Abstract

We designed and analysed a new structure for the realization of left-handed metamaterials in the GHz region. The material is composed of pairs of metallic crosses and reveals improved polarization behavior. Left-handed properties can be observed as long as the electrical field vector is located in the plane of the crosses. Negative refraction as indication for simultaneous negative effective ε and μ is numerically verified by direct comparison of the wavefronts inside and outside the metamaterial at nonzero angles of incidence.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. D. Veselago , “ The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ ,” Sov. Phys. Usp.   10 , 509 – 514 ( 1968 ).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. B. Pendry , A. J. Holden , W. J Stewart , and I. Young , “ Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures ,” Phys. Rev. Lett ,   76 , 4773 – 4776 ( 1996 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. B. Pendry , A. J. Holden , D. J. Robbins , and W. J. Steward , “ Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures ,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter   10 , 4785 – 4809 ( 1998 ).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. B. Pendry , A. J. Holden , D. J. Robbins , and W. J. Stewart , “ Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena ,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   47 , 2075 – 2084 ( 1999 ).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. R. Smith , W. J. Padilla , D. C. Vier , S. C. Nemat-Nasser , and S. Schultz , “ Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   84 , 4184 – 4187 ( 2000 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. R. Smith , S Schultz , P. Markoš , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Determination of the effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients ,” Phys. Rev. B   65 , 195104 ( 2002 ).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Markoš and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Numerical studies of left-handed materials and arrays of split ring resonators ,” Phys. Rev. E   65 , 036622 ( 2002 ).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Markoš , I. Rousochatzakis , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Transmission losses in left-handed materials ,” Phys. Rev. E   66 , 045601 ( 2002 ).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Koschny , P. Markoš , D. R. Smith , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials ,” Phys. Rev. E   68 , 065602 ( 2003 ).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Koschny , M. Kafesaki , E. N. Economou , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Effective medium theory of left-handed materials ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   93 , 107402 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. V. M. Shalaev , W. S. Cai , U. K. Chettiar , H. K. Yuan , A. K. Sarychev , V. P. Drachev , and A. V. Kildishev : “ Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 3356 – 3358 ( 2005 ).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. N. Lagarkov and A. K. Sarychev : “ Electromagnetic properties of composites containing elongated conducting inclusions ,” Phys. Rev. B   53 , 6318 – 6336 ( 1996 ).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Svirko , N. I. Zheludev , and M. Osipov : “ Layered chiral metallic microstructures with inductive coupling ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   78 , 498 – 500 ( 2001 ).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Dolling , C. Enkrich , M. Wegener , J. Zhou , C. M. Soukoulis , and S. Linden , “ Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 3198 – 3200 ( 2005 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. Zhang , W. Fan , N. C. Panoiu , K. J. Malloy , R M. Osgood , and S. R. J. Brueck , “ Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   95 , 137404 ( 2005 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. R. A. Silin , “ Possibility of creating plane-parallel lenses ,” Opt. Spektrosk.   44 , 189 – 191 ( 1978 ).
  17. J. B. Pendry , “ Negative refraction makes a perfect lens ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   85 , 3966 – 3969 ( 2000 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. B. -I. Popa and S. A. Cummer , “ Direct measurement of evanescent wave enhancement inside passive metamaterials ,” Phys. Rev. E   73 , 016617 ( 2006 ).
    [CrossRef]
  19. V. A. Fedotov , P. L. Mladyonov , S. L. Prosvirnin , and N. I. Zheludev , “ Planar electromagnetic metamaterial with a fish scale structure ,” Phys. Rev. E   72 , 056613 ( 2005 ).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. B. Pendry , D. Schurig , and D. R. Smith , “ Controlling electromagnetic fields ,” Sciencexpress ( 2006 ).
    [CrossRef]
  21. U. Leonhardt , “ Optical conformal mapping ,” Sciencexpress ( 2006 ).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. V. Rogacheva , V. A. Fedotov , A. S. Schwanecke , and N. I. Zheludev , “ Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic coupling ,” ( 2006 ), http://lanl.arxiv.org/abs/physics/0604105.
  23. A. F. Starr , P. M. Rye , D. R. Smith , and S. Nemat-Nasser , “ Fabrication and characterization of a negative-refractive-index composite metamaterial ,” Phys. Rev. B   70 , 113102 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef]
  24. B.-I. Popa and S. A. Cummer , “ Determining the effective electromagnetic properties of negative-refractive-index metamaterials from internal fields ,” Phys. Rev. B   72 , 165102 ( 2005 ).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

