanlon , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Interferometric phase-dispersion microscopy ,” Opt Lett.   25 , 1526 – 1528 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

G. Popescu , T. Ikeda , K. Goda , C. A. Best , M. Laposata , S. Manley , R. R. Dasari , K. Badizadegan , and M. S. Feld , ” Optical measurement of cell membrane tension ,” Phys. Rev. Lett ., under review).
[PubMed]

Bajt, S.

S. Bajt , A. Barty , K. A. Nugent , M. McCartney , M. Wall , and D. Paganin , “ Quantitative phase-sensitive imaging in a transmission electron microscope ”, Ultramicroscopy   83 , 67 – 73 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barty, A.

S. Bajt , A. Barty , K. A. Nugent , M. McCartney , M. Wall , and D. Paganin , “ Quantitative phase-sensitive imaging in a transmission electron microscope ”, Ultramicroscopy   83 , 67 – 73 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. E. Allman , P. J. McMahon , J. B. Tiller , K. A. Nugent , D. Paganin , A. Barty , I. McNulty , S. P. Frigo , Y. X. Wang , and C. C. Retsch , “ Noninterferometric quantitative phase imaging with soft x rays ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A-Opt. Image Sci. Vis.   17 , 1732 – 1743 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Best, C. A.

G. Popescu , T. Ikeda , C. A. Best , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy ,” J. Biomed. Opt. Lett.   10 , 060503 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

G. Popescu , T. Ikeda , K. Goda , C. A. Best , M. Laposata , S. Manley , R. R. Dasari , K. Badizadegan , and M. S. Feld , ” Optical measurement of cell membrane tension ,” Phys. Rev. Lett ., under review).
[PubMed]

Boer, J. E. de

Brochard, F.

F. Brochard and J. F. Lennon , “ Frequency spectrum of the flicker phenomenon in erythrocytes ,” J. Physique   36 , 1035 – 1047 ( 1975 ).
[Crossref]

Cense, B.

Choma, M. A.

Chu, M. C.

Colomb, T.

Creazzo, T. L.

Cuche, E.

Dasari, R. R.

G. Popescu , T. Ikeda , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Diffraction phase microscopy for quantifying cell structure and dynamics ,” Opt. Lett.   31 , 775 – 777 ( 2006 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Observation of dynamic subdomains in red blood cells ,” J. Biomed. Opt. Lett.   11 , 040503 ( 2006 ).
[Crossref]

G. Popescu , T. Ikeda , C. A. Best , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy ,” J. Biomed. Opt. Lett.   10 , 060503 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

T. Ikeda , G. Popescu , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Hilbert phase microscopy for investigating fast dynamics in transparent systems ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 1165 – 1168 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu , L. P. Deflores , J. C. Vaughan , K. Badizadegan , H. Iwai , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Fourier phase microscopy for investigation of biological structures and dynamics ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2503 – 2505 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Fang-Yen , M. C. Chu , H. S. Seung , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Noncontact measurement of nerve displacement during action potential with a dual-beam low-coherence interferometer ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2028 – 2030 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Iwai , C. Fang-Yen , G. Popescu , A. Wax , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Quantitative phase imaging using actively stabilized phase-shifting low-coherence interferometry ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2399 – 2401 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Yang , A. Wax , M. S. Hahn , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Phase-referenced interferometer with subwavelength and subhertz sensitivity applied to the study of cell membrane dynamics ,” Opt Lett.   26 , 1271 – 1273 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

C. H. Yang , A. Wax , I. Georgakoudi , E. B. Hanlon , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Interferometric phase-dispersion microscopy ,” Opt Lett.   25 , 1526 – 1528 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

G. Popescu , T. Ikeda , K. Goda , C. A. Best , M. Laposata , S. Manley , R. R. Dasari , K. Badizadegan , and M. S. Feld , ” Optical measurement of cell membrane tension ,” Phys. Rev. Lett ., under review).
[PubMed]

Dave, D. P.

