Abstract

Local enhancement of the power flow in a group front of a transient sinusoidal Gaussian beam refracted at the boundary of right- and left-handed media is observed. In vacuum the beam reaches a sinusoidal steady state that is a form of continuous wave (CW) Gaussian beam after 6 wave periods. Behind the interface plane in a low loss double negative medium with normal dispersion the individual Fourier components of the beam diffract at different angles and have diversified phase speeds. This results in the group front build-up that propagates on with the beam and moves sideways with respect to the group velocity direction, where energy is transported. The enhancement is illustrated with 2-D simulations using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2006 (1)

A. D. Boardman and K. Marinov, "Electromagnetic energy in a dispersive metamaterial," Phys. Rev. B 73, 165110-1-7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (6)

Z. M. Thomas, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. Wu, X. Chen, and J. A. Kong, "Design and measurement of a four-port device using metamaterials," Opt. Express 13, 4737-4744 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Scalora, G. D'Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, M. Centini, C. Sibilia, and M. Bertolotti, "Pulse propagation, dispersion, and energy in magnetic materials," Phys. Rev. E 72, 66601-1-8 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Tretyakov, "Electromagnetic field energy density in artificial microwave materials with strong dispersion and loss," Phys. Lett. A 343, 231-237 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Scalora, G. D’Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, M.J. Bloemer, J.W. Haus, A.M. Zheltikov, "Negative refraction of ultra-short electromagnetic pulses," Appl. Phys. B 81, 393-402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Luo, W. Hu, X. Yi, H. Liu, J. Zhu, „Amphoteric refraction at the interface between isotropic and anisotropic media," Opt. Commun. 254, 353-360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Nefedov, A. J. Viitanen, and S. A. Tretyakov, "Electromagnetic wave refraction at an interface of a double wire medium," Phys. Rev. B 72, 245113-1-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (7)

T. J. Cui and J. A. Kong, "Time-domain electromagnetic energy in a frequency-dispersive left-handed medium," Phys. Rev. B 70, 205106-1-7 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, P. Kolinko, and D. Schurig, "Negative refraction in indefinite media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1032-1043 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Garcia-Pomar and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, "Transmission study of prisms and slabs of lossy negative index media," Opt. Express 12, 2081-2095 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Dutta Gupta, R. Arun and G. S. Agarval, "Subluminal and superluminal propagation in a left-handed medium," Phys. Rev. B 69, 113104-1-4 (2004).

X. Huang and W. L. Schaich, "Wave packet propagation into a negative index medium," Am. J. Phys. 72, 1232-1240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Lu, J. B. Sokoloff, and S. Sridhar, "Refraction of electromagnetic energy for wave packets incident on a negative-index medium is always negative," Phys. Rev. E 69, 026604-1-5 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. M. Zhang and K. Park, "On the group front and group velocity in a dispersive medium upon refraction from a nondispersive medium," J. Heat Transfer -Trans.ASME 126, 244-249 (2004).Q1
[CrossRef]

2003 (8)

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell’s law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401-1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Refraction in media with a negative refractive index," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402-1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Houck, J. B. Brock, and I. L. Chuang, "Experimental observations of a left-handed material that obeys Snell's law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 137401-1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Cummer. "Dynamics of causal beam refraction in negative refractive index materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2008-2010 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Ziolkowski and A. D. Kipple, "Causality and double-negative metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 68, 026615-1-9 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Kolinko and D. R. Smith, "Numerical study of electromagnetic waves interacting with negative index materials," Opt. Express 11, 640-648 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Ziolkowski, "Pulsed and CW Gaussian beam interactions with double negative metamaterial slabs," Opt. Express 11, 662-681 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

R. Ruppin, "Electromagnetic energy density in a dispersive and absorptive material," Phys. Lett. A 299, 309-312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Pacheco, Jr., T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, Y. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, "Power propagation in homogeneous isotropic frequency-dispersive left-handed media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 257401-1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, and J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction of modulated electromagnetic waves," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2713-2715 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

