Abstract

We present a technique for measuring transient microscopic dynamics within deep tissue with sub-second temporal resolution, using diffusing-wave spectroscopy with gated single-photon avalanche photodiodes (APDs) combined with standard ungated multi-tau correlators. Using the temporal autocorrelation function of a reference signal allows to correct the temporal intensity autocorrelation function of the sample signal for the distortions induced by the non-constant average photon count rate. We apply this technique to pulsation-synchronized measurements of tissue dynamics in humans. Measurements on the forearm show no dependence on the pulsation phase. In contrast, the decay rate of the DWS signal measured on the wrist over the radial artery shows a pulsation-induced modulation of 60–90% consistent with pulsatile variations of arterial erythrocyte flow velocity. This might make time-resolved DWS interesting as a sensitive and fast method for investigating deep tissue perfusion, e.g. in intensive care.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2006 (1)

2005 (3)

T. Durduran, R. Choe, G. Yu, C. Zhou, J. C. Tchou, B. J. Czerniecki, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical measurements of blood flow in breast tumors," Opt. Lett. 30, 2915-2917 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H.-W. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. S. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Noninvasive Monitoring of Murine Tumor Blood Flow During and After Photodynamic Therapy Provides Early Assessment of Therapeutic Efficacy," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 3543-3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. MohlerIII, and A. G. Yodh, "Time-dependent blood flow and oxygenation in human skeletal muscles measured with noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024,027-1-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

T. Durduran, M. G. Burnett, G. Yu, C. Zhou, D. Furuya, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and J. H. Greenberg, "Spatiotemporal Quantification of Cerebral Blood Flow During Functional Activation in Rat Somatosensory Cortex Using Laser-Speckle Flowmetry," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 24, 518-524 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. N. Pham, S. U. Egelhaaf, A. Moussa¨ıd, and P. Pusey, "Ensemble-averaging in dynamic light scattering by an echo technique," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2419-2431 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation," Opt. Lett. 29, 1766-1768 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse Optical Tomography of Cerebral Blood Flow, Oxygenation, and Metabolism in Rat During Focal Ischemia," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 911-923 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Menon, G. M. Polin, I. Prabakaran, A. Hsi, C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, J. F. Pingpank, C. S. Sehgal, A. G. Yodh, D. G. Buerk, and D. L. Fraker, "An Integrated Approach to Measuring Tumor Oxygen Status Using Human Melanoma Xenografts as a Model," Cancer Res. 63, 7232-7240 (2003).
[PubMed]

2001 (1)

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2053-2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

L. Cipelletti and D. A. Weitz, "Ultralow-angle dynamic light scattering with a charge coupled device camera based multispeckle, multitau correlator," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3214-3221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

1996 (1)

M. Heckmeier and G. Maret, "Visualization of flow in multiple-scattering liquids," Europhys. Lett. 34, 257- 262 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

1994 (1)

D. Bicout and G. Maret, "Multiple light scattering in Taylor-Couette flow," Physica A 210, 87-112 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

D. Bicout and R. Maynard, "Diffusing wave spectroscopy in inhomogeneous flows," Physica A 199, 387-411 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Y. Wong and P. Wiltzius, "Dynamic light scattering with a CCD camera," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2547-2549 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, J. X. Zhu, and E. Herbolzheimer, "Diffusing-wave spectroscopy: dynamic light scattering in the multiple scattering limit," J. Phys. (France) 51, 2101-2127 (1990).
[CrossRef]

X.-L. Wu, D. J. Pine, P. M. Chaikin, J. P. Huang, and D. A. Weitz, "Diffusing-wave spectroscopy in a shear flow," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 15-20 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, "Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1134-1137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

G. Maret and P. E. Wolf, "Multiple light scattering from disordered media: The effect of Brownian motion of scatterers," Z. Phys. B 65, 409-413 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1980 (1)

H. C. Burstyn, "Afterpulsing effects in photon correlation experiments," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 51, 1431-1433 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

Benedek, G. B.

Bicout, D.