B. -I. Popa and S. A. Cummer , “ Direct measurement of evanescent wave enhancement inside passive metamaterials ,” Phys. Rev. E   73 , 016617 ( 2006 ).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

V. A. Fedotov , P. L. Mladyonov , S. L. Prosvirnin , and N. I. Zheludev , “ Planar electromagnetic metamaterial with a fish scale structure ,” Phys. Rev. E   72 , 056613 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling , C. Enkrich , M. Wegener , J. Zhou , C. M. Soukoulis , and S. Linden , “ Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 3198 – 3200 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang , W. Fan , N. C. Panoiu , K. J. Malloy , R M. Osgood , and S. R. J. Brueck , “ Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   95 , 137404 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev , W. S. Cai , U. K. Chettiar , H. K. Yuan , A. K. Sarychev , V. P. Drachev , and A. V. Kildishev : “ Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 3356 – 3358 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

B.-I. Popa and S. A. Cummer , “ Determining the effective electromagnetic properties of negative-refractive-index metamaterials from internal fields ,” Phys. Rev. B   72 , 165102 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

T. Koschny , M. Kafesaki , E. N. Economou , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Effective medium theory of left-handed materials ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   93 , 107402 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Starr , P. M. Rye , D. R. Smith , and S. Nemat-Nasser , “ Fabrication and characterization of a negative-refractive-index composite metamaterial ,” Phys. Rev. B   70 , 113102 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. Koschny , P. Markoš , D. R. Smith , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials ,” Phys. Rev. E   68 , 065602 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

D. R. Smith , S Schultz , P. Markoš , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Determination of the effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients ,” Phys. Rev. B   65 , 195104 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

P. Markoš and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Numerical studies of left-handed materials and arrays of split ring resonators ,” Phys. Rev. E   65 , 036622 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

P. Markoš , I. Rousochatzakis , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Transmission losses in left-handed materials ,” Phys. Rev. E   66 , 045601 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Y. Svirko , N. I. Zheludev , and M. Osipov : “ Layered chiral metallic microstructures with inductive coupling ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   78 , 498 – 500 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

D. R. Smith , W. J. Padilla , D. C. Vier , S. C. Nemat-Nasser , and S. Schultz , “ Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   84 , 4184 – 4187 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry , “ Negative refraction makes a perfect lens ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   85 , 3966 – 3969 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. B. Pendry , A. J. Holden , D. J. Robbins , and W. J. Stewart , “ Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena ,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   47 , 2075 – 2084 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. B. Pendry , A. J. Holden , D. J. Robbins , and W. J. Steward , “ Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures ,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter   10 , 4785 – 4809 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

J. B. Pendry , A. J. Holden , W. J Stewart , and I. Young , “ Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures ,” Phys. Rev. Lett ,   76 , 4773 – 4776 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Lagarkov and A. K. Sarychev : “ Electromagnetic properties of composites containing elongated conducting inclusions ,” Phys. Rev. B   53 , 6318 – 6336 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

R. A. Silin , “ Possibility of creating plane-parallel lenses ,” Opt. Spektrosk.   44 , 189 – 191 ( 1978 ).

1968 (1)

V. D. Veselago , “ The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ ,” Sov. Phys. Usp.   10 , 509 – 514 ( 1968 ).
[CrossRef]

Brueck, S. R. J.

S. Zhang , W. Fan , N. C. Panoiu , K. J. Malloy , R M. Osgood , and S. R. J. Brueck , “ Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   95 , 137404 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W. S.

Chettiar, U. K.

Cummer, S. A.