Deflores, L. P.

Depeursinge, C.

Diller, K. R.

Dunn, G. A.

D. Zicha , E. Genot , G. A. Dunn , and I. M. Kramer , “ TGF beta 1 induces a cell-cycle-dependent increase in motility of epithelial cells ,” J. Cell Sci. ,   112 , 447 – 454 ( 1999 ).
[PubMed]

G. A. Dunn , D. Zicha , and P. E. Fraylich , “ Rapid, microtubule-dependent fluctuations of the cell margin ,” J. Cell Sci.   110 , 3091 – 3098 ( 1997 ).

D. Zicha and G. A. Dunn , “ An Image-Processing System For Cell Behavior Studies In Subconfluent Cultures ,” J. Microscopy ,   179 , 11 – 21 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref]

Ellerbee, A. K.

Emery, Y.

Fang-Yen, C.

Feld, M. S.

G. Popescu , T. Ikeda , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Diffraction phase microscopy for quantifying cell structure and dynamics ,” Opt. Lett.   31 , 775 – 777 ( 2006 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Observation of dynamic subdomains in red blood cells ,” J. Biomed. Opt. Lett.   11 , 040503 ( 2006 ).
[Crossref]

G. Popescu , T. Ikeda , C. A. Best , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy ,” J. Biomed. Opt. Lett.   10 , 060503 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

T. Ikeda , G. Popescu , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Hilbert phase microscopy for investigating fast dynamics in transparent systems ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 1165 – 1168 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Iwai , C. Fang-Yen , G. Popescu , A. Wax , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Quantitative phase imaging using actively stabilized phase-shifting low-coherence interferometry ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2399 – 2401 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Fang-Yen , M. C. Chu , H. S. Seung , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Noncontact measurement of nerve displacement during action potential with a dual-beam low-coherence interferometer ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2028 – 2030 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu , L. P. Deflores , J. C. Vaughan , K. Badizadegan , H. Iwai , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Fourier phase microscopy for investigation of biological structures and dynamics ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2503 – 2505 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Yang , A. Wax , M. S. Hahn , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Phase-referenced interferometer with subwavelength and subhertz sensitivity applied to the study of cell membrane dynamics ,” Opt Lett.   26 , 1271 – 1273 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

C. H. Yang , A. Wax , I. Georgakoudi , E. B. Hanlon , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Interferometric phase-dispersion microscopy ,” Opt Lett.   25 , 1526 – 1528 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

G. Popescu , T. Ikeda , K. Goda , C. A. Best , M. Laposata , S. Manley , R. R. Dasari , K. Badizadegan , and M. S. Feld , ” Optical measurement of cell membrane tension ,” Phys. Rev. Lett ., under review).
[PubMed]

Fraylich, P. E.

G. A. Dunn , D. Zicha , and P. E. Fraylich , “ Rapid, microtubule-dependent fluctuations of the cell margin ,” J. Cell Sci.   110 , 3091 – 3098 ( 1997 ).

Frigo, S. P.

B. E. Allman , P. J. McMahon , J. B. Tiller , K. A. Nugent , D. Paganin , A. Barty , I. McNulty , S. P. Frigo , Y. X. Wang , and C. C. Retsch , “ Noninterferometric quantitative phase imaging with soft x rays ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A-Opt. Image Sci. Vis.   17 , 1732 – 1743 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genot, E.

D. Zicha , E. Genot , G. A. Dunn , and I. M. Kramer , “ TGF beta 1 induces a cell-cycle-dependent increase in motility of epithelial cells ,” J. Cell Sci. ,   112 , 447 – 454 ( 1999 ).
[PubMed]

Georgakoudi, I.

C. H. Yang , A. Wax , I. Georgakoudi , E. B. Hanlon , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Interferometric phase-dispersion microscopy ,” Opt Lett.   25 , 1526 – 1528 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Goda, K.

