Abstract

We demonstrated a liquid lens whose focal length can be controlled by a servo motor. The lens cell is composed of elastic membrane, planar glass plate, a periphery sealing ring, and a liquid with a fixed volume in the lens chamber. Part of the periphery sealing ring is excavated to form a hollow chamber which functions as a reservoir. This hollowed periphery is surrounded by an exterior rubber membrane. The arm of a servo motor is used to deform the elastic rubber. Squeezing the liquid contained in the reservoir into the lens chamber. Excess liquid in the lens chamber will push the lens membrane to outward, resulting in a lens shape change. Due to the compact structure and easy operation, this liquid lens has potential applications in zoom lenses, auto beam steering, and eyeglasses.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Sato, "Liquid-crystal lens-cells with variable focal length," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1679-1684 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. F. Naumov, G. D. Love, M. Yu. Loktev, and F. L. Vladimirov, "Control optimization of spherical modal liquid crystal lenses," Opt. Express 4, 344-352(1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Ye and S. Sato, "Optical properties of liquid crystal lens of any size," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L571-L573 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Ren, Y. H Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, "Tunable flat liquid crystal spherical lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4789-4791 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Vallet, B. Berge, and L. Vovelle, "Electrowetting of water and aqueous solutions on poly (ethylene terephthalate) insulating films," Polymer 37, 2465-2470 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Krupenkin, S. Yang, and P. Mach, "Tunable liquid microlens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 316-318 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, "Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. C. Knollman, J. L. Bellin, and J. L. Weaver, "Variable-focus liquid-filled hydroacoustic lens," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49, 253-261(1971).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. Sugiura and S. Morita, "Variable-focus liquid-filled optics lens," Appl. Opt. 32, 4181-4186 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. Y. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, "Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tunability," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3171-3172 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K.-H. Jeong, G. L. Liu, N. Chronis, and L. P. Lee, "Tunable microdoublet lens array," Opt. Express 12, 2494-2500 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramyan, "Variable-focusing microlens with microfluidic chip," J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 675-680 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. Chronis, G. L. Liu, K.-H. Jeong, and L. P. Lee, "Tunable liquid-filled microlens array integrated with microfluidic network," Opt. Express 11, 2370-2378 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. S. Hong, J. Wang, A. Sharonov, D. Chandra, J. Aizenberg and S. Yang, "Tunable microfluidic optical devices with an integrated microlens array," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1660-1666 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, "Variable-focus liquid lens by changing aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211107 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Li, G. Baird, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, "Refractive-index matching between liquid crystals and photopolymers," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 1017-1026 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

K. S. Hong, J. Wang, A. Sharonov, D. Chandra, J. Aizenberg and S. Yang, "Tunable microfluidic optical devices with an integrated microlens array," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1660-1666 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, "Variable-focus liquid lens by changing aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, G. Baird, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, "Refractive-index matching between liquid crystals and photopolymers," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 1017-1026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

K.-H. Jeong, G. L. Liu, N. Chronis, and L. P. Lee, "Tunable microdoublet lens array," Opt. Express 12, 2494-2500 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramyan, "Variable-focusing microlens with microfluidic chip," J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 675-680 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, Y. H Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, "Tunable flat liquid crystal spherical lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4789-4791 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, "Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

T. Krupenkin, S. Yang, and P. Mach, "Tunable liquid microlens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 316-318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Chronis, G. L. Liu, K.-H. Jeong, and L. P. Lee, "Tunable liquid-filled microlens array integrated with microfluidic network," Opt. Express 11, 2370-2378 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, "Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tunability," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3171-3172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Ye and S. Sato, "Optical properties of liquid crystal lens of any size," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L571-L573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1996 (1)

M. Vallet, B. Berge, and L. Vovelle, "Electrowetting of water and aqueous solutions on poly (ethylene terephthalate) insulating films," Polymer 37, 2465-2470 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1979 (1)

S. Sato, "Liquid-crystal lens-cells with variable focal length," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1679-1684 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

G. C. Knollman, J. L. Bellin, and J. L. Weaver, "Variable-focus liquid-filled hydroacoustic lens," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49, 253-261(1971).
[CrossRef]

Aizenberg, J.

K. S. Hong, J. Wang, A. Sharonov, D. Chandra, J. Aizenberg and S. Yang, "Tunable microfluidic optical devices with an integrated microlens array," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1660-1666 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baird, G.

J. Li, G. Baird, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, "Refractive-index matching between liquid crystals and photopolymers," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 1017-1026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bellin, J. L.

G. C. Knollman, J. L. Bellin, and J. L. Weaver, "Variable-focus liquid-filled hydroacoustic lens," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49, 253-261(1971).
[CrossRef]

Berdichevsky, Y.

D. Y. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, "Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tunability," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3171-3172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Berge, B.

M. Vallet, B. Berge, and L. Vovelle, "Electrowetting of water and aqueous solutions on poly (ethylene terephthalate) insulating films," Polymer 37, 2465-2470 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chandra, D.

K. S. Hong, J. Wang, A. Sharonov, D. Chandra, J. Aizenberg and S. Yang, "Tunable microfluidic optical devices with an integrated microlens array," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1660-1666 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramyan, "Variable-focusing microlens with microfluidic chip," J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 675-680 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.

D. Y. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, "Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tunability," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3171-3172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chronis, N.

Fan, Y. H

H. Ren, Y. H Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, "Tunable flat liquid crystal spherical lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4789-4791 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fang, J.

J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramyan, "Variable-focusing microlens with microfluidic chip," J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 675-680 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gauza, S.

H. Ren, Y. H Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, "Tunable flat liquid crystal spherical lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4789-4791 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hendriks, B. H. W.

