Abstract

Noninvasive angiography is demonstrated for the in vivo human eye. Three-dimensional flow imaging has been performed with high-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Sample motion is compensated by two algorithms. Axial motion between adjacent A-lines within one OCT image is compensated by the Doppler shift due to bulk sample motion. Axial displacements between neighboring images are compensated by a correlation-based algorithm. Three-dimensional vasculature of ocular vessels has been visualized. By integrating volume sets of flow images, two-dimensional images of blood vessels are obtained. Retinal and choroidal blood vessel images are simultaneously obtained by separating the volume set into retinal part and choroidal parts. These are corresponding to fluorescein angiogram and indocyanine angiogram.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2006

2005

S. Jiao, R. Knighton, X. Huang, G. Gregori, and C. A. Puliafito, "Simultaneous acquisition of sectional and fundus ophthalmic images with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 13, 444-452 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S.-H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, "Realtime fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 μm," Opt. Express 13, 3931-3944 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mujat, R. C. Chan, B. Cense, B. H. Park, C. Joo, T. Akkin, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, "Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness map determined from optical coherence tomography images," Opt. Express 13, 9480-9491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 3393-3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. C. Chen, B. Cense,M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, B. R. White, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "Spectral domain optical coherence tomography: ultra-high speed, ultra-high resolution ophthalmic imaging," Arch. Ophthalmol. 123, 1715-1720 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K.-P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investi- gation of human anterior eye segments," Opt. Express 13, 10,652-10,664 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

V. X. Yang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, J. Pekar, S. Lo, E. Seng-Yue, A. Mok, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, "High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography(Part I): System design, signal processing, and performance," Opt. Express 11, 794-809 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, C. Hitzenberger, and A. Fercher, "Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 2067-2069 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. Fercher, R. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, "Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 3116-3121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography," Opt. Express 11, 3490-3497 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, "In vivo imaging of human retinal flow dynamics by color Doppler optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 235-239 (2003).
[PubMed]

2002

J. Flammer, S. Orgul, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J.-P. Renard, and E. Stefansson, "The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21, 359-393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. X. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, "Improved phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography using Kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation," Opt. Commun. 208, 209-214 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Westphal, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, "Real-time, high velocity-resolution color Doppler optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 34-36 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ding, Y. Zhao, H. Ren, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, "Real-time phase-resolved optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography," Opt. Express 10, 236-245 (2002).
[PubMed]

2000

1999

T. Mitsui, "Dynamic range of optical reflectometry with spectral interferometry," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6133- 6137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. K. Barton, J. A. Izatt, M. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, and A. Welch, "Three-dimensional reconstruction of blood vessels from in vivo color Doppler optical coherence tomography images," Dermatology 198, 355-361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Feke, A. Yoshida, and C. L. Schepens, "Laser based instruments for ocular blood flow assessment," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 415-422 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

E. Friedman, "A hemodynamic model of the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 124, 677-682 (1997).

1996

G. Michelson, B. Schmauss, M. Langhans, J. Haraznv, and M. Groh, "Principle, validity, and reliability of scanning laser Doppler flowmetry," J. Glaucoma 5, 99-105 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

G. Michelson and B. Schmauss, "Two dimensional mapping of the perfusion of the retina and optic nerve head." Br. J. Ophthalmol. 79, 1126-1132 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, T. Milner, and J. Nelson, "Characterization of fluid flow velocity by optical Doppler tomography," Opt. Lett. 20, 1337-1339 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

Y. Tamaki, M. Araie, E. Kawamoto, S. Eguchi, and H. Fujii, "Noncontact, two-dimensional measurement of retinal microcirculation using laser speckle phenomenon," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 3825-3834 (1994).
[PubMed]

M. Hope-Ross, L. Yannuzzi, E. Gragoudas, D. Guyer, J. Slakter, J. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. Orlock, and C. Puliafito, "Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green," Ophthalmology 101, 529-533 (1994).
[PubMed]

