Abstract

Organic light-emitting devices utilizing copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and C60 as the hole- and electron-injection layers were reported. Compared with a conventional device without CuPc and C60 layers, the improvement of the contrast is more than 100% under 140-lx ambient lighting at a brightness of 300 cd/m2. A maximum current efficiency of 3.93 cd/A, which is higher than 3.62 cd/A for a conventional device, was obtained at 9 V. The device has a maximum luminance of 17170 cd/m2 at 15 V. The high contrast and high efficiency of the device are attributed to the high absorption and high charge mobility of CuPc and C60 films.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. C. Chang, J. F. Chen, S. W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient white organic electroluminescent devices based on tandem architecture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 253501 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  2. B. W. D’Andrade, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, “Efficient organic electrophosphorescent white-light-emitting device with a triple-doped emissive layer,” Adv. Mater. 16, 624–628 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. T. Lee, C. H. Liao, C. H. Tsai, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient, deep-blue doped organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 17, 2493–2497 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  4. Y. L. Tung, S. W. Lee, Y. Chi, L S. Chen, C. F. Shu, F. I. Wu, A. J. Carty, P. T. Chou, S. M. Peng, and G. M. Lee, “Organic light-emitting diodes based on charge-neutral Ru-II phosphorescent emitters,” Adv. Mater. 17, 1059–1064 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. Lamansky, P. Djurovich, D. Murphy, F. Abdel-Razzaq, H. E. Lee, C. Adachi, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly phosphorescent bis-cyclometalated iridium complexes: synthesis, photophysical characterization, and use in organic light emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 4304–4312 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. A. N. Krasnov, “High-contrast organic light-emitting diodes on flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3853–3855 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. H. Lee, C. C. Liao, P. J. Hu, and Y. Chang, “High contrast ratio organic light-emitting devices based on CuPc as electron transport material,” Synth. Met. 144, 279–283 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  8. L.S. Hung and J. Madathil, “Reduction of ambient light reflection in organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1787–1790 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  9. Z. Y. Xie and L. S. Hung, “High-contrast organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1207–1209 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  10. Z. X. Wu, L D. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Contrast-enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 13, 1406–1411 (2005)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. K. C. Lau, W. F. Xie, Y. H. Sun, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Contrast improvement of organic light-emitting devices with Sm:Ag cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083507 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  12. F. L. Wong, M. K. Fung, X. Jiang, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Non-reflective black cathode in organic light-emitting diode,” Thin Solid Films 446, 143–146 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. A. VanSlyke, C. H. Chen, and C. W. Tang, “Organic electroluminescent devices with improved stability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2160–2162 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. Chikamatsu, T. Taima, Y. Yoshida, K. Saito, and K. Yase, “Mg-doped C-60 thin film as improved n-type organic semiconductor for a solar cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 127–129 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  15. L. S. Hung and M. G. Mason, “Voltage reduction in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3732–3734 (2001).
    [Crossref]

2006 (1)

K. C. Lau, W. F. Xie, Y. H. Sun, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Contrast improvement of organic light-emitting devices with Sm:Ag cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083507 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (4)

Z. X. Wu, L D. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Contrast-enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 13, 1406–1411 (2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. C. Chang, J. F. Chen, S. W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient white organic electroluminescent devices based on tandem architecture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 253501 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. T. Lee, C. H. Liao, C. H. Tsai, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient, deep-blue doped organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 17, 2493–2497 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Tung, S. W. Lee, Y. Chi, L S. Chen, C. F. Shu, F. I. Wu, A. J. Carty, P. T. Chou, S. M. Peng, and G. M. Lee, “Organic light-emitting diodes based on charge-neutral Ru-II phosphorescent emitters,” Adv. Mater. 17, 1059–1064 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (5)

B. W. D’Andrade, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, “Efficient organic electrophosphorescent white-light-emitting device with a triple-doped emissive layer,” Adv. Mater. 16, 624–628 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. H. Lee, C. C. Liao, P. J. Hu, and Y. Chang, “High contrast ratio organic light-emitting devices based on CuPc as electron transport material,” Synth. Met. 144, 279–283 (2004).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Xie and L. S. Hung, “High-contrast organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1207–1209 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. L. Wong, M. K. Fung, X. Jiang, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Non-reflective black cathode in organic light-emitting diode,” Thin Solid Films 446, 143–146 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Chikamatsu, T. Taima, Y. Yoshida, K. Saito, and K. Yase, “Mg-doped C-60 thin film as improved n-type organic semiconductor for a solar cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 127–129 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

