Abstract

A novel and simple technique, based on nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) effect, to generate stable multiwavelength oscillations in an erbium-doped fiber laser is proposed and successfully demonstrated. The NPR effect effectively induced intensity- and wavelength-dependent loss to alleviate mode competition caused by homogeneous gain broadening in erbium-doped fibers. Up to 28-wavelength lasing operation with wavelength spacing of 0.8 nm has been achieved. The outputs had uniform power distributions, and the power fluctuation in each wavelength is smaller than 0.2 dB within a period of an hour.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. X. Feng, Y. Liu, L. Sun, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and X. Dong, "A polarization controlled switchable multiwavelength erbium-doped fibre laser," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 659-661 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. X. Liu, X. Zhou, X. Tang, J. Ng, J. Hao, T. Chai, E. Leong, and C. Lu, "Switchable and tunable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with fiber Bragg gratings and photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1626-1628 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. <jrn>. J. Cowle Gregory and Yu. Stepanov Dmitrii, "Multiwavelength generation with Brillouin/Erbium fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1465-1467 (1996).</jrn>
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Bellemare, M. Karásek, M. Rochette, S. Larochelle, and M. Tetu, "Room-temperature multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber lasers anchored on the ITU frequency grid," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 825-829 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. O. Graydon, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, and L. Dong, "Triple-frequency operation of an Er-doped twincore fiber loop laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 63-65 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Q. Mao and J. W. Y. Lit, "Switchable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with cascaded fiber grating cavities," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 612-614 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, "Self-starting additive pulse mode-locked erbium fiber ring laser," Electron. Lett. 28, 2226-2227 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Li, C. Lou, J. Wu, B. Wu, and Y. Gao, "Novel method to simultaneously compress pulses and suppress supermode noise in actively mode-locked fiber ring laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1250-1252 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Z. Li, C. Lou, K. T. Chan, Y. Li, and Y. Gao, "Theoretical and experimental study of pulse-amplitude-equalization in a rational harmonic mode-locked fiber ring laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 33-37 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Pan and C. Lou, "Stable multiwavelength dispersion-tuned actively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring laser using nonlinear polarization rotation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1451-1453 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. Pan and C. Lou, "Stable multiwavelength dispersion-tuned actively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring laser using nonlinear polarization rotation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1451-1453 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

X. Liu, X. Zhou, X. Tang, J. Ng, J. Hao, T. Chai, E. Leong, and C. Lu, "Switchable and tunable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with fiber Bragg gratings and photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1626-1628 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

X. Feng, Y. Liu, L. Sun, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and X. Dong, "A polarization controlled switchable multiwavelength erbium-doped fibre laser," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 659-661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Q. Mao and J. W. Y. Lit, "Switchable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with cascaded fiber grating cavities," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 612-614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Z. Li, C. Lou, K. T. Chan, Y. Li, and Y. Gao, "Theoretical and experimental study of pulse-amplitude-equalization in a rational harmonic mode-locked fiber ring laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 33-37 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

Y. Li, C. Lou, J. Wu, B. Wu, and Y. Gao, "Novel method to simultaneously compress pulses and suppress supermode noise in actively mode-locked fiber ring laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1250-1252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

O. Graydon, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, and L. Dong, "Triple-frequency operation of an Er-doped twincore fiber loop laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 63-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, "Self-starting additive pulse mode-locked erbium fiber ring laser," Electron. Lett. 28, 2226-2227 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bellemare, A.

Chai, T.

X. Liu, X. Zhou, X. Tang, J. Ng, J. Hao, T. Chai, E. Leong, and C. Lu, "Switchable and tunable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with fiber Bragg gratings and photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1626-1628 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chan, K. T.

Z. Li, C. Lou, K. T. Chan, Y. Li, and Y. Gao, "Theoretical and experimental study of pulse-amplitude-equalization in a rational harmonic mode-locked fiber ring laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 33-37 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

O. Graydon, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, and L. Dong, "Triple-frequency operation of an Er-doped twincore fiber loop laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 63-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X.

X. Feng, Y. Liu, L. Sun, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and X. Dong, "A polarization controlled switchable multiwavelength erbium-doped fibre laser," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 659-661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X.