R. W. Ziolkowski and E. Heyman, "Wave propagation in media having negative permittivity and permeability," Phys. Rev. E 64, 056625-1-15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. D’Aguanno, M. Centini, M. Scalora, C. Sibilia, M. J. Bloemer, C. M. Bowden, J. W. Haus, and M. Bertolotti, "Group velocity, energy velocity, and superluminal propagation in finite photonic band-gap structures," Phys. Rev. E 63, 036610 (2001).Q2
[CrossRef]

C.-G. Huang and Y.-Z. Zhang, "Poynting vector, energy density, and energy velocity in an anomalous dispersion medium," Phys. Rev. A 65, 015802 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. R. Smith and N. Kroll, "Negative refractive index in left-handed materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

C. Radzewicz, M. J. La Grone and J. S. Krasinski, "Interferometric measurement of femtosecond pulse distortion by lenses," Opt. Commun. 126, 185-190 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1985 (1)

Zs. Bor and B. Racz, "Group velocity dispersion in prisms and its application to pulse compression and traveling-wave excitation," Opt. Commun. 54, 165-169 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

E. B. Treacy, "Optical pulse compression with diffraction gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 5, 454-458 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and µ," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Agarval, G. S.

S. Dutta Gupta, R. Arun and G. S. Agarval, "Subluminal and superluminal propagation in a left-handed medium," Phys. Rev. B 69, 113104-1-4 (2004).

Akozbek, N.

M. Scalora, G. D'Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, M. Centini, C. Sibilia, and M. Bertolotti, "Pulse propagation, dispersion, and energy in magnetic materials," Phys. Rev. E 72, 66601-1-8 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arun, R.

S. Dutta Gupta, R. Arun and G. S. Agarval, "Subluminal and superluminal propagation in a left-handed medium," Phys. Rev. B 69, 113104-1-4 (2004).

Aydin, K.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bertolotti, M.

M. Scalora, G. D'Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, M. Centini, C. Sibilia, and M. Bertolotti, "Pulse propagation, dispersion, and energy in magnetic materials," Phys. Rev. E 72, 66601-1-8 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. D’Aguanno, M. Centini, M. Scalora, C. Sibilia, M. J. Bloemer, C. M. Bowden, J. W. Haus, and M. Bertolotti, "Group velocity, energy velocity, and superluminal propagation in finite photonic band-gap structures," Phys. Rev. E 63, 036610 (2001).Q2
[CrossRef]

Bloemer, M. J.

M. Scalora, G. D'Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, M. Centini, C. Sibilia, and M. Bertolotti, "Pulse propagation, dispersion, and energy in magnetic materials," Phys. Rev. E 72, 66601-1-8 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. D’Aguanno, M. Centini, M. Scalora, C. Sibilia, M. J. Bloemer, C. M. Bowden, J. W. Haus, and M. Bertolotti, "Group velocity, energy velocity, and superluminal propagation in finite photonic band-gap structures," Phys. Rev. E 63, 036610 (2001).Q2
[CrossRef]

Bloemer, M.J.

M. Scalora, G. D’Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, M.J. Bloemer, J.W. Haus, A.M. Zheltikov, "Negative refraction of ultra-short electromagnetic pulses," Appl. Phys. B 81, 393-402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boardman, A. D.

A. D. Boardman and K. Marinov, "Electromagnetic energy in a dispersive metamaterial," Phys. Rev. B 73, 165110-1-7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bor, Zs.

Zs. Bor and B. Racz, "Group velocity dispersion in prisms and its application to pulse compression and traveling-wave excitation," Opt. Commun. 54, 165-169 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bowden, C. M.

G. D’Aguanno, M. Centini, M. Scalora, C. Sibilia, M. J. Bloemer, C. M. Bowden, J. W. Haus, and M. Bertolotti, "Group velocity, energy velocity, and superluminal propagation in finite photonic band-gap structures," Phys. Rev. E 63, 036610 (2001).Q2
[CrossRef]

Brock, J. B.