A. N. Krasnov, “High-contrast organic light-emitting diodes on flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3853–3855 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

L.S. Hung and J. Madathil, “Reduction of ambient light reflection in organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1787–1790 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Lamansky, P. Djurovich, D. Murphy, F. Abdel-Razzaq, H. E. Lee, C. Adachi, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly phosphorescent bis-cyclometalated iridium complexes: synthesis, photophysical characterization, and use in organic light emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 4304–4312 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. S. Hung and M. G. Mason, “Voltage reduction in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3732–3734 (2001).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

S. A. VanSlyke, C. H. Chen, and C. W. Tang, “Organic electroluminescent devices with improved stability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2160–2162 (1996).
[Crossref]

Abdel-Razzaq, F.

S. Lamansky, P. Djurovich, D. Murphy, F. Abdel-Razzaq, H. E. Lee, C. Adachi, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly phosphorescent bis-cyclometalated iridium complexes: synthesis, photophysical characterization, and use in organic light emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 4304–4312 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adachi, C.

S. Lamansky, P. Djurovich, D. Murphy, F. Abdel-Razzaq, H. E. Lee, C. Adachi, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly phosphorescent bis-cyclometalated iridium complexes: synthesis, photophysical characterization, and use in organic light emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 4304–4312 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burrows, P. E.

S. Lamansky, P. Djurovich, D. Murphy, F. Abdel-Razzaq, H. E. Lee, C. Adachi, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly phosphorescent bis-cyclometalated iridium complexes: synthesis, photophysical characterization, and use in organic light emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 4304–4312 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carty, A. J.

Y. L. Tung, S. W. Lee, Y. Chi, L S. Chen, C. F. Shu, F. I. Wu, A. J. Carty, P. T. Chou, S. M. Peng, and G. M. Lee, “Organic light-emitting diodes based on charge-neutral Ru-II phosphorescent emitters,” Adv. Mater. 17, 1059–1064 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. C.

C. C. Chang, J. F. Chen, S. W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient white organic electroluminescent devices based on tandem architecture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 253501 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y.

J. H. Lee, C. C. Liao, P. J. Hu, and Y. Chang, “High contrast ratio organic light-emitting devices based on CuPc as electron transport material,” Synth. Met. 144, 279–283 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. H.

C. C. Chang, J. F. Chen, S. W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient white organic electroluminescent devices based on tandem architecture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 253501 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. T. Lee, C. H. Liao, C. H. Tsai, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient, deep-blue doped organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 17, 2493–2497 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. A. VanSlyke, C. H. Chen, and C. W. Tang, “Organic electroluminescent devices with improved stability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2160–2162 (1996).
[Crossref]

Chen, J. F.

C. C. Chang, J. F. Chen, S. W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient white organic electroluminescent devices based on tandem architecture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 253501 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, L S.

Y. L. Tung, S. W. Lee, Y. Chi, L S. Chen, C. F. Shu, F. I. Wu, A. J. Carty, P. T. Chou, S. M. Peng, and G. M. Lee, “Organic light-emitting diodes based on charge-neutral Ru-II phosphorescent emitters,” Adv. Mater. 17, 1059–1064 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chi, Y.

Y. L. Tung, S. W. Lee, Y. Chi, L S. Chen, C. F. Shu, F. I. Wu, A. J. Carty, P. T. Chou, S. M. Peng, and G. M. Lee, “Organic light-emitting diodes based on charge-neutral Ru-II phosphorescent emitters,” Adv. Mater. 17, 1059–1064 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chikamatsu, M.

M. Chikamatsu, T. Taima, Y. Yoshida, K. Saito, and K. Yase, “Mg-doped C-60 thin film as improved n-type organic semiconductor for a solar cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 127–129 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chou, P. T.

