Abstract

An adaptive optics imaging system is introduced in this paper. A high-resolution liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) device was used as a phase-only wavefront corrector instead of a conversional deformable mirror. The wavefront aberration was detected by a Shack-Hartmann (SH) wavefront sensor, which has a wavefront measurement accuracy of λ/100 rms (λ = 0.6328 μm). Under this construction, Peak-to-Valley correction precision of 0.09 λ was reached. Furthermore, some low-frequency hot convection turbulence induced by an electric iron was compensated in real time at the same precision. The modulation transfer function (MTF) of this system was also measured before and after wavefront correction. Under the active correction of LCOS, the system reached the diffraction limited resolution approximately 65l p/mm on the horizontal direction. All of this showed the possibility of using this device in a high-resolution, low temporal turbulence imaging system, such as retinal imaging, to improve the resolution performance.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2006 (2)

Q. Mu , Y. Liu , L. Hu , D. Li , Z. Cao , and L Xuan , “ Determination of anisotropic liquid crystal layer parameters by spectroscopic ellipsometer ,” Acta Phys. Sin.   55 , 1055 – 1060 ( 2006 ).

Y. Liu , L. Xuan , L. Hu , Z. Cao , D. Li , Q. Mu , and X. Lu , “ The wavefront modulation characteristics of the parallel aligned liquid crystal device ,” Acta Photon. Sin.   35 , 65 – 68 ( 2006 ).

2005 (3)

Y. Liu , L. Xuan , L. Hu , Z. Cao , D. Li , Q. Mu , and X. Lu , “ Investigation on the liquid crystal spatial light modulator with high precision and pure phase ,” Acta Opt. Sin.   25 , 1682 – 1686 ( 2005 ).

Y. Liu , L. Hu , Z. Cao , D. Li , Q. Mu , X. Lu , and L. Xuan , “ The investigation of Controllable Phase liquid crystal spatial light modulator ,” Acta Photon. Sin.   34 , 1799 – 1802 ( 2005 ).

Z. Cao , L. Xuan , L. Hu , Y. Liu , and Q. Mu , “ Effects of the space-bandwidth product on the liquid-crystal kinoform ,” Opt. Express   13 , 5186 – 5191 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

2003 (1)

S. R. Restaino , D. M. Payne , J. T. Baker , J. R. Andrews , S. W. Teare , G. C. Gilbreath , D. Dayton , and J. Gonglewski , “ Liquid crystal technology for adaptive optics: un update ,” SPIE   5003 , 187 – 192 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1993 (1)

1990 (1)

C. Boyer , V. Michau , and G. Rousset , “ Adaptive optics: interaction matrix measurements and real time control algorithms for the COME-ON project ,” SPIE   1237 , 406 – 421 ( 1990 ).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, J. R.

S. R. Restaino , D. M. Payne , J. T. Baker , J. R. Andrews , S. W. Teare , G. C. Gilbreath , D. Dayton , and J. Gonglewski , “ Liquid crystal technology for adaptive optics: un update ,” SPIE   5003 , 187 – 192 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Baker, J.

Baker, J. T.

S. R. Restaino , D. M. Payne , J. T. Baker , J. R. Andrews , S. W. Teare , G. C. Gilbreath , D. Dayton , and J. Gonglewski , “ Liquid crystal technology for adaptive optics: un update ,” SPIE   5003 , 187 – 192 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Bauchert, K. A.

K. A. Bauchert , S. A. Serati , and A. Furman , “ Advances in liquid crystal spatial light modulators ,” SPIE   4734 , 35 – 43 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, C.

C. Boyer , V. Michau , and G. Rousset , “ Adaptive optics: interaction matrix measurements and real time control algorithms for the COME-ON project ,” SPIE   1237 , 406 – 421 ( 1990 ).
[CrossRef]

Browne, S.

Cao, Z.