D. Bicout and G. Maret, "Multiple light scattering in Taylor-Couette flow," Physica A 210, 87-112 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Bicout and R. Maynard, "Diffusing wave spectroscopy in inhomogeneous flows," Physica A 199, 387-411 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Boas, D. A.

D. A. Boas and A. G. Yodh, "Spatially varying dynamical properties of turbid media probed with diffusing temporal light correlation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 192-215 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, "Scattering and Imaging with Diffusing Temporal Field Correlations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1855-1858 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buerk, D. G.

C. Menon, G. M. Polin, I. Prabakaran, A. Hsi, C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, J. F. Pingpank, C. S. Sehgal, A. G. Yodh, D. G. Buerk, and D. L. Fraker, "An Integrated Approach to Measuring Tumor Oxygen Status Using Human Melanoma Xenografts as a Model," Cancer Res. 63, 7232-7240 (2003).
[PubMed]

Burnett, M. G.

T. Durduran, M. G. Burnett, G. Yu, C. Zhou, D. Furuya, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and J. H. Greenberg, "Spatiotemporal Quantification of Cerebral Blood Flow During Functional Activation in Rat Somatosensory Cortex Using Laser-Speckle Flowmetry," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 24, 518-524 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation," Opt. Lett. 29, 1766-1768 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burstyn, H. C.

H. C. Burstyn, "Afterpulsing effects in photon correlation experiments," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 51, 1431-1433 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Busch, T. M.

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H.-W. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. S. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Noninvasive Monitoring of Murine Tumor Blood Flow During and After Photodynamic Therapy Provides Early Assessment of Therapeutic Efficacy," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 3543-3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, L. E.

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, "Scattering and Imaging with Diffusing Temporal Field Correlations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1855-1858 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaikin, P. M.

X.-L. Wu, D. J. Pine, P. M. Chaikin, J. P. Huang, and D. A. Weitz, "Diffusing-wave spectroscopy in a shear flow," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 15-20 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, "Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1134-1137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. MohlerIII, and A. G. Yodh, "Time-dependent blood flow and oxygenation in human skeletal muscles measured with noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024,027-1-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, C.

C. Menon, G. M. Polin, I. Prabakaran, A. Hsi, C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, J. F. Pingpank, C. S. Sehgal, A. G. Yodh, D. G. Buerk, and D. L. Fraker, "An Integrated Approach to Measuring Tumor Oxygen Status Using Human Melanoma Xenografts as a Model," Cancer Res. 63, 7232-7240 (2003).
[PubMed]

J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse Optical Tomography of Cerebral Blood Flow, Oxygenation, and Metabolism in Rat During Focal Ischemia," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 911-923 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2053-2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choe, R.

Cipelletti, L.

L. Cipelletti and D. A. Weitz, "Ultralow-angle dynamic light scattering with a charge coupled device camera based multispeckle, multitau correlator," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3214-3221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cope, M.

Culver, J. P.

J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse Optical Tomography of Cerebral Blood Flow, Oxygenation, and Metabolism in Rat During Focal Ischemia," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 911-923 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Menon, G. M. Polin, I. Prabakaran, A. Hsi, C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, J. F. Pingpank, C. S. Sehgal, A. G. Yodh, D. G. Buerk, and D. L. Fraker, "An Integrated Approach to Measuring Tumor Oxygen Status Using Human Melanoma Xenografts as a Model," Cancer Res. 63, 7232-7240 (2003).
[PubMed]

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2053-2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Czerniecki, B. J.

Delpy, D. T.

Detre, J. A.

T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation," Opt. Lett. 29, 1766-1768 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, M. G. Burnett, G. Yu, C. Zhou, D. Furuya, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and J. H. Greenberg, "Spatiotemporal Quantification of Cerebral Blood Flow During Functional Activation in Rat Somatosensory Cortex Using Laser-Speckle Flowmetry," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 24, 518-524 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durduran, T.