G. Popescu , T. Ikeda , K. Goda , C. A. Best , M. Laposata , S. Manley , R. R. Dasari , K. Badizadegan , and M. S. Feld , ” Optical measurement of cell membrane tension ,” Phys. Rev. Lett ., under review).
[PubMed]

Hahn, M. S.

C. Yang , A. Wax , M. S. Hahn , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Phase-referenced interferometer with subwavelength and subhertz sensitivity applied to the study of cell membrane dynamics ,” Opt Lett.   26 , 1271 – 1273 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Hanlon, E. B.

C. H. Yang , A. Wax , I. Georgakoudi , E. B. Hanlon , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Interferometric phase-dispersion microscopy ,” Opt Lett.   25 , 1526 – 1528 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Ikeda, T.

G. Popescu , T. Ikeda , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Diffraction phase microscopy for quantifying cell structure and dynamics ,” Opt. Lett.   31 , 775 – 777 ( 2006 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ikeda , G. Popescu , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Hilbert phase microscopy for investigating fast dynamics in transparent systems ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 1165 – 1168 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu , T. Ikeda , C. A. Best , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy ,” J. Biomed. Opt. Lett.   10 , 060503 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

G. Popescu , T. Ikeda , K. Goda , C. A. Best , M. Laposata , S. Manley , R. R. Dasari , K. Badizadegan , and M. S. Feld , ” Optical measurement of cell membrane tension ,” Phys. Rev. Lett ., under review).
[PubMed]

Iwai, H.

Izatt, J. A.

Joo, C.

Kim, M. K.

Kramer, I. M.

D. Zicha , E. Genot , G. A. Dunn , and I. M. Kramer , “ TGF beta 1 induces a cell-cycle-dependent increase in motility of epithelial cells ,” J. Cell Sci. ,   112 , 447 – 454 ( 1999 ).
[PubMed]

Laposata, M.

G. Popescu , T. Ikeda , K. Goda , C. A. Best , M. Laposata , S. Manley , R. R. Dasari , K. Badizadegan , and M. S. Feld , ” Optical measurement of cell membrane tension ,” Phys. Rev. Lett ., under review).
[PubMed]

Lennon, J. F.

F. Brochard and J. F. Lennon , “ Frequency spectrum of the flicker phenomenon in erythrocytes ,” J. Physique   36 , 1035 – 1047 ( 1975 ).
[Crossref]

Lo, C. M.

Magistretti, P. J.

Manley, S.

G. Popescu , T. Ikeda , K. Goda , C. A. Best , M. Laposata , S. Manley , R. R. Dasari , K. Badizadegan , and M. S. Feld , ” Optical measurement of cell membrane tension ,” Phys. Rev. Lett ., under review).
[PubMed]

Mann, C. J.

Marquet, P.

McCartney, M.

S. Bajt , A. Barty , K. A. Nugent , M. McCartney , M. Wall , and D. Paganin , “ Quantitative phase-sensitive imaging in a transmission electron microscope ”, Ultramicroscopy   83 , 67 – 73 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McMahon, P. J.

B. E. Allman , P. J. McMahon , J. B. Tiller , K. A. Nugent , D. Paganin , A. Barty , I. McNulty , S. P. Frigo , Y. X. Wang , and C. C. Retsch , “ Noninterferometric quantitative phase imaging with soft x rays ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A-Opt. Image Sci. Vis.   17 , 1732 – 1743 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McNulty, I.

B. E. Allman , P. J. McMahon , J. B. Tiller , K. A. Nugent , D. Paganin , A. Barty , I. McNulty , S. P. Frigo , Y. X. Wang , and C. C. Retsch , “ Noninterferometric quantitative phase imaging with soft x rays ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A-Opt. Image Sci. Vis.   17 , 1732 – 1743 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Milner, T. E.

Nugent, K. A.