Q. Mu , Y. Liu , L. Hu , D. Li , Z. Cao , and L Xuan , “ Determination of anisotropic liquid crystal layer parameters by spectroscopic ellipsometer ,” Acta Phys. Sin.   55 , 1055 – 1060 ( 2006 ).

Y. Liu , L. Xuan , L. Hu , Z. Cao , D. Li , Q. Mu , and X. Lu , “ The wavefront modulation characteristics of the parallel aligned liquid crystal device ,” Acta Photon. Sin.   35 , 65 – 68 ( 2006 ).

Z. Cao , L. Xuan , L. Hu , Y. Liu , and Q. Mu , “ Effects of the space-bandwidth product on the liquid-crystal kinoform ,” Opt. Express   13 , 5186 – 5191 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu , L. Xuan , L. Hu , Z. Cao , D. Li , Q. Mu , and X. Lu , “ Investigation on the liquid crystal spatial light modulator with high precision and pure phase ,” Acta Opt. Sin.   25 , 1682 – 1686 ( 2005 ).

Y. Liu , L. Hu , Z. Cao , D. Li , Q. Mu , X. Lu , and L. Xuan , “ The investigation of Controllable Phase liquid crystal spatial light modulator ,” Acta Photon. Sin.   34 , 1799 – 1802 ( 2005 ).

L Hu , L Xuan , Y. Liu , Z. Cao , D. Li , and Q. Mu , “ Phase-only liquid crystal spatial light modulator for wave-front correction with high precision ,” Opt. Express   12 , 6403 – 6409 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carrion, B.

Cho, D. J.

Dayton, D.

Donner, J. T.

Furman, A.

K. A. Bauchert , S. A. Serati , and A. Furman , “ Advances in liquid crystal spatial light modulators ,” SPIE   4734 , 35 – 43 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Gallegos, J.

Gilbreath, G. C.

S. R. Restaino , D. M. Payne , J. T. Baker , J. R. Andrews , S. W. Teare , G. C. Gilbreath , D. Dayton , and J. Gonglewski , “ Liquid crystal technology for adaptive optics: un update ,” SPIE   5003 , 187 – 192 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Gonglewski, J.

Hara, T.

H. Huang , T. Inoue , and T. Hara , “ An adaptive wavefront control system using a high-resolution liquid crystal spatial light modulator ,” SPIE   5639 , 129 – 137 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Hartman, M.

Heimann, N.

Hu, L

Hu, L.

Q. Mu , Y. Liu , L. Hu , D. Li , Z. Cao , and L Xuan , “ Determination of anisotropic liquid crystal layer parameters by spectroscopic ellipsometer ,” Acta Phys. Sin.   55 , 1055 – 1060 ( 2006 ).

Y. Liu , L. Xuan , L. Hu , Z. Cao , D. Li , Q. Mu , and X. Lu , “ The wavefront modulation characteristics of the parallel aligned liquid crystal device ,” Acta Photon. Sin.   35 , 65 – 68 ( 2006 ).

Y. Liu , L. Hu , Z. Cao , D. Li , Q. Mu , X. Lu , and L. Xuan , “ The investigation of Controllable Phase liquid crystal spatial light modulator ,” Acta Photon. Sin.   34 , 1799 – 1802 ( 2005 ).

Z. Cao , L. Xuan , L. Hu , Y. Liu , and Q. Mu , “ Effects of the space-bandwidth product on the liquid-crystal kinoform ,” Opt. Express   13 , 5186 – 5191 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu , L. Xuan , L. Hu , Z. Cao , D. Li , Q. Mu , and X. Lu , “ Investigation on the liquid crystal spatial light modulator with high precision and pure phase ,” Acta Opt. Sin.   25 , 1682 – 1686 ( 2005 ).

Huang, H.

H. Huang , T. Inoue , and T. Hara , “ An adaptive wavefront control system using a high-resolution liquid crystal spatial light modulator ,” SPIE   5639 , 129 – 137 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, T.