C. E. Riva, S. D. Cranstoun, J. E. Grunwald, and B. L. Petrig, "Choroidal blood flow in the foveal region of the human ocular fundus," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 4273-4281 (1994).
[PubMed]

1992

C. E. Riva, S. Harino, B. Petrig, and R. Shonat, "Laser Doppler flowmetry in the optic nerve," Exp. Eye Res. 55, 499-506 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Patel, S. Rassam, R. Newsom, J. Wiek, and E. Kohner, "Retinal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy." BMJ 305(6855), 678-683 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

L. Ferman, H. Collewijn, T. C. Jansen, and A. V. V. den Berg, "Human gaze stability in the horizontal, vertical and torsional direction during voluntary head movements, evaluated with a three-dimensional scleral induction coil technique," Vision Res. 27, 811-828 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

L. Yannuzzi, K. Rohrer, L. Tindel, R. Sobel, M. Costanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, "Fluorescein angiography complication survey," Ophthalmology 93, 611-617 (1986).
[PubMed]

1982

J. Briers and A. Fercher, "Retinal blood-flow visualization by means of laser speckle photography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 22, 255-259 (1982).

1981

R. Bonner and R. Nossal, "Model for laser Doppler measurements of blood flow in tissue," Appl. Opt. 20, 2097- 2107 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Freedman and P. Diaconis, "On the histogramas a density estimator: L2 theory," Z.Wahrscheinlichkeitstheorie verw.Gebiete 57, 453-476 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979

1978

Ahlers, C.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 3393-3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akiba, M.

Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K.-P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investi- gation of human anterior eye segments," Opt. Express 13, 10,652-10,664 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Akkin, T.

Araie, M.

Y. Tamaki, M. Araie, E. Kawamoto, S. Eguchi, and H. Fujii, "Noncontact, two-dimensional measurement of retinal microcirculation using laser speckle phenomenon," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 3825-3834 (1994).
[PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

Barton, J. K.

J. K. Barton, J. A. Izatt, M. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, and A. Welch, "Three-dimensional reconstruction of blood vessels from in vivo color Doppler optical coherence tomography images," Dermatology 198, 355-361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Benary, V.

Bonner, R.

Bouma, B. E.

T. C. Chen, B. Cense,M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, B. R. White, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "Spectral domain optical coherence tomography: ultra-high speed, ultra-high resolution ophthalmic imaging," Arch. Ophthalmol. 123, 1715-1720 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S.-H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, "Realtime fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 μm," Opt. Express 13, 3931-3944 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve," Opt. Express 12, 367-376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, T. C. Chen, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 480-482 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. C. Chen, B. Cense,M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, B. R. White, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "Spectral domain optical coherence tomography: ultra-high speed, ultra-high resolution ophthalmic imaging," Arch. Ophthalmol. 123, 1715-1720 (2005).
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Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K.-P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investi- gation of human anterior eye segments," Opt. Express 13, 10,652-10,664 (2005).
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Chang, W.

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V. X. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, "Improved phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography using Kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation," Opt. Commun. 208, 209-214 (2002).
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J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 2067-2069 (2003)
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J. Flammer, S. Orgul, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J.-P. Renard, and E. Stefansson, "The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21, 359-393 (2002).
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M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
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C. E. Riva, S. D. Cranstoun, J. E. Grunwald, and B. L. Petrig, "Choroidal blood flow in the foveal region of the human ocular fundus," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 4273-4281 (1994).
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G. Michelson, B. Schmauss, M. Langhans, J. Haraznv, and M. Groh, "Principle, validity, and reliability of scanning laser Doppler flowmetry," J. Glaucoma 5, 99-105 (1996).
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M. Hope-Ross, L. Yannuzzi, E. Gragoudas, D. Guyer, J. Slakter, J. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. Orlock, and C. Puliafito, "Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green," Ophthalmology 101, 529-533 (1994).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
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L. Ferman, H. Collewijn, T. C. Jansen, and A. V. V. den Berg, "Human gaze stability in the horizontal, vertical and torsional direction during voluntary head movements, evaluated with a three-dimensional scleral induction coil technique," Vision Res. 27, 811-828 (1987).
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Joo, C.

