Abstract

Local field-induced optical properties of Ag-coated CdS quantum dot structures are investigated. We experimentally observe a clear exciton peak due to the quantum confinement effect in uncoated CdS quantum dots, and surface plasmon resonance and red-shifted exciton peak in Ag-coated CdS composite quantum dot structures. We have calculated the Stark shift of the exciton peak as a function of the local field for different silver thicknesses and various sizes of quantum dots based on the effective-mass Hamiltonian using the numerical-matrix-diagonalization method. Our theoretical calculations strongly indicate that the exciton peak is red-shifted in the metal-semiconductor composite quantum dots due to a strong local field, i.e., the quantum confined Stark effect.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. S. Zhou, I. Honma, H. Komiyama, and J. W. Haus, "Controlled synthesis and quantum-size effect in goldcoared nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. B 50, 12052-12056 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. D. Averitt, D. Sarkar, and N. J. Halas, "Plasmon resonance shifts of Au-coated Au2S nanoshells: Insight into multicomponent nanoparticle growth," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4217-4220 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, "Linear optical properties of gold nanoshells," J. Opt. Am. B 16, 1824-1832 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Moskovits, "Surface-enhanced spectroscopy," Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 783-826 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Rocco, A. K. Jain, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, S. Yotte, P. Le Coustumer, C. Y. Lee, S. H. Park, J. G. Choi, "Optical response of silver coating on CdS colloids," Chem. Phys. Lett. 394, 324-328 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. J. Ko, J. Plawsky and M. Birnboim, "Fabrication of CdS/Ag hybrid quantum dot composites using a melt/quench method," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 211-216 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Pang, Y. Shen, K. Tetz and Y. Fainman, "PMMA quantum dots composites fabricated via use of prepolymerization," Opt. Express 13, 44-49 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E.-H. Jeang, J.-H, Lee, K.-C. Je, S.-Y. Yim, S.-H. Park, Y.-S. Choi, J.-G. Choi, M. Treguer and T. Cardinal, "Fabrication and optical characteritics of CdS/Ag metal-semiconductor composite quantum dots," Bull. Korea Chem. Soc. 25, 967-969 (2004).
  9. G. W. Wen, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and Z. Chen, "Quantum-confined Stark effects in semiconductor quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 52, 5913-5922 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. H. Wannier, "Wave functions and effective Hamiltonian for Bloch electrons in an electric field," Phys. Rev. 117, 432-439 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. C. Maxwell Garnett, "Colours in metal glasses, in metallic, and in metallic solutions," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 203, 385-420 (1904); 205, 237-288 (1906).
    [CrossRef]
  12. O. Madelung, M. Schultz, and H. Weiss, Landolt-Börnstein, Semiconductors. Physics of Group IV Elements and III-V Compounds, (Springer, Berlin 1982).
  13. U. Kreibig and L. Genzel, "Optical Absorption of small metallic particles," Surf. Sci. 156, 678-700 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K.-C. Je, S.-Y. Yim, J.-H. Lee, E.-H. Jeung, and S.-H. Park, "Field-induced Stark effects in Ag-coated CdS quantum dots," in Quantum Dots, Nanoparticles, and Nanoclusters II, D. L. Huffaker and P. K. Bhattacharya, eds., Proc. SPIE 5734, 146-151 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (3)

F. Rocco, A. K. Jain, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, S. Yotte, P. Le Coustumer, C. Y. Lee, S. H. Park, J. G. Choi, "Optical response of silver coating on CdS colloids," Chem. Phys. Lett. 394, 324-328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E.-H. Jeang, J.-H, Lee, K.-C. Je, S.-Y. Yim, S.-H. Park, Y.-S. Choi, J.-G. Choi, M. Treguer and T. Cardinal, "Fabrication and optical characteritics of CdS/Ag metal-semiconductor composite quantum dots," Bull. Korea Chem. Soc. 25, 967-969 (2004).