S. Bajt , A. Barty , K. A. Nugent , M. McCartney , M. Wall , and D. Paganin , “ Quantitative phase-sensitive imaging in a transmission electron microscope ”, Ultramicroscopy   83 , 67 – 73 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. E. Allman , P. J. McMahon , J. B. Tiller , K. A. Nugent , D. Paganin , A. Barty , I. McNulty , S. P. Frigo , Y. X. Wang , and C. C. Retsch , “ Noninterferometric quantitative phase imaging with soft x rays ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A-Opt. Image Sci. Vis.   17 , 1732 – 1743 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Paganin and K. A. Nugent , “ Noninterferometric phase imaging with partially coherent light ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   80 , 2586 – 2589 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Paganin, D.

S. Bajt , A. Barty , K. A. Nugent , M. McCartney , M. Wall , and D. Paganin , “ Quantitative phase-sensitive imaging in a transmission electron microscope ”, Ultramicroscopy   83 , 67 – 73 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. E. Allman , P. J. McMahon , J. B. Tiller , K. A. Nugent , D. Paganin , A. Barty , I. McNulty , S. P. Frigo , Y. X. Wang , and C. C. Retsch , “ Noninterferometric quantitative phase imaging with soft x rays ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A-Opt. Image Sci. Vis.   17 , 1732 – 1743 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Paganin and K. A. Nugent , “ Noninterferometric phase imaging with partially coherent light ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   80 , 2586 – 2589 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Park, B. H.

Popescu, G.

G. Popescu , T. Ikeda , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Diffraction phase microscopy for quantifying cell structure and dynamics ,” Opt. Lett.   31 , 775 – 777 ( 2006 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Observation of dynamic subdomains in red blood cells ,” J. Biomed. Opt. Lett.   11 , 040503 ( 2006 ).
[Crossref]

G. Popescu , T. Ikeda , C. A. Best , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy ,” J. Biomed. Opt. Lett.   10 , 060503 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

T. Ikeda , G. Popescu , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Hilbert phase microscopy for investigating fast dynamics in transparent systems ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 1165 – 1168 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu , L. P. Deflores , J. C. Vaughan , K. Badizadegan , H. Iwai , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Fourier phase microscopy for investigation of biological structures and dynamics ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2503 – 2505 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Iwai , C. Fang-Yen , G. Popescu , A. Wax , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Quantitative phase imaging using actively stabilized phase-shifting low-coherence interferometry ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2399 – 2401 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu , T. Ikeda , K. Goda , C. A. Best , M. Laposata , S. Manley , R. R. Dasari , K. Badizadegan , and M. S. Feld , ” Optical measurement of cell membrane tension ,” Phys. Rev. Lett ., under review).
[PubMed]

Rappaz, B.

Retsch, C. C.

B. E. Allman , P. J. McMahon , J. B. Tiller , K. A. Nugent , D. Paganin , A. Barty , I. McNulty , S. P. Frigo , Y. X. Wang , and C. C. Retsch , “ Noninterferometric quantitative phase imaging with soft x rays ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A-Opt. Image Sci. Vis.   17 , 1732 – 1743 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rylander, C. G.

Rylander, H. G.

Seung, H. S.

Stephens, D. J.

D. J. Stephens and V. J. Allan , “ Light microscopy techniques for live cell imaging ,” Science   300 , 82 – 86 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tiller, J. B.

B. E. Allman , P. J. McMahon , J. B. Tiller , K. A. Nugent , D. Paganin , A. Barty , I. McNulty , S. P. Frigo , Y. X. Wang , and C. C. Retsch , “ Noninterferometric quantitative phase imaging with soft x rays ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A-Opt. Image Sci. Vis.   17 , 1732 – 1743 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vaughan, J. C.

Wall, M.

S. Bajt , A. Barty , K. A. Nugent , M. McCartney , M. Wall , and D. Paganin , “ Quantitative phase-sensitive imaging in a transmission electron microscope ”, Ultramicroscopy   83 , 67 – 73 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y. X.