B. -I. Popa and S. A. Cummer , “ Direct measurement of evanescent wave enhancement inside passive metamaterials ,” Phys. Rev. E   73 , 016617 ( 2006 ).
[CrossRef]

B.-I. Popa and S. A. Cummer , “ Determining the effective electromagnetic properties of negative-refractive-index metamaterials from internal fields ,” Phys. Rev. B   72 , 165102 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Dolling, G.

Drachev, V. P.

Economou, E. N.

T. Koschny , M. Kafesaki , E. N. Economou , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Effective medium theory of left-handed materials ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   93 , 107402 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enkrich, C.

Fan, W.

S. Zhang , W. Fan , N. C. Panoiu , K. J. Malloy , R M. Osgood , and S. R. J. Brueck , “ Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   95 , 137404 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fedotov, V. A.

V. A. Fedotov , P. L. Mladyonov , S. L. Prosvirnin , and N. I. Zheludev , “ Planar electromagnetic metamaterial with a fish scale structure ,” Phys. Rev. E   72 , 056613 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Rogacheva , V. A. Fedotov , A. S. Schwanecke , and N. I. Zheludev , “ Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic coupling ,” ( 2006 ), http://lanl.arxiv.org/abs/physics/0604105.

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry , A. J. Holden , D. J. Robbins , and W. J. Stewart , “ Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena ,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   47 , 2075 – 2084 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry , A. J. Holden , D. J. Robbins , and W. J. Steward , “ Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures ,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter   10 , 4785 – 4809 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry , A. J. Holden , W. J Stewart , and I. Young , “ Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures ,” Phys. Rev. Lett ,   76 , 4773 – 4776 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kafesaki, M.

T. Koschny , M. Kafesaki , E. N. Economou , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Effective medium theory of left-handed materials ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   93 , 107402 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kildishev, A. V.

Koschny, T.

T. Koschny , M. Kafesaki , E. N. Economou , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Effective medium theory of left-handed materials ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   93 , 107402 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koschny , P. Markoš , D. R. Smith , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials ,” Phys. Rev. E   68 , 065602 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Lagarkov, A. N.

A. N. Lagarkov and A. K. Sarychev : “ Electromagnetic properties of composites containing elongated conducting inclusions ,” Phys. Rev. B   53 , 6318 – 6336 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

Leonhardt, U.

U. Leonhardt , “ Optical conformal mapping ,” Sciencexpress ( 2006 ).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

Malloy, K. J.

S. Zhang , W. Fan , N. C. Panoiu , K. J. Malloy , R M. Osgood , and S. R. J. Brueck , “ Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   95 , 137404 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markoš, P.

T. Koschny , P. Markoš , D. R. Smith , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials ,” Phys. Rev. E   68 , 065602 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith , S Schultz , P. Markoš , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Determination of the effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients ,” Phys. Rev. B   65 , 195104 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

P. Markoš and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Numerical studies of left-handed materials and arrays of split ring resonators ,” Phys. Rev. E   65 , 036622 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

P. Markoš , I. Rousochatzakis , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Transmission losses in left-handed materials ,” Phys. Rev. E   66 , 045601 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Mladyonov, P. L.

V. A. Fedotov , P. L. Mladyonov , S. L. Prosvirnin , and N. I. Zheludev , “ Planar electromagnetic metamaterial with a fish scale structure ,” Phys. Rev. E   72 , 056613 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Nemat-Nasser, S.

A. F. Starr , P. M. Rye , D. R. Smith , and S. Nemat-Nasser , “ Fabrication and characterization of a negative-refractive-index composite metamaterial ,” Phys. Rev. B   70 , 113102 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

D. R. Smith , W. J. Padilla , D. C. Vier , S. C. Nemat-Nasser , and S. Schultz , “ Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   84 , 4184 – 4187 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osgood, R M.

S. Zhang , W. Fan , N. C. Panoiu , K. J. Malloy , R M. Osgood , and S. R. J. Brueck , “ Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   95 , 137404 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osipov, M.

Y. Svirko , N. I. Zheludev , and M. Osipov : “ Layered chiral metallic microstructures with inductive coupling ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   78 , 498 – 500 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

D. R. Smith , W. J. Padilla , D. C. Vier , S. C. Nemat-Nasser , and S. Schultz , “ Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   84 , 4184 – 4187 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panoiu, N. C.

