Abstract

The X-ray ultramicroscope (XuM), based on using a scanning electron microscope as host, provides a new approach to X-ray projection microscopy. The right-angle-type integrated sample cells described here expand the capabilities of the XuM technique. The integrated sample cell combines a target, a spacer, a sample chamber, and an exit window in one physical unit, thereby simplifying the instrumentation and providing increased mechanical stability. The XuM imaging results presented here, obtained using such right-angle integrated sample cells, clearly demonstrate the ability to characterize very small features in objects, down to of order 100nm, including their use for dry, wet and even liquid samples.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Marton, "Internal Report." RCA Laboratories, Princeton, NJ (1939).
  2. M. von Ardenne, "Zur Leistungsfahigkeit des Elektronen-Schattenmikroskopes und uber ein Rontgenstrahlen-Schattenmilkroskop," Naturwiss. 27, 485-486 (1939).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. C. Nixon, "Improved resolution with the X-ray projection microscope," Nature 175, 1078-1079 (1955).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. V. E. Cosslett and W.C. Nixon, X-ray Microscopy, (Cambridge Univ. Press, London, 1960).
  5. H. R. F. Horn and H. G. Waltinger, "How to obtain and use X-ray projection microscopy in the SEM." Scanning 1, 100-108 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. C. Mayo, P. R. Miller, S. W. Wilkins, T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, D. Paganin, D. J. Parry, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, "Quantitative X-ray projection microscopy: phase-contrast and multi-spectral imaging," J. Microsc. 207, 79-96 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. C. Mayo, T. J. Davis, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, D. Paganin, A. Pogany, A. W. Stevenson, S. W. Wilkins, "X-ray Phase-Contrast Microscopy and Microtomography," Opt. Express 11, 2289-2302 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. W. Wilkins, "High Resolution X-ray Imaging of Very Small Objects," Australia Patent. Patent number: PO6041 (Apr. 8, 1997);United States Patent. Patent number: 6163590 (Dec. 19, 2000).
  9. J. C. Russ, "The image processing handbook", (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1995).
  10. M. R. Howells, T Beetz, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, J. M. Holton, C. J. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, S. Marchesini, J. Miao, D. Sayre, D. A. Shapiro and J. C. H. Spence, physics/0502059, Feb 11, 2005, arxiv/pdf/physics/0502059.

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

S. C. Mayo, P. R. Miller, S. W. Wilkins, T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, D. Paganin, D. J. Parry, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, "Quantitative X-ray projection microscopy: phase-contrast and multi-spectral imaging," J. Microsc. 207, 79-96 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

H. R. F. Horn and H. G. Waltinger, "How to obtain and use X-ray projection microscopy in the SEM." Scanning 1, 100-108 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1955 (1)

W. C. Nixon, "Improved resolution with the X-ray projection microscope," Nature 175, 1078-1079 (1955).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1939 (1)

M. von Ardenne, "Zur Leistungsfahigkeit des Elektronen-Schattenmikroskopes und uber ein Rontgenstrahlen-Schattenmilkroskop," Naturwiss. 27, 485-486 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Davis, T. J.

S. C. Mayo, T. J. Davis, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, D. Paganin, A. Pogany, A. W. Stevenson, S. W. Wilkins, "X-ray Phase-Contrast Microscopy and Microtomography," Opt. Express 11, 2289-2302 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Mayo, P. R. Miller, S. W. Wilkins, T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, D. Paganin, D. J. Parry, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, "Quantitative X-ray projection microscopy: phase-contrast and multi-spectral imaging," J. Microsc. 207, 79-96 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, D.

S. C. Mayo, P. R. Miller, S. W. Wilkins, T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, D. Paganin, D. J. Parry, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, "Quantitative X-ray projection microscopy: phase-contrast and multi-spectral imaging," J. Microsc. 207, 79-96 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gureyev, T. E.

S. C. Mayo, T. J. Davis, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, D. Paganin, A. Pogany, A. W. Stevenson, S. W. Wilkins, "X-ray Phase-Contrast Microscopy and Microtomography," Opt. Express 11, 2289-2302 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Mayo, P. R. Miller, S. W. Wilkins, T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, D. Paganin, D. J. Parry, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, "Quantitative X-ray projection microscopy: phase-contrast and multi-spectral imaging," J. Microsc. 207, 79-96 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horn, H. R. F.

H. R. F. Horn and H. G. Waltinger, "How to obtain and use X-ray projection microscopy in the SEM." Scanning 1, 100-108 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Mayo, S. C.

S. C. Mayo, T. J. Davis, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, D. Paganin, A. Pogany, A. W. Stevenson, S. W. Wilkins, "X-ray Phase-Contrast Microscopy and Microtomography," Opt. Express 11, 2289-2302 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Mayo, P. R. Miller, S. W. Wilkins, T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, D. Paganin, D. J. Parry, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, "Quantitative X-ray projection microscopy: phase-contrast and multi-spectral imaging," J. Microsc. 207, 79-96 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, P. R.