X. Feng, Y. Liu, L. Sun, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and X. Dong, "A polarization controlled switchable multiwavelength erbium-doped fibre laser," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 659-661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

Z. Li, C. Lou, K. T. Chan, Y. Li, and Y. Gao, "Theoretical and experimental study of pulse-amplitude-equalization in a rational harmonic mode-locked fiber ring laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 33-37 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, C. Lou, J. Wu, B. Wu, and Y. Gao, "Novel method to simultaneously compress pulses and suppress supermode noise in actively mode-locked fiber ring laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1250-1252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Graydon, O.

O. Graydon, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, and L. Dong, "Triple-frequency operation of an Er-doped twincore fiber loop laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 63-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hao, J.

X. Liu, X. Zhou, X. Tang, J. Ng, J. Hao, T. Chai, E. Leong, and C. Lu, "Switchable and tunable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with fiber Bragg gratings and photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1626-1628 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, "Self-starting additive pulse mode-locked erbium fiber ring laser," Electron. Lett. 28, 2226-2227 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, "Self-starting additive pulse mode-locked erbium fiber ring laser," Electron. Lett. 28, 2226-2227 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kai, G.

X. Feng, Y. Liu, L. Sun, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and X. Dong, "A polarization controlled switchable multiwavelength erbium-doped fibre laser," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 659-661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Karásek, M.

Laming, R. I.

O. Graydon, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, and L. Dong, "Triple-frequency operation of an Er-doped twincore fiber loop laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 63-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Larochelle, S.

Leong, E.

X. Liu, X. Zhou, X. Tang, J. Ng, J. Hao, T. Chai, E. Leong, and C. Lu, "Switchable and tunable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with fiber Bragg gratings and photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1626-1628 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Z. Li, C. Lou, K. T. Chan, Y. Li, and Y. Gao, "Theoretical and experimental study of pulse-amplitude-equalization in a rational harmonic mode-locked fiber ring laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 33-37 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, C. Lou, J. Wu, B. Wu, and Y. Gao, "Novel method to simultaneously compress pulses and suppress supermode noise in actively mode-locked fiber ring laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1250-1252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Z. Li, C. Lou, K. T. Chan, Y. Li, and Y. Gao, "Theoretical and experimental study of pulse-amplitude-equalization in a rational harmonic mode-locked fiber ring laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 33-37 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lit, J. W. Y.

Q. Mao and J. W. Y. Lit, "Switchable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with cascaded fiber grating cavities," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 612-614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, X. Zhou, X. Tang, J. Ng, J. Hao, T. Chai, E. Leong, and C. Lu, "Switchable and tunable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with fiber Bragg gratings and photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1626-1628 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

X. Feng, Y. Liu, L. Sun, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and X. Dong, "A polarization controlled switchable multiwavelength erbium-doped fibre laser," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 659-661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Loh, W. H.

O. Graydon, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, and L. Dong, "Triple-frequency operation of an Er-doped twincore fiber loop laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 63-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lou, C.

S. Pan and C. Lou, "Stable multiwavelength dispersion-tuned actively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring laser using nonlinear polarization rotation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1451-1453 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Li, C. Lou, K. T. Chan, Y. Li, and Y. Gao, "Theoretical and experimental study of pulse-amplitude-equalization in a rational harmonic mode-locked fiber ring laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 33-37 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, C. Lou, J. Wu, B. Wu, and Y. Gao, "Novel method to simultaneously compress pulses and suppress supermode noise in actively mode-locked fiber ring laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1250-1252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

X. Liu, X. Zhou, X. Tang, J. Ng, J. Hao, T. Chai, E. Leong, and C. Lu, "Switchable and tunable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with fiber Bragg gratings and photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1626-1628 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mao, Q.

Q. Mao and J. W. Y. Lit, "Switchable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with cascaded fiber grating cavities," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 612-614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ng, J.

X. Liu, X. Zhou, X. Tang, J. Ng, J. Hao, T. Chai, E. Leong, and C. Lu, "Switchable and tunable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with fiber Bragg gratings and photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1626-1628 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pan, S.