Y. L. Tung, S. W. Lee, Y. Chi, L S. Chen, C. F. Shu, F. I. Wu, A. J. Carty, P. T. Chou, S. M. Peng, and G. M. Lee, “Organic light-emitting diodes based on charge-neutral Ru-II phosphorescent emitters,” Adv. Mater. 17, 1059–1064 (2005).
[Crossref]

D’Andrade, B. W.

B. W. D’Andrade, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, “Efficient organic electrophosphorescent white-light-emitting device with a triple-doped emissive layer,” Adv. Mater. 16, 624–628 (2004).
[Crossref]

Djurovich, P.

S. Lamansky, P. Djurovich, D. Murphy, F. Abdel-Razzaq, H. E. Lee, C. Adachi, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly phosphorescent bis-cyclometalated iridium complexes: synthesis, photophysical characterization, and use in organic light emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 4304–4312 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Forrest, S. R.

B. W. D’Andrade, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, “Efficient organic electrophosphorescent white-light-emitting device with a triple-doped emissive layer,” Adv. Mater. 16, 624–628 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Lamansky, P. Djurovich, D. Murphy, F. Abdel-Razzaq, H. E. Lee, C. Adachi, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly phosphorescent bis-cyclometalated iridium complexes: synthesis, photophysical characterization, and use in organic light emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 4304–4312 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fung, M. K.

F. L. Wong, M. K. Fung, X. Jiang, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Non-reflective black cathode in organic light-emitting diode,” Thin Solid Films 446, 143–146 (2004).
[Crossref]

Holmes, R. J.

B. W. D’Andrade, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, “Efficient organic electrophosphorescent white-light-emitting device with a triple-doped emissive layer,” Adv. Mater. 16, 624–628 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hu, P. J.

J. H. Lee, C. C. Liao, P. J. Hu, and Y. Chang, “High contrast ratio organic light-emitting devices based on CuPc as electron transport material,” Synth. Met. 144, 279–283 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hung, L. S.

Z. Y. Xie and L. S. Hung, “High-contrast organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1207–1209 (2004).
[Crossref]

L. S. Hung and M. G. Mason, “Voltage reduction in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3732–3734 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hung, L.S.

L.S. Hung and J. Madathil, “Reduction of ambient light reflection in organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1787–1790 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hwang, S. W.

C. C. Chang, J. F. Chen, S. W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient white organic electroluminescent devices based on tandem architecture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 253501 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jiang, X.

F. L. Wong, M. K. Fung, X. Jiang, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Non-reflective black cathode in organic light-emitting diode,” Thin Solid Films 446, 143–146 (2004).
[Crossref]

Krasnov, A. N.

A. N. Krasnov, “High-contrast organic light-emitting diodes on flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3853–3855 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lamansky, S.

S. Lamansky, P. Djurovich, D. Murphy, F. Abdel-Razzaq, H. E. Lee, C. Adachi, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly phosphorescent bis-cyclometalated iridium complexes: synthesis, photophysical characterization, and use in organic light emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 4304–4312 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lau, K. C.

K. C. Lau, W. F. Xie, Y. H. Sun, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Contrast improvement of organic light-emitting devices with Sm:Ag cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083507 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. S.

K. C. Lau, W. F. Xie, Y. H. Sun, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Contrast improvement of organic light-emitting devices with Sm:Ag cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083507 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. L. Wong, M. K. Fung, X. Jiang, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Non-reflective black cathode in organic light-emitting diode,” Thin Solid Films 446, 143–146 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, G. M.

Y. L. Tung, S. W. Lee, Y. Chi, L S. Chen, C. F. Shu, F. I. Wu, A. J. Carty, P. T. Chou, S. M. Peng, and G. M. Lee, “Organic light-emitting diodes based on charge-neutral Ru-II phosphorescent emitters,” Adv. Mater. 17, 1059–1064 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. E.

S. Lamansky, P. Djurovich, D. Murphy, F. Abdel-Razzaq, H. E. Lee, C. Adachi, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly phosphorescent bis-cyclometalated iridium complexes: synthesis, photophysical characterization, and use in organic light emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 4304–4312 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J. H.