H. Huang , T. Inoue , and T. Hara , “ An adaptive wavefront control system using a high-resolution liquid crystal spatial light modulator ,” SPIE   5639 , 129 – 137 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, T. L.

Kervin, P.

Kirby, A.

Li, D.

Q. Mu , Y. Liu , L. Hu , D. Li , Z. Cao , and L Xuan , “ Determination of anisotropic liquid crystal layer parameters by spectroscopic ellipsometer ,” Acta Phys. Sin.   55 , 1055 – 1060 ( 2006 ).

Y. Liu , L. Xuan , L. Hu , Z. Cao , D. Li , Q. Mu , and X. Lu , “ The wavefront modulation characteristics of the parallel aligned liquid crystal device ,” Acta Photon. Sin.   35 , 65 – 68 ( 2006 ).

Y. Liu , L. Hu , Z. Cao , D. Li , Q. Mu , X. Lu , and L. Xuan , “ The investigation of Controllable Phase liquid crystal spatial light modulator ,” Acta Photon. Sin.   34 , 1799 – 1802 ( 2005 ).

Y. Liu , L. Xuan , L. Hu , Z. Cao , D. Li , Q. Mu , and X. Lu , “ Investigation on the liquid crystal spatial light modulator with high precision and pure phase ,” Acta Opt. Sin.   25 , 1682 – 1686 ( 2005 ).

L Hu , L Xuan , Y. Liu , Z. Cao , D. Li , and Q. Mu , “ Phase-only liquid crystal spatial light modulator for wave-front correction with high precision ,” Opt. Express   12 , 6403 – 6409 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Q. Mu , Y. Liu , L. Hu , D. Li , Z. Cao , and L Xuan , “ Determination of anisotropic liquid crystal layer parameters by spectroscopic ellipsometer ,” Acta Phys. Sin.   55 , 1055 – 1060 ( 2006 ).

Y. Liu , L. Xuan , L. Hu , Z. Cao , D. Li , Q. Mu , and X. Lu , “ The wavefront modulation characteristics of the parallel aligned liquid crystal device ,” Acta Photon. Sin.   35 , 65 – 68 ( 2006 ).

Z. Cao , L. Xuan , L. Hu , Y. Liu , and Q. Mu , “ Effects of the space-bandwidth product on the liquid-crystal kinoform ,” Opt. Express   13 , 5186 – 5191 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu , L. Xuan , L. Hu , Z. Cao , D. Li , Q. Mu , and X. Lu , “ Investigation on the liquid crystal spatial light modulator with high precision and pure phase ,” Acta Opt. Sin.   25 , 1682 – 1686 ( 2005 ).

Y. Liu , L. Hu , Z. Cao , D. Li , Q. Mu , X. Lu , and L. Xuan , “ The investigation of Controllable Phase liquid crystal spatial light modulator ,” Acta Photon. Sin.   34 , 1799 – 1802 ( 2005 ).

L Hu , L Xuan , Y. Liu , Z. Cao , D. Li , and Q. Mu , “ Phase-only liquid crystal spatial light modulator for wave-front correction with high precision ,” Opt. Express   12 , 6403 – 6409 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Love, G.

Love, G. D.

Lu, X.

Y. Liu , L. Xuan , L. Hu , Z. Cao , D. Li , Q. Mu , and X. Lu , “ The wavefront modulation characteristics of the parallel aligned liquid crystal device ,” Acta Photon. Sin.   35 , 65 – 68 ( 2006 ).

Y. Liu , L. Xuan , L. Hu , Z. Cao , D. Li , Q. Mu , and X. Lu , “ Investigation on the liquid crystal spatial light modulator with high precision and pure phase ,” Acta Opt. Sin.   25 , 1682 – 1686 ( 2005 ).

Y. Liu , L. Hu , Z. Cao , D. Li , Q. Mu , X. Lu , and L. Xuan , “ The investigation of Controllable Phase liquid crystal spatial light modulator ,” Acta Photon. Sin.   34 , 1799 – 1802 ( 2005 ).

Martin, J.

