Abstract

Cascaded Raman wavelength shifting up to three orders from 1553 nm to 1867 nm is demonstrated in As2S3-chalcogenide fibers. Due to a long zero dispersion wavelength for the sulfide fiber (>4.5 μm), pumping the fiber at 1553 nm results in generation of cascaded Stokes orders based on stimulated Raman scattering. Using the threshold power for the Raman orders, we estimate the Raman gain coefficient for the As2S3 fibers to be ~5.7×10-12 m/W at 1550 nm. Observation of higher Raman orders is limited by damage to the fiber at input intensities >1 GW/cm2.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. Smektala, C. Quemard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthélémy, and C. De Angelis, "Chalcogenide glasses with large non-linear refractive indices," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 139-142 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256 & 257, 353-360 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. M. Harbold, F. Ö. Ilday, F. W. Wise, J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Agarwal, "Highly nonlinear As-S-Se glasses for all-optical switching," Opt. Lett. 27, 119-121 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naganuma, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, "Third-order nonlinear spectroscopy in As2S3 chalcogenide glass fibers," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5518-23 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Active and passive chalcogenide glass optical fibers for IR applications: a review," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256 & 257, 6-16 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D.-P. Wei, T. V. Galstian, I. V. Smolnikov, V. G. Plotnichenko, and A. Zohrabyan, "Spectral broadening of femtosecond pulses in a single-mode As-S glass fiber," Opt. Express 13, 2439-2443 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. D. Jackson and G. Anzueto-Sánchez, "Chalcogenide glass Raman fiber laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221106 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 1989), Chap. 8.
  9. A. K. Abeeluck, and C. Headley, "Continuous-wave pumping in the anomalous- and normal-dispersion regimes of nonlinear fibers for supercontinuum generation," Opt. Lett. 30, 61-63 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. E. Lines, "Ultralow-loss glasses," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 16,113-135 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. A. Kikineshi, and I. Rosola, "Material dispersion in (As2S3)x(AsI3)1-x glasses," in Fourth International Conference on Material Science and Material Properties for Infrared Optoelectronics, F. F. Sizov, ed., Proc. SPIE 3890, 502-506, 1999.
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. D. Jackson and P. H. Muir, "Theory and numerical simulation of nth-order cascaded Raman fiber lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1297-1306 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. D. Jackson and G. Anzueto-Sánchez, "Chalcogenide glass Raman fiber laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

1998 (1)

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthélémy, and C. De Angelis, "Chalcogenide glasses with large non-linear refractive indices," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 139-142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naganuma, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, "Third-order nonlinear spectroscopy in As2S3 chalcogenide glass fibers," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5518-23 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

M. E. Lines, "Ultralow-loss glasses," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 16,113-135 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Abeeluck, A. K.

Agarwal, I. D.

Anzueto-Sánchez, G.

S. D. Jackson and G. Anzueto-Sánchez, "Chalcogenide glass Raman fiber laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Asobe, M.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naganuma, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, "Third-order nonlinear spectroscopy in As2S3 chalcogenide glass fibers," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5518-23 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barthélémy, A.

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthélémy, and C. De Angelis, "Chalcogenide glasses with large non-linear refractive indices," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 139-142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

De Angelis, C.

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthélémy, and C. De Angelis, "Chalcogenide glasses with large non-linear refractive indices," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 139-142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Galstian, T. V.

Harbold, J. M.

Headley, C.

Ilday, F. Ö.

Itoh, H.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naganuma, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, "Third-order nonlinear spectroscopy in As2S3 chalcogenide glass fibers," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5518-23 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, S. D.

S. D. Jackson and G. Anzueto-Sánchez, "Chalcogenide glass Raman fiber laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson and P. H. Muir, "Theory and numerical simulation of nth-order cascaded Raman fiber lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1297-1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kaino, T.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naganuma, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, "Third-order nonlinear spectroscopy in As2S3 chalcogenide glass fibers," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5518-23 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, T.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naganuma, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, "Third-order nonlinear spectroscopy in As2S3 chalcogenide glass fibers," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5518-23 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Leneindre, L.

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthélémy, and C. De Angelis, "Chalcogenide glasses with large non-linear refractive indices," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 139-142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lines, M. E.

M. E. Lines, "Ultralow-loss glasses," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 16,113-135 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, J.

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthélémy, and C. De Angelis, "Chalcogenide glasses with large non-linear refractive indices," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 139-142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Muir, P. H.

Naganuma, K.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naganuma, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, "Third-order nonlinear spectroscopy in As2S3 chalcogenide glass fibers," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5518-23 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, V. Q.

Plotnichenko, V. G.

Quemard, C.

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthélémy, and C. De Angelis, "Chalcogenide glasses with large non-linear refractive indices," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 139-142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sanghera, J. S.

Shaw, L. B.

Smektala, F.

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthélémy, and C. De Angelis, "Chalcogenide glasses with large non-linear refractive indices," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 139-142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smolnikov, I. V.

Wei, D.-P.

Wise, F. W.

Zohrabyan, A.

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

M. E. Lines, "Ultralow-loss glasses," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 16,113-135 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. D. Jackson and G. Anzueto-Sánchez, "Chalcogenide glass Raman fiber laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naganuma, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, "Third-order nonlinear spectroscopy in As2S3 chalcogenide glass fibers," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5518-23 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthélémy, and C. De Angelis, "Chalcogenide glasses with large non-linear refractive indices," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 139-142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (4)

A. A. Kikineshi, and I. Rosola, "Material dispersion in (As2S3)x(AsI3)1-x glasses," in Fourth International Conference on Material Science and Material Properties for Infrared Optoelectronics, F. F. Sizov, ed., Proc. SPIE 3890, 502-506, 1999.
[CrossRef]

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 1989), Chap. 8.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256 & 257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Active and passive chalcogenide glass optical fibers for IR applications: a review," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256 & 257, 6-16 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Loss curves in the 1-5 μm region for the two fibers. (b). Dispersion curve for both fibers. (c). Comparison of Raman spectra measured in bulk-As2S3 material using 90° scattering geometry and fused silica (Ref. [8]).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Block diagram of experimental set-up. (b) Spectrum from EDFA

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). Generation of three orders of cascaded Raman in 12 m fiber 1 at 350 W peak incident power. (b) Evolution of first and second orders with power in fiber 1.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Generation of two orders in 20 m fiber 2 at an input peak power of 325 W

Figs. 5.
Figs. 5.

(a)-(c). Theoretical calculation of pump and higher order evolution.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n 2 = a 0 + a 1 2 λ 2 + a 2 4 λ 4 λ 2 a 3 2 ,
G A = exp ( g R P 0 L eff A eff ) ,
L eff = 1 α ( 1 e αL ) .

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