J. H. Lee, C. C. Liao, P. J. Hu, and Y. Chang, “High contrast ratio organic light-emitting devices based on CuPc as electron transport material,” Synth. Met. 144, 279–283 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, M. T.

M. T. Lee, C. H. Liao, C. H. Tsai, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient, deep-blue doped organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 17, 2493–2497 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. T.

K. C. Lau, W. F. Xie, Y. H. Sun, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Contrast improvement of organic light-emitting devices with Sm:Ag cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083507 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. L. Wong, M. K. Fung, X. Jiang, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Non-reflective black cathode in organic light-emitting diode,” Thin Solid Films 446, 143–146 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. W.

Y. L. Tung, S. W. Lee, Y. Chi, L S. Chen, C. F. Shu, F. I. Wu, A. J. Carty, P. T. Chou, S. M. Peng, and G. M. Lee, “Organic light-emitting diodes based on charge-neutral Ru-II phosphorescent emitters,” Adv. Mater. 17, 1059–1064 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liao, C. C.

J. H. Lee, C. C. Liao, P. J. Hu, and Y. Chang, “High contrast ratio organic light-emitting devices based on CuPc as electron transport material,” Synth. Met. 144, 279–283 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liao, C. H.

M. T. Lee, C. H. Liao, C. H. Tsai, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient, deep-blue doped organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 17, 2493–2497 (2005).
[Crossref]

Madathil, J.

L.S. Hung and J. Madathil, “Reduction of ambient light reflection in organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1787–1790 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mason, M. G.

L. S. Hung and M. G. Mason, “Voltage reduction in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3732–3734 (2001).
[Crossref]

Murphy, D.

S. Lamansky, P. Djurovich, D. Murphy, F. Abdel-Razzaq, H. E. Lee, C. Adachi, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly phosphorescent bis-cyclometalated iridium complexes: synthesis, photophysical characterization, and use in organic light emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 4304–4312 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, S. M.

Y. L. Tung, S. W. Lee, Y. Chi, L S. Chen, C. F. Shu, F. I. Wu, A. J. Carty, P. T. Chou, S. M. Peng, and G. M. Lee, “Organic light-emitting diodes based on charge-neutral Ru-II phosphorescent emitters,” Adv. Mater. 17, 1059–1064 (2005).
[Crossref]

Qiu, Y.

Saito, K.

M. Chikamatsu, T. Taima, Y. Yoshida, K. Saito, and K. Yase, “Mg-doped C-60 thin film as improved n-type organic semiconductor for a solar cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 127–129 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shu, C. F.

Y. L. Tung, S. W. Lee, Y. Chi, L S. Chen, C. F. Shu, F. I. Wu, A. J. Carty, P. T. Chou, S. M. Peng, and G. M. Lee, “Organic light-emitting diodes based on charge-neutral Ru-II phosphorescent emitters,” Adv. Mater. 17, 1059–1064 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sun, Y. H.

K. C. Lau, W. F. Xie, Y. H. Sun, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Contrast improvement of organic light-emitting devices with Sm:Ag cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083507 (2006).
[Crossref]

Taima, T.

M. Chikamatsu, T. Taima, Y. Yoshida, K. Saito, and K. Yase, “Mg-doped C-60 thin film as improved n-type organic semiconductor for a solar cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 127–129 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tang, C. W.

S. A. VanSlyke, C. H. Chen, and C. W. Tang, “Organic electroluminescent devices with improved stability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2160–2162 (1996).
[Crossref]

Thompson, M. E.

S. Lamansky, P. Djurovich, D. Murphy, F. Abdel-Razzaq, H. E. Lee, C. Adachi, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly phosphorescent bis-cyclometalated iridium complexes: synthesis, photophysical characterization, and use in organic light emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 4304–4312 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, C. H.

M. T. Lee, C. H. Liao, C. H. Tsai, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient, deep-blue doped organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 17, 2493–2497 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tung, Y. L.

Y. L. Tung, S. W. Lee, Y. Chi, L S. Chen, C. F. Shu, F. I. Wu, A. J. Carty, P. T. Chou, S. M. Peng, and G. M. Lee, “Organic light-emitting diodes based on charge-neutral Ru-II phosphorescent emitters,” Adv. Mater. 17, 1059–1064 (2005).
[Crossref]

VanSlyke, S. A.