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Y. Tamaki, M. Araie, E. Kawamoto, S. Eguchi, and H. Fujii, "Noncontact, two-dimensional measurement of retinal microcirculation using laser speckle phenomenon," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 3825-3834 (1994).
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M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
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J. Flammer, S. Orgul, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J.-P. Renard, and E. Stefansson, "The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21, 359-393 (2002).
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M. Hope-Ross, L. Yannuzzi, E. Gragoudas, D. Guyer, J. Slakter, J. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. Orlock, and C. Puliafito, "Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green," Ophthalmology 101, 529-533 (1994).
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J. K. Barton, J. A. Izatt, M. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, and A. Welch, "Three-dimensional reconstruction of blood vessels from in vivo color Doppler optical coherence tomography images," Dermatology 198, 355-361 (1998).
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G. Michelson, B. Schmauss, M. Langhans, J. Haraznv, and M. Groh, "Principle, validity, and reliability of scanning laser Doppler flowmetry," J. Glaucoma 5, 99-105 (1996).
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U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 3393-3402 (2005).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
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U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 3393-3402 (2005).
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V. X. Yang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, J. Pekar, S. Lo, E. Seng-Yue, A. Mok, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, "High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography(Part I): System design, signal processing, and performance," Opt. Express 11, 794-809 (2003).
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V. X. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, "Improved phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography using Kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation," Opt. Commun. 208, 209-214 (2002).
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Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K.-P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investi- gation of human anterior eye segments," Opt. Express 13, 10,652-10,664 (2005).
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Nassif, N. A.

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Newsom, R.

V. Patel, S. Rassam, R. Newsom, J. Wiek, and E. Kohner, "Retinal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy." BMJ 305(6855), 678-683 (1992).
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Orgul, S.

J. Flammer, S. Orgul, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J.-P. Renard, and E. Stefansson, "The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21, 359-393 (2002).
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M. Hope-Ross, L. Yannuzzi, E. Gragoudas, D. Guyer, J. Slakter, J. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. Orlock, and C. Puliafito, "Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green," Ophthalmology 101, 529-533 (1994).
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J. Flammer, S. Orgul, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J.-P. Renard, and E. Stefansson, "The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21, 359-393 (2002).
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T. C. Chen, B. Cense,M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, B. R. White, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "Spectral domain optical coherence tomography: ultra-high speed, ultra-high resolution ophthalmic imaging," Arch. Ophthalmol. 123, 1715-1720 (2005).
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B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S.-H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, "Realtime fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 μm," Opt. Express 13, 3931-3944 (2005).
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M. Mujat, R. C. Chan, B. Cense, B. H. Park, C. Joo, T. Akkin, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, "Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness map determined from optical coherence tomography images," Opt. Express 13, 9480-9491 (2005).
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N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, T. C. Chen, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 480-482 (2004).
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B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography," Opt. Express 11, 3490-3497 (2003).
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J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 2067-2069 (2003)
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Patel, V.

V. Patel, S. Rassam, R. Newsom, J. Wiek, and E. Kohner, "Retinal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy." BMJ 305(6855), 678-683 (1992).
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Petrig, B.

C. E. Riva, S. Harino, B. Petrig, and R. Shonat, "Laser Doppler flowmetry in the optic nerve," Exp. Eye Res. 55, 499-506 (1992).
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C. E. Riva, S. D. Cranstoun, J. E. Grunwald, and B. L. Petrig, "Choroidal blood flow in the foveal region of the human ocular fundus," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 4273-4281 (1994).
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M. Hope-Ross, L. Yannuzzi, E. Gragoudas, D. Guyer, J. Slakter, J. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. Orlock, and C. Puliafito, "Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green," Ophthalmology 101, 529-533 (1994).
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Rassam, S.

V. Patel, S. Rassam, R. Newsom, J. Wiek, and E. Kohner, "Retinal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy." BMJ 305(6855), 678-683 (1992).
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Renard, J.-P.