C. Zhou, G. Yu, D. Furuya, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and T. Durduran, "Diffuse optical correlation tomography of cerebral blood flow during cortical spreading depression in rat brain," Opt. Express 14, 1125-1144 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. MohlerIII, and A. G. Yodh, "Time-dependent blood flow and oxygenation in human skeletal muscles measured with noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024,027-1-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H.-W. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. S. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Noninvasive Monitoring of Murine Tumor Blood Flow During and After Photodynamic Therapy Provides Early Assessment of Therapeutic Efficacy," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 3543-3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, G. Yu, C. Zhou, J. C. Tchou, B. J. Czerniecki, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical measurements of blood flow in breast tumors," Opt. Lett. 30, 2915-2917 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation," Opt. Lett. 29, 1766-1768 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, M. G. Burnett, G. Yu, C. Zhou, D. Furuya, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and J. H. Greenberg, "Spatiotemporal Quantification of Cerebral Blood Flow During Functional Activation in Rat Somatosensory Cortex Using Laser-Speckle Flowmetry," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 24, 518-524 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse Optical Tomography of Cerebral Blood Flow, Oxygenation, and Metabolism in Rat During Focal Ischemia," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 911-923 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Egelhaaf, S. U.

K. N. Pham, S. U. Egelhaaf, A. Moussa¨ıd, and P. Pusey, "Ensemble-averaging in dynamic light scattering by an echo technique," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2419-2431 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Flammer, I.

Fraker, D. L.

C. Menon, G. M. Polin, I. Prabakaran, A. Hsi, C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, J. F. Pingpank, C. S. Sehgal, A. G. Yodh, D. G. Buerk, and D. L. Fraker, "An Integrated Approach to Measuring Tumor Oxygen Status Using Human Melanoma Xenografts as a Model," Cancer Res. 63, 7232-7240 (2003).
[PubMed]

Furuya, D.

C. Zhou, G. Yu, D. Furuya, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and T. Durduran, "Diffuse optical correlation tomography of cerebral blood flow during cortical spreading depression in rat brain," Opt. Express 14, 1125-1144 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, M. G. Burnett, G. Yu, C. Zhou, D. Furuya, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and J. H. Greenberg, "Spatiotemporal Quantification of Cerebral Blood Flow During Functional Activation in Rat Somatosensory Cortex Using Laser-Speckle Flowmetry," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 24, 518-524 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse Optical Tomography of Cerebral Blood Flow, Oxygenation, and Metabolism in Rat During Focal Ischemia," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 911-923 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gisler, T.

Glatstein, E.

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H.-W. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. S. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Noninvasive Monitoring of Murine Tumor Blood Flow During and After Photodynamic Therapy Provides Early Assessment of Therapeutic Efficacy," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 3543-3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenberg, J. H.

C. Zhou, G. Yu, D. Furuya, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and T. Durduran, "Diffuse optical correlation tomography of cerebral blood flow during cortical spreading depression in rat brain," Opt. Express 14, 1125-1144 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, M. G. Burnett, G. Yu, C. Zhou, D. Furuya, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and J. H. Greenberg, "Spatiotemporal Quantification of Cerebral Blood Flow During Functional Activation in Rat Somatosensory Cortex Using Laser-Speckle Flowmetry," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 24, 518-524 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation," Opt. Lett. 29, 1766-1768 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse Optical Tomography of Cerebral Blood Flow, Oxygenation, and Metabolism in Rat During Focal Ischemia," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 911-923 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2053-2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heckmeier, M.

Herbolzheimer, E.

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, J. X. Zhu, and E. Herbolzheimer, "Diffusing-wave spectroscopy: dynamic light scattering in the multiple scattering limit," J. Phys. (France) 51, 2101-2127 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, "Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1134-1137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hironaga, M.

Hoki, N.

Hsi, A.

C. Menon, G. M. Polin, I. Prabakaran, A. Hsi, C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, J. F. Pingpank, C. S. Sehgal, A. G. Yodh, D. G. Buerk, and D. L. Fraker, "An Integrated Approach to Measuring Tumor Oxygen Status Using Human Melanoma Xenografts as a Model," Cancer Res. 63, 7232-7240 (2003).
[PubMed]

Huang, J. P.

Kajiya, F.

Kano, M.

Koyama, J.

Lech, G.