B. E. Allman , P. J. McMahon , J. B. Tiller , K. A. Nugent , D. Paganin , A. Barty , I. McNulty , S. P. Frigo , Y. X. Wang , and C. C. Retsch , “ Noninterferometric quantitative phase imaging with soft x rays ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A-Opt. Image Sci. Vis.   17 , 1732 – 1743 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wax, A.

H. Iwai , C. Fang-Yen , G. Popescu , A. Wax , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Quantitative phase imaging using actively stabilized phase-shifting low-coherence interferometry ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2399 – 2401 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Yang , A. Wax , M. S. Hahn , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Phase-referenced interferometer with subwavelength and subhertz sensitivity applied to the study of cell membrane dynamics ,” Opt Lett.   26 , 1271 – 1273 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

C. H. Yang , A. Wax , I. Georgakoudi , E. B. Hanlon , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Interferometric phase-dispersion microscopy ,” Opt Lett.   25 , 1526 – 1528 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Welch, A. J.

Yang, C.

C. Yang , A. Wax , M. S. Hahn , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Phase-referenced interferometer with subwavelength and subhertz sensitivity applied to the study of cell membrane dynamics ,” Opt Lett.   26 , 1271 – 1273 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Yang, C. H.

M. A. Choma , A. K. Ellerbee , C. H. Yang , T. L. Creazzo , and J. A. Izatt , “ Spectral-domain phase microscopy ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 1162 – 1164 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Yang , A. Wax , I. Georgakoudi , E. B. Hanlon , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Interferometric phase-dispersion microscopy ,” Opt Lett.   25 , 1526 – 1528 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Yu, L. F.

Zicha, D.

D. Zicha , E. Genot , G. A. Dunn , and I. M. Kramer , “ TGF beta 1 induces a cell-cycle-dependent increase in motility of epithelial cells ,” J. Cell Sci. ,   112 , 447 – 454 ( 1999 ).
[PubMed]

G. A. Dunn , D. Zicha , and P. E. Fraylich , “ Rapid, microtubule-dependent fluctuations of the cell margin ,” J. Cell Sci.   110 , 3091 – 3098 ( 1997 ).

D. Zicha and G. A. Dunn , “ An Image-Processing System For Cell Behavior Studies In Subconfluent Cultures ,” J. Microscopy ,   179 , 11 – 21 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. Lett. (2)

G. Popescu , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Observation of dynamic subdomains in red blood cells ,” J. Biomed. Opt. Lett.   11 , 040503 ( 2006 ).
[Crossref]

G. Popescu , T. Ikeda , C. A. Best , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy ,” J. Biomed. Opt. Lett.   10 , 060503 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

J. Cell Sci. (2)

G. A. Dunn , D. Zicha , and P. E. Fraylich , “ Rapid, microtubule-dependent fluctuations of the cell margin ,” J. Cell Sci.   110 , 3091 – 3098 ( 1997 ).

D. Zicha , E. Genot , G. A. Dunn , and I. M. Kramer , “ TGF beta 1 induces a cell-cycle-dependent increase in motility of epithelial cells ,” J. Cell Sci. ,   112 , 447 – 454 ( 1999 ).
[PubMed]

J. Microscopy (1)

D. Zicha and G. A. Dunn , “ An Image-Processing System For Cell Behavior Studies In Subconfluent Cultures ,” J. Microscopy ,   179 , 11 – 21 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A-Opt. Image Sci. Vis. (1)

B. E. Allman , P. J. McMahon , J. B. Tiller , K. A. Nugent , D. Paganin , A. Barty , I. McNulty , S. P. Frigo , Y. X. Wang , and C. C. Retsch , “ Noninterferometric quantitative phase imaging with soft x rays ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A-Opt. Image Sci. Vis.   17 , 1732 – 1743 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Physique (1)