L. Pang, Y. Shen, K. Tetz and Y. Fainman, "PMMA quantum dots composites fabricated via use of prepolymerization," Opt. Express 13, 44-49 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, "Linear optical properties of gold nanoshells," J. Opt. Am. B 16, 1824-1832 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

R. D. Averitt, D. Sarkar, and N. J. Halas, "Plasmon resonance shifts of Au-coated Au2S nanoshells: Insight into multicomponent nanoparticle growth," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4217-4220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. J. Ko, J. Plawsky and M. Birnboim, "Fabrication of CdS/Ag hybrid quantum dot composites using a melt/quench method," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 211-216 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

G. W. Wen, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and Z. Chen, "Quantum-confined Stark effects in semiconductor quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 52, 5913-5922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

H. S. Zhou, I. Honma, H. Komiyama, and J. W. Haus, "Controlled synthesis and quantum-size effect in goldcoared nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. B 50, 12052-12056 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

M. Moskovits, "Surface-enhanced spectroscopy," Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 783-826 (1985).
[CrossRef]

U. Kreibig and L. Genzel, "Optical Absorption of small metallic particles," Surf. Sci. 156, 678-700 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1960 (1)

G. H. Wannier, "Wave functions and effective Hamiltonian for Bloch electrons in an electric field," Phys. Rev. 117, 432-439 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, "Linear optical properties of gold nanoshells," J. Opt. Am. B 16, 1824-1832 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Averitt, D. Sarkar, and N. J. Halas, "Plasmon resonance shifts of Au-coated Au2S nanoshells: Insight into multicomponent nanoparticle growth," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4217-4220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Birnboim, M.

M. J. Ko, J. Plawsky and M. Birnboim, "Fabrication of CdS/Ag hybrid quantum dot composites using a melt/quench method," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 211-216 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cardinal, T.

F. Rocco, A. K. Jain, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, S. Yotte, P. Le Coustumer, C. Y. Lee, S. H. Park, J. G. Choi, "Optical response of silver coating on CdS colloids," Chem. Phys. Lett. 394, 324-328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

G. W. Wen, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and Z. Chen, "Quantum-confined Stark effects in semiconductor quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 52, 5913-5922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J. G.

F. Rocco, A. K. Jain, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, S. Yotte, P. Le Coustumer, C. Y. Lee, S. H. Park, J. G. Choi, "Optical response of silver coating on CdS colloids," Chem. Phys. Lett. 394, 324-328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

Genzel, L.

U. Kreibig and L. Genzel, "Optical Absorption of small metallic particles," Surf. Sci. 156, 678-700 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Halas, N. J.

R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, "Linear optical properties of gold nanoshells," J. Opt. Am. B 16, 1824-1832 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Averitt, D. Sarkar, and N. J. Halas, "Plasmon resonance shifts of Au-coated Au2S nanoshells: Insight into multicomponent nanoparticle growth," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4217-4220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Haus, J. W.

H. S. Zhou, I. Honma, H. Komiyama, and J. W. Haus, "Controlled synthesis and quantum-size effect in goldcoared nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. B 50, 12052-12056 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Honma, I.

H. S. Zhou, I. Honma, H. Komiyama, and J. W. Haus, "Controlled synthesis and quantum-size effect in goldcoared nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. B 50, 12052-12056 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jain, A. K.

F. Rocco, A. K. Jain, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, S. Yotte, P. Le Coustumer, C. Y. Lee, S. H. Park, J. G. Choi, "Optical response of silver coating on CdS colloids," Chem. Phys. Lett. 394, 324-328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jeang, E.-H.

E.-H. Jeang, J.-H, Lee, K.-C. Je, S.-Y. Yim, S.-H. Park, Y.-S. Choi, J.-G. Choi, M. Treguer and T. Cardinal, "Fabrication and optical characteritics of CdS/Ag metal-semiconductor composite quantum dots," Bull. Korea Chem. Soc. 25, 967-969 (2004).

Jiang, H. X.

G. W. Wen, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and Z. Chen, "Quantum-confined Stark effects in semiconductor quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 52, 5913-5922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ko, M. J.

M. J. Ko, J. Plawsky and M. Birnboim, "Fabrication of CdS/Ag hybrid quantum dot composites using a melt/quench method," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 211-216 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Komiyama, H.

H. S. Zhou, I. Honma, H. Komiyama, and J. W. Haus, "Controlled synthesis and quantum-size effect in goldcoared nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. B 50, 12052-12056 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kreibig, U.

U. Kreibig and L. Genzel, "Optical Absorption of small metallic particles," Surf. Sci. 156, 678-700 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Le Coustumer, P.