S. Pan and C. Lou, "Stable multiwavelength dispersion-tuned actively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring laser using nonlinear polarization rotation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1451-1453 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rochette, M.

Sun, L.

X. Feng, Y. Liu, L. Sun, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and X. Dong, "A polarization controlled switchable multiwavelength erbium-doped fibre laser," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 659-661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, K.

K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, "Self-starting additive pulse mode-locked erbium fiber ring laser," Electron. Lett. 28, 2226-2227 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tang, X.

X. Liu, X. Zhou, X. Tang, J. Ng, J. Hao, T. Chai, E. Leong, and C. Lu, "Switchable and tunable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with fiber Bragg gratings and photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1626-1628 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tetu, M.

Wu, B.

Y. Li, C. Lou, J. Wu, B. Wu, and Y. Gao, "Novel method to simultaneously compress pulses and suppress supermode noise in actively mode-locked fiber ring laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1250-1252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

Y. Li, C. Lou, J. Wu, B. Wu, and Y. Gao, "Novel method to simultaneously compress pulses and suppress supermode noise in actively mode-locked fiber ring laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1250-1252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, S.

X. Feng, Y. Liu, L. Sun, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and X. Dong, "A polarization controlled switchable multiwavelength erbium-doped fibre laser," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 659-661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

X. Liu, X. Zhou, X. Tang, J. Ng, J. Hao, T. Chai, E. Leong, and C. Lu, "Switchable and tunable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with fiber Bragg gratings and photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1626-1628 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

X. Feng, Y. Liu, L. Sun, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and X. Dong, "A polarization controlled switchable multiwavelength erbium-doped fibre laser," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 659-661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, "Self-starting additive pulse mode-locked erbium fiber ring laser," Electron. Lett. 28, 2226-2227 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Z. Li, C. Lou, K. T. Chan, Y. Li, and Y. Gao, "Theoretical and experimental study of pulse-amplitude-equalization in a rational harmonic mode-locked fiber ring laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 33-37 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

S. Pan and C. Lou, "Stable multiwavelength dispersion-tuned actively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring laser using nonlinear polarization rotation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1451-1453 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, C. Lou, J. Wu, B. Wu, and Y. Gao, "Novel method to simultaneously compress pulses and suppress supermode noise in actively mode-locked fiber ring laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1250-1252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, X. Zhou, X. Tang, J. Ng, J. Hao, T. Chai, E. Leong, and C. Lu, "Switchable and tunable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with fiber Bragg gratings and photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1626-1628 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Graydon, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, and L. Dong, "Triple-frequency operation of an Er-doped twincore fiber loop laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 63-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Q. Mao and J. W. Y. Lit, "Switchable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with cascaded fiber grating cavities," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 612-614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Other (1)

<jrn>. J. Cowle Gregory and Yu. Stepanov Dmitrii, "Multiwavelength generation with Brillouin/Erbium fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1465-1467 (1996).</jrn>
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the proposed multiwavelength laser.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Operation principle of the proposed laser. E: Electric vector of input signal; x: fast axis of SMF; y: slow axis of SMF.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmission effects due to NPR as a function of input power under different settings of the PCs. (I): regions for saturable absorber action; (II): regions for saturable transmitter action.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Output spectra of the laser under 10-wavelength operation within 3-dB bandwidth when the length of SMF is about 400 m.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Output spectra of the laser under (a) 18-wavelength operation, and (b) 23-wavelength operation within 3-dB bandwidth when the length of the SMF is about 2.09 km.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Output spectra of the laser under (a) 22-wavelength operation with a 10% output coupler, and (b) 28-wavelength operation with a 1% output coupler when the length of the SMF is about 1.2 km.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Output power fluctuation versus time.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Output spectra when the output wavelengths are near (a) 1550 nm, and (b) 1600 nm.

Equations (3)

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T = cos 2 α 1 cos 2 α 2 + sin 2 α 1 sin 2 α 2 + 1 2 sin 2 α 1 sin 2 α 2 cos ( Δ ϕ L + Δ ϕ NL )
Δ ϕ L = 2 π ( n y n x ) L λ ,
Δ ϕ NL = 2 π n 2 PL cos 2 α 1 λ A eff ,

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