Mcdermott, S.

Michau, V.

C. Boyer , V. Michau , and G. Rousset , “ Adaptive optics: interaction matrix measurements and real time control algorithms for the COME-ON project ,” SPIE   1237 , 406 – 421 ( 1990 ).
[CrossRef]

Morris, G. M.

Mu, Q.

Q. Mu , Y. Liu , L. Hu , D. Li , Z. Cao , and L Xuan , “ Determination of anisotropic liquid crystal layer parameters by spectroscopic ellipsometer ,” Acta Phys. Sin.   55 , 1055 – 1060 ( 2006 ).

Y. Liu , L. Xuan , L. Hu , Z. Cao , D. Li , Q. Mu , and X. Lu , “ The wavefront modulation characteristics of the parallel aligned liquid crystal device ,” Acta Photon. Sin.   35 , 65 – 68 ( 2006 ).

Z. Cao , L. Xuan , L. Hu , Y. Liu , and Q. Mu , “ Effects of the space-bandwidth product on the liquid-crystal kinoform ,” Opt. Express   13 , 5186 – 5191 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu , L. Hu , Z. Cao , D. Li , Q. Mu , X. Lu , and L. Xuan , “ The investigation of Controllable Phase liquid crystal spatial light modulator ,” Acta Photon. Sin.   34 , 1799 – 1802 ( 2005 ).

Y. Liu , L. Xuan , L. Hu , Z. Cao , D. Li , Q. Mu , and X. Lu , “ Investigation on the liquid crystal spatial light modulator with high precision and pure phase ,” Acta Opt. Sin.   25 , 1682 – 1686 ( 2005 ).

L Hu , L Xuan , Y. Liu , Z. Cao , D. Li , and Q. Mu , “ Phase-only liquid crystal spatial light modulator for wave-front correction with high precision ,” Opt. Express   12 , 6403 – 6409 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Payne, D. M.

S. R. Restaino , D. M. Payne , J. T. Baker , J. R. Andrews , S. W. Teare , G. C. Gilbreath , D. Dayton , and J. Gonglewski , “ Liquid crystal technology for adaptive optics: un update ,” SPIE   5003 , 187 – 192 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, J.

Pohle, R.

Restaino, S.

Restaino, S. R.

S. R. Restaino , D. M. Payne , J. T. Baker , J. R. Andrews , S. W. Teare , G. C. Gilbreath , D. Dayton , and J. Gonglewski , “ Liquid crystal technology for adaptive optics: un update ,” SPIE   5003 , 187 – 192 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Restaino , D. Dayton , S. Browne , J. Gonglewski , J. Baker , S. Rogers , S. Mcdermott , J. Gallegos , and M. Shilko , “ On the use of dual frequency nematic material for adaptive optics systems: first results of a closed-loop experiment ,” Opt. Express   6 , 2 – 6 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogers, S.

Rousset, G.

C. Boyer , V. Michau , and G. Rousset , “ Adaptive optics: interaction matrix measurements and real time control algorithms for the COME-ON project ,” SPIE   1237 , 406 – 421 ( 1990 ).
[CrossRef]

Serati, S. A.

K. A. Bauchert , S. A. Serati , and A. Furman , “ Advances in liquid crystal spatial light modulators ,” SPIE   4734 , 35 – 43 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Shilko, M.

Smith, C.

Snodgress, J.

Teare, S. W.

S. R. Restaino , D. M. Payne , J. T. Baker , J. R. Andrews , S. W. Teare , G. C. Gilbreath , D. Dayton , and J. Gonglewski , “ Liquid crystal technology for adaptive optics: un update ,” SPIE   5003 , 187 – 192 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Thiel, D.

Thurman, S. T.

Xuan, L

Q. Mu , Y. Liu , L. Hu , D. Li , Z. Cao , and L Xuan , “ Determination of anisotropic liquid crystal layer parameters by spectroscopic ellipsometer ,” Acta Phys. Sin.   55 , 1055 – 1060 ( 2006 ).