F. Rocco, A. K. Jain, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, S. Yotte, P. Le Coustumer, C. Y. Lee, S. H. Park, J. G. Choi, "Optical response of silver coating on CdS colloids," Chem. Phys. Lett. 394, 324-328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. Y.

F. Rocco, A. K. Jain, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, S. Yotte, P. Le Coustumer, C. Y. Lee, S. H. Park, J. G. Choi, "Optical response of silver coating on CdS colloids," Chem. Phys. Lett. 394, 324-328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

G. W. Wen, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and Z. Chen, "Quantum-confined Stark effects in semiconductor quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 52, 5913-5922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Moskovits, M.

M. Moskovits, "Surface-enhanced spectroscopy," Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 783-826 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Pang, L.

Park, S. H.

F. Rocco, A. K. Jain, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, S. Yotte, P. Le Coustumer, C. Y. Lee, S. H. Park, J. G. Choi, "Optical response of silver coating on CdS colloids," Chem. Phys. Lett. 394, 324-328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Plawsky, J.

M. J. Ko, J. Plawsky and M. Birnboim, "Fabrication of CdS/Ag hybrid quantum dot composites using a melt/quench method," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 211-216 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rocco, F.

F. Rocco, A. K. Jain, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, S. Yotte, P. Le Coustumer, C. Y. Lee, S. H. Park, J. G. Choi, "Optical response of silver coating on CdS colloids," Chem. Phys. Lett. 394, 324-328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sarkar, D.

R. D. Averitt, D. Sarkar, and N. J. Halas, "Plasmon resonance shifts of Au-coated Au2S nanoshells: Insight into multicomponent nanoparticle growth," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4217-4220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y.

Tetz, K.

Treguer, M.

F. Rocco, A. K. Jain, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, S. Yotte, P. Le Coustumer, C. Y. Lee, S. H. Park, J. G. Choi, "Optical response of silver coating on CdS colloids," Chem. Phys. Lett. 394, 324-328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wannier, G. H.

G. H. Wannier, "Wave functions and effective Hamiltonian for Bloch electrons in an electric field," Phys. Rev. 117, 432-439 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Wen, G. W.

G. W. Wen, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and Z. Chen, "Quantum-confined Stark effects in semiconductor quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 52, 5913-5922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Westcott, S. L.

R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, "Linear optical properties of gold nanoshells," J. Opt. Am. B 16, 1824-1832 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yotte, S.

F. Rocco, A. K. Jain, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, S. Yotte, P. Le Coustumer, C. Y. Lee, S. H. Park, J. G. Choi, "Optical response of silver coating on CdS colloids," Chem. Phys. Lett. 394, 324-328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, H. S.

H. S. Zhou, I. Honma, H. Komiyama, and J. W. Haus, "Controlled synthesis and quantum-size effect in goldcoared nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. B 50, 12052-12056 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Korea Chem. Soc. (1)

E.-H. Jeang, J.-H, Lee, K.-C. Je, S.-Y. Yim, S.-H. Park, Y.-S. Choi, J.-G. Choi, M. Treguer and T. Cardinal, "Fabrication and optical characteritics of CdS/Ag metal-semiconductor composite quantum dots," Bull. Korea Chem. Soc. 25, 967-969 (2004).

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Rocco, A. K. Jain, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, S. Yotte, P. Le Coustumer, C. Y. Lee, S. H. Park, J. G. Choi, "Optical response of silver coating on CdS colloids," Chem. Phys. Lett. 394, 324-328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

M. J. Ko, J. Plawsky and M. Birnboim, "Fabrication of CdS/Ag hybrid quantum dot composites using a melt/quench method," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 211-216 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Am. B (1)

R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, "Linear optical properties of gold nanoshells," J. Opt. Am. B 16, 1824-1832 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

G. H. Wannier, "Wave functions and effective Hamiltonian for Bloch electrons in an electric field," Phys. Rev. 117, 432-439 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

H. S. Zhou, I. Honma, H. Komiyama, and J. W. Haus, "Controlled synthesis and quantum-size effect in goldcoared nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. B 50, 12052-12056 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Wen, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and Z. Chen, "Quantum-confined Stark effects in semiconductor quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 52, 5913-5922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. D. Averitt, D. Sarkar, and N. J. Halas, "Plasmon resonance shifts of Au-coated Au2S nanoshells: Insight into multicomponent nanoparticle growth," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4217-4220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