F. Brochard and J. F. Lennon , “ Frequency spectrum of the flicker phenomenon in erythrocytes ,” J. Physique   36 , 1035 – 1047 ( 1975 ).
[Crossref]

Opt Lett. (2)

C. Yang , A. Wax , M. S. Hahn , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Phase-referenced interferometer with subwavelength and subhertz sensitivity applied to the study of cell membrane dynamics ,” Opt Lett.   26 , 1271 – 1273 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

C. H. Yang , A. Wax , I. Georgakoudi , E. B. Hanlon , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Interferometric phase-dispersion microscopy ,” Opt Lett.   25 , 1526 – 1528 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (9)

P. Marquet , B. Rappaz , P. J. Magistretti , E. Cuche , Y. Emery , T. Colomb , and C. Depeursinge , “ Digital holographic microscopy: a noninvasive contrast imaging technique allowing quantitative visualization of living cells with subwavelength axial accuracy ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 468 – 470 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Iwai , C. Fang-Yen , G. Popescu , A. Wax , K. Badizadegan , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Quantitative phase imaging using actively stabilized phase-shifting low-coherence interferometry ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2399 – 2401 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu , L. P. Deflores , J. C. Vaughan , K. Badizadegan , H. Iwai , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Fourier phase microscopy for investigation of biological structures and dynamics ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2503 – 2505 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Rylander , D. P. Dave , T. Akkin , T. E. Milner , K. R. Diller , and A. J. Welch , “ Quantitative phase-contrast imaging of cells with phase-sensitive optical coherence microscopy ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 1509 – 1511 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma , A. K. Ellerbee , C. H. Yang , T. L. Creazzo , and J. A. Izatt , “ Spectral-domain phase microscopy ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 1162 – 1164 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Joo , T. Akkin , B. Cense , B. H. Park , and J. E. de Boer , “ Spectral-domain optical coherence phase microscopy for quantitative phase-contrast imaging ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 2131 – 2133 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Fang-Yen , M. C. Chu , H. S. Seung , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Noncontact measurement of nerve displacement during action potential with a dual-beam low-coherence interferometer ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2028 – 2030 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu , T. Ikeda , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Diffraction phase microscopy for quantifying cell structure and dynamics ,” Opt. Lett.   31 , 775 – 777 ( 2006 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ikeda , G. Popescu , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , “ Hilbert phase microscopy for investigating fast dynamics in transparent systems ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 1165 – 1168 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. Paganin and K. A. Nugent , “ Noninterferometric phase imaging with partially coherent light ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   80 , 2586 – 2589 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

D. J. Stephens and V. J. Allan , “ Light microscopy techniques for live cell imaging ,” Science   300 , 82 – 86 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ultramicroscopy (1)

S. Bajt , A. Barty , K. A. Nugent , M. McCartney , M. Wall , and D. Paganin , “ Quantitative phase-sensitive imaging in a transmission electron microscope ”, Ultramicroscopy   83 , 67 – 73 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

G. Popescu , T. Ikeda , K. Goda , C. A. Best , M. Laposata , S. Manley , R. R. Dasari , K. Badizadegan , and M. S. Feld , ” Optical measurement of cell membrane tension ,” Phys. Rev. Lett ., under review).
[PubMed]

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: AVI (2524 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (8073 KB)     

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

DPF setup. F1, 2, filters; M1, 2, mirrors; L1-4 lenses (f1-4, respective focal lengths); G, grating; SF, spatial filter; IP1, 2, image planes; SF, spatial filter.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). (4 Mb) MOVIE: Thermal fluctuations of red blood cell membrane. (b) (4 Mb) MOVIE: Eosinophil chemotaxis and attack on red blood cell. Color bars represent optical phase in radians.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). Quantitative phase image of a kidney cell. The colorbar indicates optical phase shift in radians. (b) Fluorescence image of the same DNA-stained cell. (c) Overlaid images from (a) and (b): red- DPM image and blue- epi-fluorescence image. Colorbar indicates phase in radians.

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