L Hu , L Xuan , Y. Liu , Z. Cao , D. Li , and Q. Mu , “ Phase-only liquid crystal spatial light modulator for wave-front correction with high precision ,” Opt. Express   12 , 6403 – 6409 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xuan, L.

Y. Liu , L. Xuan , L. Hu , Z. Cao , D. Li , Q. Mu , and X. Lu , “ The wavefront modulation characteristics of the parallel aligned liquid crystal device ,” Acta Photon. Sin.   35 , 65 – 68 ( 2006 ).

Z. Cao , L. Xuan , L. Hu , Y. Liu , and Q. Mu , “ Effects of the space-bandwidth product on the liquid-crystal kinoform ,” Opt. Express   13 , 5186 – 5191 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu , L. Xuan , L. Hu , Z. Cao , D. Li , Q. Mu , and X. Lu , “ Investigation on the liquid crystal spatial light modulator with high precision and pure phase ,” Acta Opt. Sin.   25 , 1682 – 1686 ( 2005 ).

Y. Liu , L. Hu , Z. Cao , D. Li , Q. Mu , X. Lu , and L. Xuan , “ The investigation of Controllable Phase liquid crystal spatial light modulator ,” Acta Photon. Sin.   34 , 1799 – 1802 ( 2005 ).

Acta Opt. Sin. (1)

Y. Liu , L. Xuan , L. Hu , Z. Cao , D. Li , Q. Mu , and X. Lu , “ Investigation on the liquid crystal spatial light modulator with high precision and pure phase ,” Acta Opt. Sin.   25 , 1682 – 1686 ( 2005 ).

Acta Photon. Sin. (2)

Y. Liu , L. Hu , Z. Cao , D. Li , Q. Mu , X. Lu , and L. Xuan , “ The investigation of Controllable Phase liquid crystal spatial light modulator ,” Acta Photon. Sin.   34 , 1799 – 1802 ( 2005 ).

Y. Liu , L. Xuan , L. Hu , Z. Cao , D. Li , Q. Mu , and X. Lu , “ The wavefront modulation characteristics of the parallel aligned liquid crystal device ,” Acta Photon. Sin.   35 , 65 – 68 ( 2006 ).

Acta Phys. Sin. (1)

Q. Mu , Y. Liu , L. Hu , D. Li , Z. Cao , and L Xuan , “ Determination of anisotropic liquid crystal layer parameters by spectroscopic ellipsometer ,” Acta Phys. Sin.   55 , 1055 – 1060 ( 2006 ).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

SPIE (4)

S. R. Restaino , D. M. Payne , J. T. Baker , J. R. Andrews , S. W. Teare , G. C. Gilbreath , D. Dayton , and J. Gonglewski , “ Liquid crystal technology for adaptive optics: un update ,” SPIE   5003 , 187 – 192 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

H. Huang , T. Inoue , and T. Hara , “ An adaptive wavefront control system using a high-resolution liquid crystal spatial light modulator ,” SPIE   5639 , 129 – 137 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Bauchert , S. A. Serati , and A. Furman , “ Advances in liquid crystal spatial light modulators ,” SPIE   4734 , 35 – 43 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

C. Boyer , V. Michau , and G. Rousset , “ Adaptive optics: interaction matrix measurements and real time control algorithms for the COME-ON project ,” SPIE   1237 , 406 – 421 ( 1990 ).
[CrossRef]

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (1037 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (1037 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the imaging system: S, light source; P, polarizer; BS, beam splitter; LCOS, liquid crystal on silicon; H, hole; HASO, wavefront sensor; CF, color filter.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Photograph of the optical layout in lab.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Images of filament (a) open loop, (b) closed loop, and the wavefront map (c) open loop, (d) closed loop.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Turbulence simulation.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Closed loop correction under hot convection (1.01MB) [Media 2.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

MTF of this imaging system.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Detail parameters of LCR2500 and HASO32

Metrics