J. Flammer, S. Orgul, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J.-P. Renard, and E. Stefansson, "The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21, 359-393 (2002).
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C. E. Riva, S. D. Cranstoun, J. E. Grunwald, and B. L. Petrig, "Choroidal blood flow in the foveal region of the human ocular fundus," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 4273-4281 (1994).
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C. E. Riva, S. Harino, B. Petrig, and R. Shonat, "Laser Doppler flowmetry in the optic nerve," Exp. Eye Res. 55, 499-506 (1992).
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C. E. Riva, G. T. Feke, B. Eberli, and V. Benary, "Bidirectional LDV system for absolute measurement of blood speed in retinal vessels," Appl. Opt. 18, 2301-2306 (1979).
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L. Yannuzzi, K. Rohrer, L. Tindel, R. Sobel, M. Costanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, "Fluorescein angiography complication survey," Ophthalmology 93, 611-617 (1986).
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Rollins, A. M.

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, "In vivo imaging of human retinal flow dynamics by color Doppler optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 235-239 (2003).
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V. Westphal, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, "Real-time, high velocity-resolution color Doppler optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 34-36 (2002).
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Rollins, A.M.

Sacu, S.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 3393-3402 (2005).
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Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K.-P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investi- gation of human anterior eye segments," Opt. Express 13, 10,652-10,664 (2005).
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U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 3393-3402 (2005).
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G. Michelson, B. Schmauss, M. Langhans, J. Haraznv, and M. Groh, "Principle, validity, and reliability of scanning laser Doppler flowmetry," J. Glaucoma 5, 99-105 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Michelson and B. Schmauss, "Two dimensional mapping of the perfusion of the retina and optic nerve head." Br. J. Ophthalmol. 79, 1126-1132 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmetterer, L.

Schmidt-Erfurth, U.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 3393-3402 (2005).
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Scholda, C.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 3393-3402 (2005).
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M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
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Seng-Yue, E.

Serra, L. M.

J. Flammer, S. Orgul, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J.-P. Renard, and E. Stefansson, "The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21, 359-393 (2002).
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Shields, W.

L. Yannuzzi, K. Rohrer, L. Tindel, R. Sobel, M. Costanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, "Fluorescein angiography complication survey," Ophthalmology 93, 611-617 (1986).
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C. E. Riva, S. Harino, B. Petrig, and R. Shonat, "Laser Doppler flowmetry in the optic nerve," Exp. Eye Res. 55, 499-506 (1992).
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M. Hope-Ross, L. Yannuzzi, E. Gragoudas, D. Guyer, J. Slakter, J. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. Orlock, and C. Puliafito, "Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green," Ophthalmology 101, 529-533 (1994).
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L. Yannuzzi, K. Rohrer, L. Tindel, R. Sobel, M. Costanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, "Fluorescein angiography complication survey," Ophthalmology 93, 611-617 (1986).
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M. Hope-Ross, L. Yannuzzi, E. Gragoudas, D. Guyer, J. Slakter, J. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. Orlock, and C. Puliafito, "Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green," Ophthalmology 101, 529-533 (1994).
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M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
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J. Flammer, S. Orgul, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, J.-P. Renard, and E. Stefansson, "The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21, 359-393 (2002).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
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Y. Tamaki, M. Araie, E. Kawamoto, S. Eguchi, and H. Fujii, "Noncontact, two-dimensional measurement of retinal microcirculation using laser speckle phenomenon," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35, 3825-3834 (1994).
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T. C. Chen, B. Cense,M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, B. R. White, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "Spectral domain optical coherence tomography: ultra-high speed, ultra-high resolution ophthalmic imaging," Arch. Ophthalmol. 123, 1715-1720 (2005).
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B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S.-H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, "Realtime fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 μm," Opt. Express 13, 3931-3944 (2005).
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N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, T. C. Chen, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 480-482 (2004).
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N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve," Opt. Express 12, 367-376 (2004).
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B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography," Opt. Express 11, 3490-3497 (2003).
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J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 2067-2069 (2003)
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L. Yannuzzi, K. Rohrer, L. Tindel, R. Sobel, M. Costanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, "Fluorescein angiography complication survey," Ophthalmology 93, 611-617 (1986).
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V. X. Yang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, J. Pekar, S. Lo, E. Seng-Yue, A. Mok, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, "High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography(Part I): System design, signal processing, and performance," Opt. Express 11, 794-809 (2003).
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V. X. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, "Improved phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography using Kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation," Opt. Commun. 208, 209-214 (2002).
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T. C. Chen, B. Cense,M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, B. R. White, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "Spectral domain optical coherence tomography: ultra-high speed, ultra-high resolution ophthalmic imaging," Arch. Ophthalmol. 123, 1715-1720 (2005).
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B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography," Opt. Express 11, 3490-3497 (2003).
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V. Patel, S. Rassam, R. Newsom, J. Wiek, and E. Kohner, "Retinal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy." BMJ 305(6855), 678-683 (1992).
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V. X. Yang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, J. Pekar, S. Lo, E. Seng-Yue, A. Mok, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, "High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography(Part I): System design, signal processing, and performance," Opt. Express 11, 794-809 (2003).
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V. X. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, "Improved phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography using Kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation," Opt. Commun. 208, 209-214 (2002).
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M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
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Yang, V. X.