A. A. Houck, J. B. Brock, and I. L. Chuang, "Experimental observations of a left-handed material that obeys Snell's law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 137401-1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Centini, M.

M. Scalora, G. D'Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, M. Centini, C. Sibilia, and M. Bertolotti, "Pulse propagation, dispersion, and energy in magnetic materials," Phys. Rev. E 72, 66601-1-8 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. D’Aguanno, M. Centini, M. Scalora, C. Sibilia, M. J. Bloemer, C. M. Bowden, J. W. Haus, and M. Bertolotti, "Group velocity, energy velocity, and superluminal propagation in finite photonic band-gap structures," Phys. Rev. E 63, 036610 (2001).Q2
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Chuang, I. L.

A. A. Houck, J. B. Brock, and I. L. Chuang, "Experimental observations of a left-handed material that obeys Snell's law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 137401-1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cubukcu, E.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, T. J.

T. J. Cui and J. A. Kong, "Time-domain electromagnetic energy in a frequency-dispersive left-handed medium," Phys. Rev. B 70, 205106-1-7 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cummer, S. A.

S. A. Cummer. "Dynamics of causal beam refraction in negative refractive index materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2008-2010 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D’Aguanno, G.

M. Scalora, G. D’Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, M.J. Bloemer, J.W. Haus, A.M. Zheltikov, "Negative refraction of ultra-short electromagnetic pulses," Appl. Phys. B 81, 393-402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. D’Aguanno, M. Centini, M. Scalora, C. Sibilia, M. J. Bloemer, C. M. Bowden, J. W. Haus, and M. Bertolotti, "Group velocity, energy velocity, and superluminal propagation in finite photonic band-gap structures," Phys. Rev. E 63, 036610 (2001).Q2
[CrossRef]

D'Aguanno, G.

M. Scalora, G. D'Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, M. Centini, C. Sibilia, and M. Bertolotti, "Pulse propagation, dispersion, and energy in magnetic materials," Phys. Rev. E 72, 66601-1-8 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dutta Gupta, S.

S. Dutta Gupta, R. Arun and G. S. Agarval, "Subluminal and superluminal propagation in a left-handed medium," Phys. Rev. B 69, 113104-1-4 (2004).

Economou, E. N.

S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Refraction in media with a negative refractive index," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402-1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foteinopoulou, S.

S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Refraction in media with a negative refractive index," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402-1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia-Pomar, J.

Greegor, R. B.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell’s law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401-1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grzegorczyk, T. M.

Z. M. Thomas, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. Wu, X. Chen, and J. A. Kong, "Design and measurement of a four-port device using metamaterials," Opt. Express 13, 4737-4744 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pacheco, Jr., T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, Y. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, "Power propagation in homogeneous isotropic frequency-dispersive left-handed media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 257401-1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haus, J. W.

G. D’Aguanno, M. Centini, M. Scalora, C. Sibilia, M. J. Bloemer, C. M. Bowden, J. W. Haus, and M. Bertolotti, "Group velocity, energy velocity, and superluminal propagation in finite photonic band-gap structures," Phys. Rev. E 63, 036610 (2001).Q2
[CrossRef]

Haus, J.W.

M. Scalora, G. D’Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, M.J. Bloemer, J.W. Haus, A.M. Zheltikov, "Negative refraction of ultra-short electromagnetic pulses," Appl. Phys. B 81, 393-402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heyman, E.

R. W. Ziolkowski and E. Heyman, "Wave propagation in media having negative permittivity and permeability," Phys. Rev. E 64, 056625-1-15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Houck, A. A.

A. A. Houck, J. B. Brock, and I. L. Chuang, "Experimental observations of a left-handed material that obeys Snell's law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 137401-1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, W.

H. Luo, W. Hu, X. Yi, H. Liu, J. Zhu, „Amphoteric refraction at the interface between isotropic and anisotropic media," Opt. Commun. 254, 353-360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.-G.