S. Zhang , W. Fan , N. C. Panoiu , K. J. Malloy , R M. Osgood , and S. R. J. Brueck , “ Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   95 , 137404 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry , “ Negative refraction makes a perfect lens ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   85 , 3966 – 3969 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry , A. J. Holden , D. J. Robbins , and W. J. Stewart , “ Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena ,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   47 , 2075 – 2084 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry , A. J. Holden , D. J. Robbins , and W. J. Steward , “ Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures ,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter   10 , 4785 – 4809 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry , A. J. Holden , W. J Stewart , and I. Young , “ Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures ,” Phys. Rev. Lett ,   76 , 4773 – 4776 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry , D. Schurig , and D. R. Smith , “ Controlling electromagnetic fields ,” Sciencexpress ( 2006 ).
[CrossRef]

Popa, B. -I.

B. -I. Popa and S. A. Cummer , “ Direct measurement of evanescent wave enhancement inside passive metamaterials ,” Phys. Rev. E   73 , 016617 ( 2006 ).
[CrossRef]

Popa, B.-I.

B.-I. Popa and S. A. Cummer , “ Determining the effective electromagnetic properties of negative-refractive-index metamaterials from internal fields ,” Phys. Rev. B   72 , 165102 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Prosvirnin, S. L.

V. A. Fedotov , P. L. Mladyonov , S. L. Prosvirnin , and N. I. Zheludev , “ Planar electromagnetic metamaterial with a fish scale structure ,” Phys. Rev. E   72 , 056613 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry , A. J. Holden , D. J. Robbins , and W. J. Stewart , “ Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena ,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   47 , 2075 – 2084 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry , A. J. Holden , D. J. Robbins , and W. J. Steward , “ Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures ,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter   10 , 4785 – 4809 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Rogacheva, A. V.

A. V. Rogacheva , V. A. Fedotov , A. S. Schwanecke , and N. I. Zheludev , “ Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic coupling ,” ( 2006 ), http://lanl.arxiv.org/abs/physics/0604105.

Rousochatzakis, I.

P. Markoš , I. Rousochatzakis , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Transmission losses in left-handed materials ,” Phys. Rev. E   66 , 045601 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Rye, P. M.

A. F. Starr , P. M. Rye , D. R. Smith , and S. Nemat-Nasser , “ Fabrication and characterization of a negative-refractive-index composite metamaterial ,” Phys. Rev. B   70 , 113102 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Sarychev, A. K.

V. M. Shalaev , W. S. Cai , U. K. Chettiar , H. K. Yuan , A. K. Sarychev , V. P. Drachev , and A. V. Kildishev : “ Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 3356 – 3358 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Lagarkov and A. K. Sarychev : “ Electromagnetic properties of composites containing elongated conducting inclusions ,” Phys. Rev. B   53 , 6318 – 6336 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S

D. R. Smith , S Schultz , P. Markoš , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Determination of the effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients ,” Phys. Rev. B   65 , 195104 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith , W. J. Padilla , D. C. Vier , S. C. Nemat-Nasser , and S. Schultz , “ Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   84 , 4184 – 4187 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

J. B. Pendry , D. Schurig , and D. R. Smith , “ Controlling electromagnetic fields ,” Sciencexpress ( 2006 ).
[CrossRef]

Schwanecke, A. S.

A. V. Rogacheva , V. A. Fedotov , A. S. Schwanecke , and N. I. Zheludev , “ Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic coupling ,” ( 2006 ), http://lanl.arxiv.org/abs/physics/0604105.

Shalaev, V. M.

Silin, R. A.

R. A. Silin , “ Possibility of creating plane-parallel lenses ,” Opt. Spektrosk.   44 , 189 – 191 ( 1978 ).

Smith, D. R.