V. X. Yang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, J. Pekar, S. Lo, E. Seng-Yue, A. Mok, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, "High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography(Part I): System design, signal processing, and performance," Opt. Express 11, 794-809 (2003).
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V. X. Yang, M. L. Gordon, A. Mok, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, R. S. Cobbold, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, "Improved phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography using Kasai velocity estimator and histogram segmentation," Opt. Commun. 208, 209-214 (2002).
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M. Hope-Ross, L. Yannuzzi, E. Gragoudas, D. Guyer, J. Slakter, J. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. Orlock, and C. Puliafito, "Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green," Ophthalmology 101, 529-533 (1994).
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L. Yannuzzi, K. Rohrer, L. Tindel, R. Sobel, M. Costanza, W. Shields, and E. Zang, "Fluorescein angiography complication survey," Ophthalmology 93, 611-617 (1986).
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Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K.-P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investi- gation of human anterior eye segments," Opt. Express 13, 10,652-10,664 (2005).
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Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K.-P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investi- gation of human anterior eye segments," Opt. Express 13, 10,652-10,664 (2005).
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S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, "In vivo imaging of human retinal flow dynamics by color Doppler optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 235-239 (2003).
[PubMed]

V. Westphal, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, "Real-time, high velocity-resolution color Doppler optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 34-36 (2002).
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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of a high-speed spectral-domain OCT system