C.-G. Huang and Y.-Z. Zhang, "Poynting vector, energy density, and energy velocity in an anomalous dispersion medium," Phys. Rev. A 65, 015802 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X.

X. Huang and W. L. Schaich, "Wave packet propagation into a negative index medium," Am. J. Phys. 72, 1232-1240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kipple, A. D.

R. W. Ziolkowski and A. D. Kipple, "Causality and double-negative metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 68, 026615-1-9 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kolinko, P.

Koltenbah, B. E. C.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell’s law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401-1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kong, J. A.

Z. M. Thomas, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. Wu, X. Chen, and J. A. Kong, "Design and measurement of a four-port device using metamaterials," Opt. Express 13, 4737-4744 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Cui and J. A. Kong, "Time-domain electromagnetic energy in a frequency-dispersive left-handed medium," Phys. Rev. B 70, 205106-1-7 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Pacheco, Jr., T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, Y. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, "Power propagation in homogeneous isotropic frequency-dispersive left-handed media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 257401-1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krasinski, J. S.

C. Radzewicz, M. J. La Grone and J. S. Krasinski, "Interferometric measurement of femtosecond pulse distortion by lenses," Opt. Commun. 126, 185-190 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kroll, N.

D. R. Smith and N. Kroll, "Negative refractive index in left-handed materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

La Grone, M. J.

C. Radzewicz, M. J. La Grone and J. S. Krasinski, "Interferometric measurement of femtosecond pulse distortion by lenses," Opt. Commun. 126, 185-190 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, K.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell’s law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401-1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

H. Luo, W. Hu, X. Yi, H. Liu, J. Zhu, „Amphoteric refraction at the interface between isotropic and anisotropic media," Opt. Commun. 254, 353-360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, W. T.

W. T. Lu, J. B. Sokoloff, and S. Sridhar, "Refraction of electromagnetic energy for wave packets incident on a negative-index medium is always negative," Phys. Rev. E 69, 026604-1-5 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luo, H.

H. Luo, W. Hu, X. Yi, H. Liu, J. Zhu, „Amphoteric refraction at the interface between isotropic and anisotropic media," Opt. Commun. 254, 353-360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marinov, K.

A. D. Boardman and K. Marinov, "Electromagnetic energy in a dispersive metamaterial," Phys. Rev. B 73, 165110-1-7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mattiucci, N.

M. Scalora, G. D'Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, M. Centini, C. Sibilia, and M. Bertolotti, "Pulse propagation, dispersion, and energy in magnetic materials," Phys. Rev. E 72, 66601-1-8 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Scalora, G. D’Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, M.J. Bloemer, J.W. Haus, A.M. Zheltikov, "Negative refraction of ultra-short electromagnetic pulses," Appl. Phys. B 81, 393-402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nefedov, I. S.

I. S. Nefedov, A. J. Viitanen, and S. A. Tretyakov, "Electromagnetic wave refraction at an interface of a double wire medium," Phys. Rev. B 72, 245113-1-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nieto-Vesperinas, M.

Oughstun, K. E.

Ozbay, E.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pacheco, J.

J. Pacheco, Jr., T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, Y. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, "Power propagation in homogeneous isotropic frequency-dispersive left-handed media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 257401-1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parazzoli, C. G.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell’s law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401-1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, K.

Z. M. Zhang and K. Park, "On the group front and group velocity in a dispersive medium upon refraction from a nondispersive medium," J. Heat Transfer -Trans.ASME 126, 244-249 (2004).Q1
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, and J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction of modulated electromagnetic waves," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2713-2715 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Racz, B.

Zs. Bor and B. Racz, "Group velocity dispersion in prisms and its application to pulse compression and traveling-wave excitation," Opt. Commun. 54, 165-169 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Radzewicz, C.

C. Radzewicz, M. J. La Grone and J. S. Krasinski, "Interferometric measurement of femtosecond pulse distortion by lenses," Opt. Commun. 126, 185-190 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ruppin, R.