S. C. Mayo, T. J. Davis, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, D. Paganin, A. Pogany, A. W. Stevenson, S. W. Wilkins, "X-ray Phase-Contrast Microscopy and Microtomography," Opt. Express 11, 2289-2302 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Mayo, P. R. Miller, S. W. Wilkins, T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, D. Paganin, D. J. Parry, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, "Quantitative X-ray projection microscopy: phase-contrast and multi-spectral imaging," J. Microsc. 207, 79-96 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nixon, W. C.

W. C. Nixon, "Improved resolution with the X-ray projection microscope," Nature 175, 1078-1079 (1955).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paganin, D.

S. C. Mayo, T. J. Davis, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, D. Paganin, A. Pogany, A. W. Stevenson, S. W. Wilkins, "X-ray Phase-Contrast Microscopy and Microtomography," Opt. Express 11, 2289-2302 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Mayo, P. R. Miller, S. W. Wilkins, T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, D. Paganin, D. J. Parry, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, "Quantitative X-ray projection microscopy: phase-contrast and multi-spectral imaging," J. Microsc. 207, 79-96 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parry, D. J.

S. C. Mayo, P. R. Miller, S. W. Wilkins, T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, D. Paganin, D. J. Parry, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, "Quantitative X-ray projection microscopy: phase-contrast and multi-spectral imaging," J. Microsc. 207, 79-96 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pogany, A.

S. C. Mayo, T. J. Davis, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, D. Paganin, A. Pogany, A. W. Stevenson, S. W. Wilkins, "X-ray Phase-Contrast Microscopy and Microtomography," Opt. Express 11, 2289-2302 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Mayo, P. R. Miller, S. W. Wilkins, T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, D. Paganin, D. J. Parry, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, "Quantitative X-ray projection microscopy: phase-contrast and multi-spectral imaging," J. Microsc. 207, 79-96 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stevenson, A. W.

S. C. Mayo, T. J. Davis, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, D. Paganin, A. Pogany, A. W. Stevenson, S. W. Wilkins, "X-ray Phase-Contrast Microscopy and Microtomography," Opt. Express 11, 2289-2302 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Mayo, P. R. Miller, S. W. Wilkins, T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, D. Paganin, D. J. Parry, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, "Quantitative X-ray projection microscopy: phase-contrast and multi-spectral imaging," J. Microsc. 207, 79-96 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Ardenne, M.

M. von Ardenne, "Zur Leistungsfahigkeit des Elektronen-Schattenmikroskopes und uber ein Rontgenstrahlen-Schattenmilkroskop," Naturwiss. 27, 485-486 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Waltinger, H. G.

H. R. F. Horn and H. G. Waltinger, "How to obtain and use X-ray projection microscopy in the SEM." Scanning 1, 100-108 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Wilkins, S. W.

S. C. Mayo, T. J. Davis, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, D. Paganin, A. Pogany, A. W. Stevenson, S. W. Wilkins, "X-ray Phase-Contrast Microscopy and Microtomography," Opt. Express 11, 2289-2302 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Mayo, P. R. Miller, S. W. Wilkins, T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, D. Paganin, D. J. Parry, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, "Quantitative X-ray projection microscopy: phase-contrast and multi-spectral imaging," J. Microsc. 207, 79-96 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Microsc. (1)

S. C. Mayo, P. R. Miller, S. W. Wilkins, T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, D. Paganin, D. J. Parry, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, "Quantitative X-ray projection microscopy: phase-contrast and multi-spectral imaging," J. Microsc. 207, 79-96 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

W. C. Nixon, "Improved resolution with the X-ray projection microscope," Nature 175, 1078-1079 (1955).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naturwiss. (1)

M. von Ardenne, "Zur Leistungsfahigkeit des Elektronen-Schattenmikroskopes und uber ein Rontgenstrahlen-Schattenmilkroskop," Naturwiss. 27, 485-486 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Scanning (1)

H. R. F. Horn and H. G. Waltinger, "How to obtain and use X-ray projection microscopy in the SEM." Scanning 1, 100-108 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

S. W. Wilkins, "High Resolution X-ray Imaging of Very Small Objects," Australia Patent. Patent number: PO6041 (Apr. 8, 1997);United States Patent. Patent number: 6163590 (Dec. 19, 2000).

J. C. Russ, "The image processing handbook", (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1995).

M. R. Howells, T Beetz, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, J. M. Holton, C. J. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, S. Marchesini, J. Miao, D. Sayre, D. A. Shapiro and J. C. H. Spence, physics/0502059, Feb 11, 2005, arxiv/pdf/physics/0502059.

L. Marton, "Internal Report." RCA Laboratories, Princeton, NJ (1939).

V. E. Cosslett and W.C. Nixon, X-ray Microscopy, (Cambridge Univ. Press, London, 1960).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Diagram and the point-projection microscope geometry of the right-angle integrated samplecells of (a) type I used for small dry objects; (b) type II used for wet or liquid objects.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

XuM images of (a) an ant’s foreleg-joint and (b) a Bryozoan shell recorded using a type I ISC.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

XuM image of purified malaria infected red blood cells collected using a type I ISC.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

XuM image of polystyrene particles suspended in the distilled water collected using a type II ISC.

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