G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. MohlerIII, and A. G. Yodh, "Time-dependent blood flow and oxygenation in human skeletal muscles measured with noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024,027-1-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maret, G.

M. Heckmeier, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, and R. Maynard, "Imaging of dynamic heterogeneities in multiple scattering media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 185-191 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Heckmeier and G. Maret, "Visualization of flow in multiple-scattering liquids," Europhys. Lett. 34, 257- 262 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Bicout and G. Maret, "Multiple light scattering in Taylor-Couette flow," Physica A 210, 87-112 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Maret and P. E. Wolf, "Multiple light scattering from disordered media: The effect of Brownian motion of scatterers," Z. Phys. B 65, 409-413 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Matcher, S. J.

Maynard, R.

Menon, C.

C. Menon, G. M. Polin, I. Prabakaran, A. Hsi, C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, J. F. Pingpank, C. S. Sehgal, A. G. Yodh, D. G. Buerk, and D. L. Fraker, "An Integrated Approach to Measuring Tumor Oxygen Status Using Human Melanoma Xenografts as a Model," Cancer Res. 63, 7232-7240 (2003).
[PubMed]

Mohler, E. R.

G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. MohlerIII, and A. G. Yodh, "Time-dependent blood flow and oxygenation in human skeletal muscles measured with noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024,027-1-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nishihara, H.

Pham, K. N.

K. N. Pham, S. U. Egelhaaf, A. Moussa¨ıd, and P. Pusey, "Ensemble-averaging in dynamic light scattering by an echo technique," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2419-2431 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pine, D. J.

X.-L. Wu, D. J. Pine, P. M. Chaikin, J. P. Huang, and D. A. Weitz, "Diffusing-wave spectroscopy in a shear flow," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 15-20 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, J. X. Zhu, and E. Herbolzheimer, "Diffusing-wave spectroscopy: dynamic light scattering in the multiple scattering limit," J. Phys. (France) 51, 2101-2127 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, "Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1134-1137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pingpank, J. F.

C. Menon, G. M. Polin, I. Prabakaran, A. Hsi, C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, J. F. Pingpank, C. S. Sehgal, A. G. Yodh, D. G. Buerk, and D. L. Fraker, "An Integrated Approach to Measuring Tumor Oxygen Status Using Human Melanoma Xenografts as a Model," Cancer Res. 63, 7232-7240 (2003).
[PubMed]

Polin, G. M.

C. Menon, G. M. Polin, I. Prabakaran, A. Hsi, C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, J. F. Pingpank, C. S. Sehgal, A. G. Yodh, D. G. Buerk, and D. L. Fraker, "An Integrated Approach to Measuring Tumor Oxygen Status Using Human Melanoma Xenografts as a Model," Cancer Res. 63, 7232-7240 (2003).
[PubMed]

Prabakaran, I.

C. Menon, G. M. Polin, I. Prabakaran, A. Hsi, C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, J. F. Pingpank, C. S. Sehgal, A. G. Yodh, D. G. Buerk, and D. L. Fraker, "An Integrated Approach to Measuring Tumor Oxygen Status Using Human Melanoma Xenografts as a Model," Cancer Res. 63, 7232-7240 (2003).
[PubMed]

Putt, M. E.

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H.-W. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. S. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Noninvasive Monitoring of Murine Tumor Blood Flow During and After Photodynamic Therapy Provides Early Assessment of Therapeutic Efficacy," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 3543-3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ri?cka, J.

Saunders, H. M.

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H.-W. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. S. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Noninvasive Monitoring of Murine Tumor Blood Flow During and After Photodynamic Therapy Provides Early Assessment of Therapeutic Efficacy," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 3543-3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sehgal, C. S.

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H.-W. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. S. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Noninvasive Monitoring of Murine Tumor Blood Flow During and After Photodynamic Therapy Provides Early Assessment of Therapeutic Efficacy," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 3543-3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Menon, G. M. Polin, I. Prabakaran, A. Hsi, C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, J. F. Pingpank, C. S. Sehgal, A. G. Yodh, D. G. Buerk, and D. L. Fraker, "An Integrated Approach to Measuring Tumor Oxygen Status Using Human Melanoma Xenografts as a Model," Cancer Res. 63, 7232-7240 (2003).
[PubMed]

Skipetrov, S. E.