R. Ruppin, "Electromagnetic energy density in a dispersive and absorptive material," Phys. Lett. A 299, 309-312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scalora, M.

M. Scalora, G. D’Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, M.J. Bloemer, J.W. Haus, A.M. Zheltikov, "Negative refraction of ultra-short electromagnetic pulses," Appl. Phys. B 81, 393-402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Scalora, G. D'Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, M. Centini, C. Sibilia, and M. Bertolotti, "Pulse propagation, dispersion, and energy in magnetic materials," Phys. Rev. E 72, 66601-1-8 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. D’Aguanno, M. Centini, M. Scalora, C. Sibilia, M. J. Bloemer, C. M. Bowden, J. W. Haus, and M. Bertolotti, "Group velocity, energy velocity, and superluminal propagation in finite photonic band-gap structures," Phys. Rev. E 63, 036610 (2001).Q2
[CrossRef]

Schaich, W. L.

X. Huang and W. L. Schaich, "Wave packet propagation into a negative index medium," Am. J. Phys. 72, 1232-1240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

D. R. Smith, P. Kolinko, and D. Schurig, "Negative refraction in indefinite media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1032-1043 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, and J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction of modulated electromagnetic waves," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2713-2715 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sherman, G. C.

Sibilia, C.

M. Scalora, G. D'Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, M. Centini, C. Sibilia, and M. Bertolotti, "Pulse propagation, dispersion, and energy in magnetic materials," Phys. Rev. E 72, 66601-1-8 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. D’Aguanno, M. Centini, M. Scalora, C. Sibilia, M. J. Bloemer, C. M. Bowden, J. W. Haus, and M. Bertolotti, "Group velocity, energy velocity, and superluminal propagation in finite photonic band-gap structures," Phys. Rev. E 63, 036610 (2001).Q2
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

D. R. Smith, P. Kolinko, and D. Schurig, "Negative refraction in indefinite media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1032-1043 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Kolinko and D. R. Smith, "Numerical study of electromagnetic waves interacting with negative index materials," Opt. Express 11, 640-648 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, and J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction of modulated electromagnetic waves," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2713-2715 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith and N. Kroll, "Negative refractive index in left-handed materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sokoloff, J. B.

W. T. Lu, J. B. Sokoloff, and S. Sridhar, "Refraction of electromagnetic energy for wave packets incident on a negative-index medium is always negative," Phys. Rev. E 69, 026604-1-5 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Refraction in media with a negative refractive index," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402-1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sridhar, S.

W. T. Lu, J. B. Sokoloff, and S. Sridhar, "Refraction of electromagnetic energy for wave packets incident on a negative-index medium is always negative," Phys. Rev. E 69, 026604-1-5 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tanielian, M.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell’s law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401-1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, Z. M.

Treacy, E. B.

E. B. Treacy, "Optical pulse compression with diffraction gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 5, 454-458 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Tretyakov, S. A.

S. A. Tretyakov, "Electromagnetic field energy density in artificial microwave materials with strong dispersion and loss," Phys. Lett. A 343, 231-237 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Nefedov, A. J. Viitanen, and S. A. Tretyakov, "Electromagnetic wave refraction at an interface of a double wire medium," Phys. Rev. B 72, 245113-1-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and µ," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Viitanen, A. J.

I. S. Nefedov, A. J. Viitanen, and S. A. Tretyakov, "Electromagnetic wave refraction at an interface of a double wire medium," Phys. Rev. B 72, 245113-1-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B.

Wu, B.-I.

J. Pacheco, Jr., T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, Y. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, "Power propagation in homogeneous isotropic frequency-dispersive left-handed media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 257401-1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yi, X.

H. Luo, W. Hu, X. Yi, H. Liu, J. Zhu, „Amphoteric refraction at the interface between isotropic and anisotropic media," Opt. Commun. 254, 353-360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

J. Pacheco, Jr., T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, Y. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, "Power propagation in homogeneous isotropic frequency-dispersive left-handed media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 257401-1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.-Z.