S. A. VanSlyke, C. H. Chen, and C. W. Tang, “Organic electroluminescent devices with improved stability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2160–2162 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wang, L D.

Wong, F. L.

F. L. Wong, M. K. Fung, X. Jiang, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Non-reflective black cathode in organic light-emitting diode,” Thin Solid Films 446, 143–146 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wu, F. I.

Y. L. Tung, S. W. Lee, Y. Chi, L S. Chen, C. F. Shu, F. I. Wu, A. J. Carty, P. T. Chou, S. M. Peng, and G. M. Lee, “Organic light-emitting diodes based on charge-neutral Ru-II phosphorescent emitters,” Adv. Mater. 17, 1059–1064 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wu, Z. X.

Xie, W. F.

K. C. Lau, W. F. Xie, Y. H. Sun, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Contrast improvement of organic light-emitting devices with Sm:Ag cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083507 (2006).
[Crossref]

Xie, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Xie and L. S. Hung, “High-contrast organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1207–1209 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yase, K.

M. Chikamatsu, T. Taima, Y. Yoshida, K. Saito, and K. Yase, “Mg-doped C-60 thin film as improved n-type organic semiconductor for a solar cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 127–129 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, Y.

M. Chikamatsu, T. Taima, Y. Yoshida, K. Saito, and K. Yase, “Mg-doped C-60 thin film as improved n-type organic semiconductor for a solar cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 127–129 (2004).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (4)

B. W. D’Andrade, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, “Efficient organic electrophosphorescent white-light-emitting device with a triple-doped emissive layer,” Adv. Mater. 16, 624–628 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. T. Lee, C. H. Liao, C. H. Tsai, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient, deep-blue doped organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 17, 2493–2497 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Tung, S. W. Lee, Y. Chi, L S. Chen, C. F. Shu, F. I. Wu, A. J. Carty, P. T. Chou, S. M. Peng, and G. M. Lee, “Organic light-emitting diodes based on charge-neutral Ru-II phosphorescent emitters,” Adv. Mater. 17, 1059–1064 (2005).
[Crossref]

L.S. Hung and J. Madathil, “Reduction of ambient light reflection in organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1787–1790 (2001).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

Z. Y. Xie and L. S. Hung, “High-contrast organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1207–1209 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. C. Lau, W. F. Xie, Y. H. Sun, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Contrast improvement of organic light-emitting devices with Sm:Ag cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083507 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. A. VanSlyke, C. H. Chen, and C. W. Tang, “Organic electroluminescent devices with improved stability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2160–2162 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Chikamatsu, T. Taima, Y. Yoshida, K. Saito, and K. Yase, “Mg-doped C-60 thin film as improved n-type organic semiconductor for a solar cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 127–129 (2004).
[Crossref]

L. S. Hung and M. G. Mason, “Voltage reduction in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3732–3734 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. N. Krasnov, “High-contrast organic light-emitting diodes on flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3853–3855 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. C. Chang, J. F. Chen, S. W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient white organic electroluminescent devices based on tandem architecture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 253501 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

S. Lamansky, P. Djurovich, D. Murphy, F. Abdel-Razzaq, H. E. Lee, C. Adachi, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly phosphorescent bis-cyclometalated iridium complexes: synthesis, photophysical characterization, and use in organic light emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 4304–4312 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Synth. Met. (1)

J. H. Lee, C. C. Liao, P. J. Hu, and Y. Chang, “High contrast ratio organic light-emitting devices based on CuPc as electron transport material,” Synth. Met. 144, 279–283 (2004).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

F. L. Wong, M. K. Fung, X. Jiang, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Non-reflective black cathode in organic light-emitting diode,” Thin Solid Films 446, 143–146 (2004).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Calculated optical reflection spectra of the devices with different organic layers, and (b) optical constants of the organic materials used in this work.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Calculated contrast ratios of OLEDs under different ambient illumination.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Characteristics of current density, operating voltage, and brightness (J-V-B) of Device A and B; and (b) energy level diagram of Device A.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Characteristics of current density, current efficiency, and power efficiency of Devices A and B.

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