Takahashi, K.

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2053-2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, T.

Tchou, J. C.

Wang, H.-W.

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H.-W. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. S. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Noninvasive Monitoring of Murine Tumor Blood Flow During and After Photodynamic Therapy Provides Early Assessment of Therapeutic Efficacy," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 3543-3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Weitz, D. A.

L. Cipelletti and D. A. Weitz, "Ultralow-angle dynamic light scattering with a charge coupled device camera based multispeckle, multitau correlator," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3214-3221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, J. X. Zhu, and E. Herbolzheimer, "Diffusing-wave spectroscopy: dynamic light scattering in the multiple scattering limit," J. Phys. (France) 51, 2101-2127 (1990).
[CrossRef]

X.-L. Wu, D. J. Pine, P. M. Chaikin, J. P. Huang, and D. A. Weitz, "Diffusing-wave spectroscopy in a shear flow," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 15-20 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, "Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1134-1137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiltzius, P.

A. P. Y. Wong and P. Wiltzius, "Dynamic light scattering with a CCD camera," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2547-2549 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, P. E.

G. Maret and P. E. Wolf, "Multiple light scattering from disordered media: The effect of Brownian motion of scatterers," Z. Phys. B 65, 409-413 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wong, A. P. Y.

A. P. Y. Wong and P. Wiltzius, "Dynamic light scattering with a CCD camera," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2547-2549 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X.-L.

Yodh, A. G.

C. Zhou, G. Yu, D. Furuya, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and T. Durduran, "Diffuse optical correlation tomography of cerebral blood flow during cortical spreading depression in rat brain," Opt. Express 14, 1125-1144 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H.-W. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. S. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Noninvasive Monitoring of Murine Tumor Blood Flow During and After Photodynamic Therapy Provides Early Assessment of Therapeutic Efficacy," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 3543-3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. MohlerIII, and A. G. Yodh, "Time-dependent blood flow and oxygenation in human skeletal muscles measured with noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024,027-1-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, G. Yu, C. Zhou, J. C. Tchou, B. J. Czerniecki, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical measurements of blood flow in breast tumors," Opt. Lett. 30, 2915-2917 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation," Opt. Lett. 29, 1766-1768 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, M. G. Burnett, G. Yu, C. Zhou, D. Furuya, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and J. H. Greenberg, "Spatiotemporal Quantification of Cerebral Blood Flow During Functional Activation in Rat Somatosensory Cortex Using Laser-Speckle Flowmetry," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 24, 518-524 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Menon, G. M. Polin, I. Prabakaran, A. Hsi, C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, J. F. Pingpank, C. S. Sehgal, A. G. Yodh, D. G. Buerk, and D. L. Fraker, "An Integrated Approach to Measuring Tumor Oxygen Status Using Human Melanoma Xenografts as a Model," Cancer Res. 63, 7232-7240 (2003).
[PubMed]

J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse Optical Tomography of Cerebral Blood Flow, Oxygenation, and Metabolism in Rat During Focal Ischemia," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 911-923 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2053-2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas and A. G. Yodh, "Spatially varying dynamical properties of turbid media probed with diffusing temporal light correlation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 192-215 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, "Scattering and Imaging with Diffusing Temporal Field Correlations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1855-1858 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, G.

C. Zhou, G. Yu, D. Furuya, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and T. Durduran, "Diffuse optical correlation tomography of cerebral blood flow during cortical spreading depression in rat brain," Opt. Express 14, 1125-1144 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. MohlerIII, and A. G. Yodh, "Time-dependent blood flow and oxygenation in human skeletal muscles measured with noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024,027-1-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H.-W. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. S. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Noninvasive Monitoring of Murine Tumor Blood Flow During and After Photodynamic Therapy Provides Early Assessment of Therapeutic Efficacy," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 3543-3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, G. Yu, C. Zhou, J. C. Tchou, B. J. Czerniecki, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical measurements of blood flow in breast tumors," Opt. Lett. 30, 2915-2917 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation," Opt. Lett. 29, 1766-1768 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, M. G. Burnett, G. Yu, C. Zhou, D. Furuya, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and J. H. Greenberg, "Spatiotemporal Quantification of Cerebral Blood Flow During Functional Activation in Rat Somatosensory Cortex Using Laser-Speckle Flowmetry," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 24, 518-524 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, C.