C.-G. Huang and Y.-Z. Zhang, "Poynting vector, energy density, and energy velocity in an anomalous dispersion medium," Phys. Rev. A 65, 015802 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. M.

Z. M. Zhang and K. Park, "On the group front and group velocity in a dispersive medium upon refraction from a nondispersive medium," J. Heat Transfer -Trans.ASME 126, 244-249 (2004).Q1
[CrossRef]

Zheltikov, A.M.

M. Scalora, G. D’Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, M.J. Bloemer, J.W. Haus, A.M. Zheltikov, "Negative refraction of ultra-short electromagnetic pulses," Appl. Phys. B 81, 393-402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

H. Luo, W. Hu, X. Yi, H. Liu, J. Zhu, „Amphoteric refraction at the interface between isotropic and anisotropic media," Opt. Commun. 254, 353-360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ziolkowski, R. W.

R. W. Ziolkowski, "Pulsed and CW Gaussian beam interactions with double negative metamaterial slabs," Opt. Express 11, 662-681 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Ziolkowski and A. D. Kipple, "Causality and double-negative metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 68, 026615-1-9 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Ziolkowski and E. Heyman, "Wave propagation in media having negative permittivity and permeability," Phys. Rev. E 64, 056625-1-15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

X. Huang and W. L. Schaich, "Wave packet propagation into a negative index medium," Am. J. Phys. 72, 1232-1240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Scalora, G. D’Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, M.J. Bloemer, J.W. Haus, A.M. Zheltikov, "Negative refraction of ultra-short electromagnetic pulses," Appl. Phys. B 81, 393-402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. A. Cummer. "Dynamics of causal beam refraction in negative refractive index materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2008-2010 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, and J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction of modulated electromagnetic waves," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2713-2715 (2002).
[CrossRef]

ASME (1)

Z. M. Zhang and K. Park, "On the group front and group velocity in a dispersive medium upon refraction from a nondispersive medium," J. Heat Transfer -Trans.ASME 126, 244-249 (2004).Q1
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. B. Treacy, "Optical pulse compression with diffraction gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 5, 454-458 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nature (1)

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (3)

H. Luo, W. Hu, X. Yi, H. Liu, J. Zhu, „Amphoteric refraction at the interface between isotropic and anisotropic media," Opt. Commun. 254, 353-360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zs. Bor and B. Racz, "Group velocity dispersion in prisms and its application to pulse compression and traveling-wave excitation," Opt. Commun. 54, 165-169 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. Radzewicz, M. J. La Grone and J. S. Krasinski, "Interferometric measurement of femtosecond pulse distortion by lenses," Opt. Commun. 126, 185-190 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Phys. Lett. A (2)

R. Ruppin, "Electromagnetic energy density in a dispersive and absorptive material," Phys. Lett. A 299, 309-312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Tretyakov, "Electromagnetic field energy density in artificial microwave materials with strong dispersion and loss," Phys. Lett. A 343, 231-237 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

C.-G. Huang and Y.-Z. Zhang, "Poynting vector, energy density, and energy velocity in an anomalous dispersion medium," Phys. Rev. A 65, 015802 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (4)

A. D. Boardman and K. Marinov, "Electromagnetic energy in a dispersive metamaterial," Phys. Rev. B 73, 165110-1-7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Nefedov, A. J. Viitanen, and S. A. Tretyakov, "Electromagnetic wave refraction at an interface of a double wire medium," Phys. Rev. B 72, 245113-1-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Dutta Gupta, R. Arun and G. S. Agarval, "Subluminal and superluminal propagation in a left-handed medium," Phys. Rev. B 69, 113104-1-4 (2004).