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, "Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hong, K. S.

K. S. Hong, J. Wang, A. Sharonov, D. Chandra, J. Aizenberg and S. Yang, "Tunable microfluidic optical devices with an integrated microlens array," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1660-1666 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, K.-H.

Knollman, G. C.

G. C. Knollman, J. L. Bellin, and J. L. Weaver, "Variable-focus liquid-filled hydroacoustic lens," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49, 253-261(1971).
[CrossRef]

Krupenkin, T.

T. Krupenkin, S. Yang, and P. Mach, "Tunable liquid microlens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 316-318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuiper, S.

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, "Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, L. P.

Li, J.

J. Li, G. Baird, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, "Refractive-index matching between liquid crystals and photopolymers," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 1017-1026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lien, V.

D. Y. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, "Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tunability," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3171-3172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. H.

J. Li, G. Baird, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, "Refractive-index matching between liquid crystals and photopolymers," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 1017-1026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G. L.

Lo, Y. H.

D. Y. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, "Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tunability," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3171-3172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Loktev, M. Yu.

Love, G. D.

Mach, P.

T. Krupenkin, S. Yang, and P. Mach, "Tunable liquid microlens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 316-318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Morita, S.

Naumov, A. F.

Ren, H.

J. Li, G. Baird, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, "Refractive-index matching between liquid crystals and photopolymers," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 1017-1026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, "Variable-focus liquid lens by changing aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, Y. H Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, "Tunable flat liquid crystal spherical lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4789-4791 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

M. Ye and S. Sato, "Optical properties of liquid crystal lens of any size," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L571-L573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Sato, "Liquid-crystal lens-cells with variable focal length," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1679-1684 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sharonov, A.

K. S. Hong, J. Wang, A. Sharonov, D. Chandra, J. Aizenberg and S. Yang, "Tunable microfluidic optical devices with an integrated microlens array," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1660-1666 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sugiura, N.

Vallet, M.

M. Vallet, B. Berge, and L. Vovelle, "Electrowetting of water and aqueous solutions on poly (ethylene terephthalate) insulating films," Polymer 37, 2465-2470 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Varahramyan, K.

J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramyan, "Variable-focusing microlens with microfluidic chip," J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 675-680 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vladimirov, F. L.

Vovelle, L.

M. Vallet, B. Berge, and L. Vovelle, "Electrowetting of water and aqueous solutions on poly (ethylene terephthalate) insulating films," Polymer 37, 2465-2470 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

K. S. Hong, J. Wang, A. Sharonov, D. Chandra, J. Aizenberg and S. Yang, "Tunable microfluidic optical devices with an integrated microlens array," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1660-1666 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramyan, "Variable-focusing microlens with microfluidic chip," J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 675-680 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weaver, J. L.

G. C. Knollman, J. L. Bellin, and J. L. Weaver, "Variable-focus liquid-filled hydroacoustic lens," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49, 253-261(1971).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

J. Li, G. Baird, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, "Refractive-index matching between liquid crystals and photopolymers," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 1017-1026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, "Variable-focus liquid lens by changing aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, Y. H Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, "Tunable flat liquid crystal spherical lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4789-4791 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

K. S. Hong, J. Wang, A. Sharonov, D. Chandra, J. Aizenberg and S. Yang, "Tunable microfluidic optical devices with an integrated microlens array," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1660-1666 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Krupenkin, S. Yang, and P. Mach, "Tunable liquid microlens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 316-318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ye, M.

M. Ye and S. Sato, "Optical properties of liquid crystal lens of any size," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L571-L573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D. Y.

D. Y. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, "Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tunability," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3171-3172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

D. Y. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, "Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tunability," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3171-3172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Krupenkin, S. Yang, and P. Mach, "Tunable liquid microlens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 316-318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, "Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, Y. H Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, "Tunable flat liquid crystal spherical lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4789-4791 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, "Variable-focus liquid lens by changing aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

G. C. Knollman, J. L. Bellin, and J. L. Weaver, "Variable-focus liquid-filled hydroacoustic lens," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49, 253-261(1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (2)

J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramyan, "Variable-focusing microlens with microfluidic chip," J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 675-680 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Hong, J. Wang, A. Sharonov, D. Chandra, J. Aizenberg and S. Yang, "Tunable microfluidic optical devices with an integrated microlens array," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1660-1666 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

J. Li, G. Baird, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, "Refractive-index matching between liquid crystals and photopolymers," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 1017-1026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. Ye and S. Sato, "Optical properties of liquid crystal lens of any size," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L571-L573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Sato, "Liquid-crystal lens-cells with variable focal length," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1679-1684 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Polymer (1)

M. Vallet, B. Berge, and L. Vovelle, "Electrowetting of water and aqueous solutions on poly (ethylene terephthalate) insulating films," Polymer 37, 2465-2470 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Side view of the liquid lens cell: (a) without and (b) with convex lens profile. 1-annular sealing ring, 2-rubber membrane, 3-glass plate, 4-elastic membrane, 5-liquid, and 6-a hole

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Structure of a servo system

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Approximation of lens profile by a spherical shape.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Volume change versus lens curvature (left) and membrane displacement (right).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Focal length versus volume change. Red: thin lens, blue: thick lens, and green: experimental measurement. The black is the error bar.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Focusing behavior of the liquid lens in (a) planar state and (b) focusing state. The aperture of the lens is 15 mm and the lens thickness is 6 mm.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ z max < h ( h 2 r 0 ) 2
h 2 r 0 ,
Δ V = 1 3 π ( 2 R 2 r 0 2 2 R R 2 r 0 2 ) ( 2 R + R 2 r 0 2 )
f = R n liquid 1 ,

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