A. F. Starr , P. M. Rye , D. R. Smith , and S. Nemat-Nasser , “ Fabrication and characterization of a negative-refractive-index composite metamaterial ,” Phys. Rev. B   70 , 113102 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

T. Koschny , P. Markoš , D. R. Smith , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials ,” Phys. Rev. E   68 , 065602 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith , S Schultz , P. Markoš , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Determination of the effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients ,” Phys. Rev. B   65 , 195104 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith , W. J. Padilla , D. C. Vier , S. C. Nemat-Nasser , and S. Schultz , “ Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   84 , 4184 – 4187 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry , D. Schurig , and D. R. Smith , “ Controlling electromagnetic fields ,” Sciencexpress ( 2006 ).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

G. Dolling , C. Enkrich , M. Wegener , J. Zhou , C. M. Soukoulis , and S. Linden , “ Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 3198 – 3200 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koschny , M. Kafesaki , E. N. Economou , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Effective medium theory of left-handed materials ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   93 , 107402 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koschny , P. Markoš , D. R. Smith , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials ,” Phys. Rev. E   68 , 065602 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

P. Markoš and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Numerical studies of left-handed materials and arrays of split ring resonators ,” Phys. Rev. E   65 , 036622 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith , S Schultz , P. Markoš , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Determination of the effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients ,” Phys. Rev. B   65 , 195104 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

P. Markoš , I. Rousochatzakis , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Transmission losses in left-handed materials ,” Phys. Rev. E   66 , 045601 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Starr, A. F.

A. F. Starr , P. M. Rye , D. R. Smith , and S. Nemat-Nasser , “ Fabrication and characterization of a negative-refractive-index composite metamaterial ,” Phys. Rev. B   70 , 113102 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Steward, W. J.

J. B. Pendry , A. J. Holden , D. J. Robbins , and W. J. Steward , “ Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures ,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter   10 , 4785 – 4809 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W. J

J. B. Pendry , A. J. Holden , W. J Stewart , and I. Young , “ Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures ,” Phys. Rev. Lett ,   76 , 4773 – 4776 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry , A. J. Holden , D. J. Robbins , and W. J. Stewart , “ Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena ,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   47 , 2075 – 2084 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Svirko, Y.

Y. Svirko , N. I. Zheludev , and M. Osipov : “ Layered chiral metallic microstructures with inductive coupling ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   78 , 498 – 500 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

Veselago, V. D.

V. D. Veselago , “ The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ ,” Sov. Phys. Usp.   10 , 509 – 514 ( 1968 ).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D. C.

D. R. Smith , W. J. Padilla , D. C. Vier , S. C. Nemat-Nasser , and S. Schultz , “ Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   84 , 4184 – 4187 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

Young, I.

J. B. Pendry , A. J. Holden , W. J Stewart , and I. Young , “ Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures ,” Phys. Rev. Lett ,   76 , 4773 – 4776 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, H. K.

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang , W. Fan , N. C. Panoiu , K. J. Malloy , R M. Osgood , and S. R. J. Brueck , “ Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   95 , 137404 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheludev, N. I.

V. A. Fedotov , P. L. Mladyonov , S. L. Prosvirnin , and N. I. Zheludev , “ Planar electromagnetic metamaterial with a fish scale structure ,” Phys. Rev. E   72 , 056613 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Y. Svirko , N. I. Zheludev , and M. Osipov : “ Layered chiral metallic microstructures with inductive coupling ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   78 , 498 – 500 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Layout of the metamaterial: extract with three elementary cells; (b, c) parameters of the structure: l = 5mm, s = 0.5mm, b = d = 0,2mm, a = 0.5mm and z = 1.6mm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulated transmission coefficient in dB for one cross per elementary cell (blue; dark gray) and for two crosses per cell (green; light gray).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulated transmission coefficient in dB for a plane wave incident perpendicular (green; light gray) and incident at an angle of 40° (blue; dark gray).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Simulated field distribution at a frequency of 27.11GHz for an angle of incidence of 15°. The dashed lines represent the inclination of the wavefronts in the metamaterial according to the retrieved value for the effective index of refraction of - 1.31.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Field distribution at 27.11GHz for an angle of incidence of 30°. The dashed lines represent again the inclination of the wavefronts as a result of the parameter retrieval at this frequency.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Simulated transmission coefficient in dB for the cross pairs modeled as perfect electrical conductors (blue, dark gray) and for the cross pairs made of gold (green, light gray).

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