T. J. Cui and J. A. Kong, "Time-domain electromagnetic energy in a frequency-dispersive left-handed medium," Phys. Rev. B 70, 205106-1-7 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (5)

W. T. Lu, J. B. Sokoloff, and S. Sridhar, "Refraction of electromagnetic energy for wave packets incident on a negative-index medium is always negative," Phys. Rev. E 69, 026604-1-5 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Ziolkowski and A. D. Kipple, "Causality and double-negative metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 68, 026615-1-9 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Ziolkowski and E. Heyman, "Wave propagation in media having negative permittivity and permeability," Phys. Rev. E 64, 056625-1-15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. D’Aguanno, M. Centini, M. Scalora, C. Sibilia, M. J. Bloemer, C. M. Bowden, J. W. Haus, and M. Bertolotti, "Group velocity, energy velocity, and superluminal propagation in finite photonic band-gap structures," Phys. Rev. E 63, 036610 (2001).Q2
[CrossRef]

M. Scalora, G. D'Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, M. Centini, C. Sibilia, and M. Bertolotti, "Pulse propagation, dispersion, and energy in magnetic materials," Phys. Rev. E 72, 66601-1-8 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

D. R. Smith and N. Kroll, "Negative refractive index in left-handed materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Pacheco, Jr., T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, Y. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, "Power propagation in homogeneous isotropic frequency-dispersive left-handed media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 257401-1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell’s law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401-1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Refraction in media with a negative refractive index," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402-1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Houck, J. B. Brock, and I. L. Chuang, "Experimental observations of a left-handed material that obeys Snell's law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 137401-1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. Usp. (1)

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and µ," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 2nd ed. (Artech House, Norwood, MA 2000).

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media, (Pergamon, New York, 1960), pp. 253-256.

Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: MOV (6454 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (15602 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (4923 KB)     
» Media 4: MOV (5856 KB)     

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(6.30 MB) CW Gaussian beam incidents normally at the interface (z = 200) between vacuum and LHM with n = -1.5. Evolution of the absolute value of Poynting vector |E×H|, where H is parallel to the image plane, is shown in pseudocolors normalized to the maximum value in the incident beam.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(15.2 MB) Cross-section of the absolute value of Poynting vector for the propagation shown in Fig. 1. CW Gaussian beam incidents normally at the RHM-LHM interface indicated with the green line.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(4.80 MB) CW Gaussian beam incidents at 45° at the interface (z = 200) between vacuum and DNG medium with n = -1.5. Pseudocolored evolution of the absolute value of Poynting vector |E×H|, where H lays in the figure plane, is normalized to maximum value in the incident beam. In incident and refracted beams red, violet and blue vectors indicate group, group front, and phase velocities, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(5.71 MB) CW Gaussian beam incidents at 45° from vacuum onto a plane-parallel plate made of DNG material with n = -1.5 and located between z = 300 and z = 600. Pseudocolored evolution of Poynting vector|E×H|, where H lays in the figure plane, is normalized to maximum value in the incident beam.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

v gf = δω δk δ k δk .
v g ( ω ) ω 2 ω 2 + ω p 2 c
v e = S ¯ W ¯ = 2 c Re ( ε ( ω ) / μ ( ω ) ) ( ε′ + 2 ωε / Γ e ) + ( μ′ + 2 ωμ / Γ m ) ε ( ω ) / μ ( ω ) ,
S ¯ = 1 2 Re E × E * ,
W ¯ = ε 0 4 ( ε′ + 2 ωε′′ Γ e ) E 2 + μ o 4 ( μ′ + 2 ωμ′′ Γ m ) H 2 ,
W ¯ = 1 4 ( ε 0 E 2 + μ 0 H 2 ) .
W ¯ = ε 0 4 Re ( d [ ωε ( ω ) ] ) E 2 + μ 0 4 Re ( d [ ωμ ( ω ) ] ) H 2 .
ε ( ω ) = 1 ω pe 2 [ ω ( ω + i Γ e ) ] 1 and μ ( ω ) = 1 ω pm 2 [ ω ( ω + i Γ m ) ] 1 ,

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