C. Zhou, G. Yu, D. Furuya, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and T. Durduran, "Diffuse optical correlation tomography of cerebral blood flow during cortical spreading depression in rat brain," Opt. Express 14, 1125-1144 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H.-W. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. S. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Noninvasive Monitoring of Murine Tumor Blood Flow During and After Photodynamic Therapy Provides Early Assessment of Therapeutic Efficacy," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 3543-3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. MohlerIII, and A. G. Yodh, "Time-dependent blood flow and oxygenation in human skeletal muscles measured with noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024,027-1-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, G. Yu, C. Zhou, J. C. Tchou, B. J. Czerniecki, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical measurements of blood flow in breast tumors," Opt. Lett. 30, 2915-2917 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation," Opt. Lett. 29, 1766-1768 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, M. G. Burnett, G. Yu, C. Zhou, D. Furuya, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and J. H. Greenberg, "Spatiotemporal Quantification of Cerebral Blood Flow During Functional Activation in Rat Somatosensory Cortex Using Laser-Speckle Flowmetry," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 24, 518-524 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, J. X.

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, J. X. Zhu, and E. Herbolzheimer, "Diffusing-wave spectroscopy: dynamic light scattering in the multiple scattering limit," J. Phys. (France) 51, 2101-2127 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Cancer Res. (1)

C. Menon, G. M. Polin, I. Prabakaran, A. Hsi, C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, J. F. Pingpank, C. S. Sehgal, A. G. Yodh, D. G. Buerk, and D. L. Fraker, "An Integrated Approach to Measuring Tumor Oxygen Status Using Human Melanoma Xenografts as a Model," Cancer Res. 63, 7232-7240 (2003).
[PubMed]

Clin. Cancer Res. (1)

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H.-W. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. S. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Noninvasive Monitoring of Murine Tumor Blood Flow During and After Photodynamic Therapy Provides Early Assessment of Therapeutic Efficacy," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 3543-3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

M. Heckmeier and G. Maret, "Visualization of flow in multiple-scattering liquids," Europhys. Lett. 34, 257- 262 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. MohlerIII, and A. G. Yodh, "Time-dependent blood flow and oxygenation in human skeletal muscles measured with noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024,027-1-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (2)

J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse Optical Tomography of Cerebral Blood Flow, Oxygenation, and Metabolism in Rat During Focal Ischemia," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 911-923 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, M. G. Burnett, G. Yu, C. Zhou, D. Furuya, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and J. H. Greenberg, "Spatiotemporal Quantification of Cerebral Blood Flow During Functional Activation in Rat Somatosensory Cortex Using Laser-Speckle Flowmetry," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 24, 518-524 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. (France) (1)

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, J. X. Zhu, and E. Herbolzheimer, "Diffusing-wave spectroscopy: dynamic light scattering in the multiple scattering limit," J. Phys. (France) 51, 2101-2127 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2053-2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, "Scattering and Imaging with Diffusing Temporal Field Correlations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1855-1858 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, "Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1134-1137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physica A (2)

D. Bicout and R. Maynard, "Diffusing wave spectroscopy in inhomogeneous flows," Physica A 199, 387-411 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Bicout and G. Maret, "Multiple light scattering in Taylor-Couette flow," Physica A 210, 87-112 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (4)

A. P. Y. Wong and P. Wiltzius, "Dynamic light scattering with a CCD camera," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2547-2549 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Cipelletti and D. A. Weitz, "Ultralow-angle dynamic light scattering with a charge coupled device camera based multispeckle, multitau correlator," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3214-3221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Pham, S. U. Egelhaaf, A. Moussa¨ıd, and P. Pusey, "Ensemble-averaging in dynamic light scattering by an echo technique," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2419-2431 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Burstyn, "Afterpulsing effects in photon correlation experiments," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 51, 1431-1433 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. B (1)

G. Maret and P. E. Wolf, "Multiple light scattering from disordered media: The effect of Brownian motion of scatterers," Z. Phys. B 65, 409-413 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, "Non-Invasive Detection of Functional Brain Activity with Near-Infrared Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044002-1-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Fung, Biodynamics. Circulation (Springer, New York, 1984).