M. Moskovits, "Surface-enhanced spectroscopy," Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 783-826 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci. (1)

U. Kreibig and L. Genzel, "Optical Absorption of small metallic particles," Surf. Sci. 156, 678-700 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

K.-C. Je, S.-Y. Yim, J.-H. Lee, E.-H. Jeung, and S.-H. Park, "Field-induced Stark effects in Ag-coated CdS quantum dots," in Quantum Dots, Nanoparticles, and Nanoclusters II, D. L. Huffaker and P. K. Bhattacharya, eds., Proc. SPIE 5734, 146-151 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Maxwell Garnett, "Colours in metal glasses, in metallic, and in metallic solutions," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 203, 385-420 (1904); 205, 237-288 (1906).
[CrossRef]

O. Madelung, M. Schultz, and H. Weiss, Landolt-Börnstein, Semiconductors. Physics of Group IV Elements and III-V Compounds, (Springer, Berlin 1982).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Absorption spectra of pure CdS quantum dot of radius 1.3 nm and Ag-coated CdS quantum dot. Dashed and dotted lines are the measured absorption spectra of the pure and Ag-capped QDs, respectively. Solid line is the calculated absorption spectrum of the capped QD with silver thickness of 0.35 nm in the presence of an electric field 1×106 V/cm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Calculated Stark shifts of various electron-hole pair resonances as a function of the local field inside CdS QD (radius = 1.3 nm) coated with a 0.35 nm layer of silver. SS and PP: 1s(p) e and 1s(p) h exciton states with L=0 and L=1, respectively, SD and DS: 1s(d) e and 1d(s) h exciton states with L=2.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Stark shifts of the lowest (SS) exciton resonance for the silver coated CdS/Ag quantum dots as a function of QD radius in fixed local fields of 5× 105 V/cm(dashed line) and 1× 106 V/cm(solid line).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Calculated absorption spectra of CdS/Ag quantum dots of radius 1.3 nm for various silver thicknesses of 0.35 nm, 0.40 nm and 0.45 nm. The solid line is the same absorption spectrum as in Figure 1 for a Ag thickness of 0.35 nm.

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

H = H e + H h + V eh + H F .
[ h ¯ 2 2 m e e 2 h ¯ 2 2 m h h 2 e 2 ε d r e r h eF · r e + eF · r h ] Φ ( r e , r h ) = E Φ ( r e , r h )
ψ ( r e , r h ) = n e n h l e l h LM C ( n e n h l e l h LM ) Φ n e l e n h l h LM ( r e , r h )
Φ n e l e n h l h LM ( r e , r h ) = m e m h < l e l h m e m h LM > ϕ N e ( r e ) ϕ N h ( r h ) n e n h l e l h LM > .
< n e n h l e l h LM H e + H h + V eh + H F n′ e n′ h l′ e l′ h LM > δ NN H 0 V ̂ NN + F ̂ NN .
E nl = E g + h ¯ 2 2 m α nl 2 R 2
V ̂ NN = < n e l e n h l h LM e 2 ε d r e r h n e l e n h l h LM > .
F ̂ NN′ = < n e n h l e l h LM eF ( r h cos θ h r e cos θ e ) n′ e n′ h l′ e l′ h L′M′ > .
d Ω Y lm * ( θ , φ ) cos θ Y l′m′ ( θ , φ ) = [ ( l + m ) ( l m ) ( 2 l 1 ) ( 2 l + 1 ) ] 1 2 δ l , l′ + 1 + δ mm′
+ [ ( l′ + m ) ( l m ) ( 2 l′ 1 ) ( 2 l′ + 1 ) ] 1 2 δ l , l′ 1 δ mm′ .
ε ( ω ) = ε q ( ω ) + ε sh ( ω ) .
ε q ( ω ) = 1 4 π e d 0 e 2 ( ω e ω ) + i γ e
d 0 e = < ψ eh P + 0 > = P cv dr Φ n e l e n h l h LM ( r , r ) * s σ ( s , s )
ε sh ( a , ω , Γ ) = ( 1 ω p 2 ω 2 + i ω Γ ) + ε ( ω ) inter

Metrics