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The diagram of the bulk motion compensation algorithm. ϕi (z),ϕ i (z): phases of i-th A-line before compensation and after compensation, respectively, Δϕi (z): phase differences, Δϕibulk : the phase difference corresponding to the phase shift from 0-th A-line due to the bulk motion of the sample. PW: phase wrapping process.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison of histograms with different number of histogram bins. N: number of histogram bins, M: the number of histograms used in the averaging process. The histogram bin width of each histogram is determined by (a) the phase noise and (b), (c) the Freed-man & Diaconis rule. (c) is the averaged shifted histogram using eight histograms. (d) is a conventional histogram with a histogram bin width equivalent to that of the histogram in (c).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Comparison of the blood flow images after bulk motion correction using different histogram bin width determination methods. Phase-noise-based method (A) and the Freed-man & Diaconis rule (B), (C) are used to determine the histogram bin width. An averaged shifted histogram is used for (C). The white and yellow arrows indicate the bulk motion artifacts due to the correction error. The images consist of 1024 A-lines and cover 1.5 mm in the transversal direction. The black and white colors denote Doppler shifts of -5.6 and +5.6 kHz, respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(1.3 MB) A sequence of OCT images and flow images of the human eye. Each image comprises 4000 A-lines and has a size of 5 mm × 1 mm (lateral × depth). The OCT images (A) without and (B) with the motion compensation for adjacent A-lines are shown. The black arrow denotes the region in which axial image distortion has occurred. (C) Bi-directional flow and (D) the power of Doppler shift images show some vessels. Two retinal blood vessels appear in the bi-directional flow image (white circle). In the power of the Doppler shift image, the retinal vessels (upper white circle) and some choroidal vessels (two lower white circles) appear.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Comparison of the cross section of the three-dimensional OCT volume along the slow-scanning direction. The fundus projection image (A) is produced from the three-dimensional OCT volume set. White arrows represent the fast-scanning direction. The cross-sectional images (B) without motion compensation, (C) with compensation of the axial shift between neighboring frames, and (D) with compensation of the axial shift between adjacent A-lines and neighboring frames corresponding to the red line in (A).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Three-dimensional optical coherence angiography of the macular region. The fundus projection image of the three-dimensional OCT volume set (A) and the sequence of the OCT images (B) are shown (2.22 MB). The segmented anterior (red) and posterior (blue) boundaries of the tissue and the high reflectivity layer (green) are indicated in the OCT images (B). The volume rendering images (E) (1.87 MB) and (F) (1.87 MB) are produced from stacks of bi-directional flow images (C) and the power of Doppler shift images (D). The composite volume rendering image (G) (1.89 MB) is a combination of the retinal part of (E) (encoded in cyan) and the choroidal part of (F) (encoded in yellow). The image size is 5 mm × 5 mm, corresponding to 1024 × 138 A-lines.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Three-dimensional optical coherence angiography of the ONH. (A): (1.89 MB) volume rendering image of the bi-directional flow volume set (upper left), (B): (1.90 MB) volume rendering image of the power of Doppler shift volume set, (C): (1.94 MB) the composite volume rendering image of the retinal part of (A) (cyan) and the choroidal part of (B) (yellow). The image size is 5 mm × 5 mm, corresponding to 1024 × 138 A-lines.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Optical coherence angiography of the macula lutea of the human eye. Each image is produced by the integration of (A) the entire depth, (C) tissue region, (D) retinal part, and (E) choroidal part of the power of Doppler shift images. (F) is a combination of (D) and (E). In the cross-sectional flow image (B), each integration range is indicated.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Optical coherence angiography of the ONH of the human eye. Each image is produced by the integration of (A) the entire depth, (C) tissue region, (D) retinal part, and (E) choroidal part of the power of Doppler shift images. And (F) is a combination of (D) and (E). In the cross-sectional flow image (B), each integration range is indicated.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Comparison of the angiographies of the macula lutea. From the left-hand side, the images of the fundus photography (A), FA (B), and ICGA (C) are shown. Two-dimensional OCA image (D) is cropped to compare it with to the other angiographies (E). The retinal vessels and some choroidal vessels appear in (D), which is in agreement with FA (B) and ICGA (C). The size of the image (E) is 5 mm × 3.6 mm (horizontal × vertical).

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Comparison of the angiographies of the ONH. From the left-hand side, the images of the fundus photography (A), FA (B), and ICGA (C) are shown. Two-dimensional OCA image (D) is cropped to compare it with the other angiographies (E). The retinal vessels and some choroidal vessels appear in (D), which is in agreement with FA (B) and ICGA (C). The size of the image (E) is 5 mm × 3.6 mm (horizontal × vertical).

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Composite image with shadowgram and flow projection image. As compared to the power of Doppler shift projection of the retinal part (A), the shadowgram (B) exhibits a fine retinal vasculature. The composite colored angiograms (C), (D) are obtained from the power of Doppler shift projection of the choroidal part (Fig. 9 (C)) and (A) or (B), respectively.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f i ( z ) = Δ ϕ i ( z ) 2 πT .
σ i 2 ( z ) = Δ ϕ i 2 ( z ) ,
h = 2 IQ m 1 3 ,
v zi = λ 0 4 nπT δ ϕ i bulk .
δ z i = v zi T .
Δ z i = k = 0 i δ z k = λ 0 4 Δ ϕ i bulk ,
χ i ( z ) = Γ [ I i , j + 1 , I i , j ] ( z ) ,

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