L. Galea, M. Schembri, and M. Debono, "Sympathetic Vasomotor Response of the Radial Artery in Patients with End Stage Renal Disease," Internet J. Nephrol.  2 (2005).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for time-resolved DWS. BS: beam splitter, APD: avalanche photodiodes.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Circles: measured time-averaged photon-count autocorrelation functions gt(2)(τ) (a), (d), regularisation factors α(τ) (b), (e) and retrieved ensemble-averaged intensity autocorrelation functions g (2)(τ) (c), (f) from a colloidal suspension. The data in the left column (a-c) were obtained with periodic gating with T 1 = 200ms and T 2 = 600ms. The right column (d-f) shows data obtained with quasi-periodic gating derived from the human pulsation signal with T 1 = 200 ms and T 2 varying between 630 and 700 ms. For comparison, g (2)(τ) measured without gating is also shown in (c) and (f) (asterisks). The full lines in (b) and (e) are fits of Eq. (6) to the measured α(τ). Best-fit parameters are T/(N open T 1) = 4.080, T/(N open T 2) = (20.6 ± 0.2) s-1 for (b) and T/(N open T 1) = 4.050, T/(N open T 2) = (21.8±0.3)s-1 for (e). Insets: differences between autocorrelation functions obtained with the gating technique and by an ungated experiment.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental arrangement in the forearm experiment. The sensor consisting of source and receiver fibers is placed along the radius. Pulsation is monitored by a pulse oxymeter probe placed at the ring finger tip.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Oxymeter signal recorded at the ring finger tip (top) and relative decay rate of the intensity autocorrelation function g (2)(τ) measured on the forearm for different phases of pulsation (bottom). The relative decay rate is the ratio between the decay rates τd1 measured with and without gating, respectively. During this experiment, the subject pulsation rate was about 75/min., thus the maximal delay is about two pulsation cycles. The error bars represent the standard deviation over 5 repeated measurements for each delay. In this experiment, the source-receiver distance is 2.3cm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Experimental arrangement in the wrist experiment. Pulsation is monitored by a pulse oxymeter probe placed at the ring finger tip.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Intensity autocorrelation functions g (2)(τ) recorded on the wrist for a systolic phase (time = [850,1050]ms, circles) and a diastolic phase (time = [1250,1450]ms, squares). The error bars represent the standard deviation over 5 repeated measurements. The source-receiver distance is 2.3cm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Oxymeter signal recorded at the ring finger tip (top) and relative decay rate of the intensity autocorrelation function g (2)(τ) measured on the wrist for different phases of pulsation (bottom). During this experiment, the subject heartbeat rate was about 75/min., thus the maximal delay is about two pulsation cycles. The error bars represent the standard deviation over 5 repeated measurements for each delay.

Equations (6)

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g ( 2 ) r τ = l * r τ exp [ 1 3 k 0 2 Δ r 2 ( τ ) s l * ] d s .
g t ( 2 ) ( τ ) = 1 T τ 0 T τ I 1 ( t ) M ( t ) I 1 ( t + τ ) M ( t + τ ) d t [ 1 T 0 T I 1 ( t ) M ( t ) d t ] 2 .
g t ( 2 ) ( τ ) = α ( τ ) g ( 2 ) ( τ ) ,
α ( τ ) = 1 T τ 0 T τ M ( t ) M ( t + τ ) d t [ 1 T 0 T M ( t ) d t ] 2 .
α ( τ ) = ( T 1 τ ) ( T 1 + T 2 ) T 1 2 .
α ( τ ) = ( T 1 τ ) T 2 ( T τ ) T 1 2 N open T N open T 1 N open T 1 2 .

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