Abstract

The quasi-three-level rate equation of continuous wave end-pumped actively Q-switched Tm,Ho:YLF laser is given under considering energy transfer up-conversion and ground state re-absorption. The analytical formula of the pulse energy is derived. The theoretical results show that the overall laser performance is affected by up-conversion effect, and the energy transfer up-conversion effect reduces the pulse energy and the upper level effective lifetime. The practical example of the diode end-pumped actively Q-switched Tm,Ho:YLF is used to verify the present model.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. J. M. Paul and S. W. Henderson, "1-mJ/pulse Tm:YAG laser pumped by a 3-W diode laser," Opt. Lett. 16, 317-319 (1991).
  2. S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, "Coherent laser radar at 2µm using solid-state lasers," IEEE Trans. Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 31, 4-15 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Yu, B. C. Trieu, E. A. Modin, U. P. Singh, M. J. Kavaya, S. Chen, Y. Bai, P. J. Petzar, and M. Petros, "1J/pulse Q-switched 2µm solid-state laser," Opt. Lett. 31, 462-464 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. L. Bourdet and G. Lescroart, "Theoretical modeling and design of a Tm,Ho:YliF4 microchip laser," Appl. Opt. 38, 3275-3281 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Gunnar and S. Knut, "Modeling of laser-pumped Tm and Ho lasers accounting for up-conversion and ground-state depletion," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1645-1655 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Galzerano, E. Sani, A. Toncelli, G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, M. Tonelli, and P. Laporta, "Widely tunable continuous-wave diode-pumped 2-μm Tm-Ho:KYF4 laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 715-717 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. V. Sudesh and K. Asai, "Spectroscopic and diode-pumped-laser properties of Tm,Ho:YLF; Tm,Ho:LuLF; and Tm,Ho:LuAG crystals: A comparative study," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 20, 1829-1837 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. T. Mcguckin, R. T. Menzies, and H. Hemmati, "Efficient energy extraction from a diode-pumped Q-switched Tm,Ho:YLiF4 laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2926-2928 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Wang, X. Zhang, and B. Yao, "Performance of a liquid-nitrogen-cooled CW Tm,Ho:YLF laser," Chin. Opt. Lett. 1, 281-282 (2003).
  10. X. Zhang, Y. Wang, B. Yao, and L. Dong, "Performance of end-pumped Tm,Ho:YLF microchip laser," Chin. J. Lasers. 31, 9-12 (2004).
  11. X. Zhang, Y. Ju, and Y. Wang, "Diode-end-pumped room temperature Tm,Ho:YLF lasers," Opt. Express 13, 4056-4063 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. X. Zhang, Y. Wang, and B. Yao, "Study of LD end-pumped Tm,Ho:YLF laser," Acta Opt. Sin. 24, 88-93 (2004).
  13. X. Zhang, Y. Wang, and Y. Ju, "Influence of energy-transfer up-conversion on Tm,Ho:YLF laser threshold," Acta Phys. Sin. 54, 117-122 (2005).
  14. Y. F. Chen, Y. P. Lan, and S. C. Wang, "Modeling of diode-end-pumped Q-switched solid-state lasers: influence of energy-transfer upconversion," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 19, 1558-1563 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. P. Lan, Y. F. Chen, and S. C. Wang, "Repetition-rate dependence of thermal loading in diode-end-pumped Q-switched laser: influence of energy-transfer upconversion," Appl. Phys. B 71, 27-31 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer, Berlin, 1976).

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

X. Zhang, Y. Ju, and Y. Wang, "Diode-end-pumped room temperature Tm,Ho:YLF lasers," Opt. Express 13, 4056-4063 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, Y. Wang, and Y. Ju, "Influence of energy-transfer up-conversion on Tm,Ho:YLF laser threshold," Acta Phys. Sin. 54, 117-122 (2005).

2004 (3)

X. Zhang, Y. Wang, and B. Yao, "Study of LD end-pumped Tm,Ho:YLF laser," Acta Opt. Sin. 24, 88-93 (2004).

G. Galzerano, E. Sani, A. Toncelli, G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, M. Tonelli, and P. Laporta, "Widely tunable continuous-wave diode-pumped 2-μm Tm-Ho:KYF4 laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 715-717 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, Y. Wang, B. Yao, and L. Dong, "Performance of end-pumped Tm,Ho:YLF microchip laser," Chin. J. Lasers. 31, 9-12 (2004).

2003 (2)

Y. Wang, X. Zhang, and B. Yao, "Performance of a liquid-nitrogen-cooled CW Tm,Ho:YLF laser," Chin. Opt. Lett. 1, 281-282 (2003).

V. Sudesh and K. Asai, "Spectroscopic and diode-pumped-laser properties of Tm,Ho:YLF; Tm,Ho:LuLF; and Tm,Ho:LuAG crystals: A comparative study," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 20, 1829-1837 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Y. F. Chen, Y. P. Lan, and S. C. Wang, "Modeling of diode-end-pumped Q-switched solid-state lasers: influence of energy-transfer upconversion," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 19, 1558-1563 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Y. P. Lan, Y. F. Chen, and S. C. Wang, "Repetition-rate dependence of thermal loading in diode-end-pumped Q-switched laser: influence of energy-transfer upconversion," Appl. Phys. B 71, 27-31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1996 (1)

R. Gunnar and S. Knut, "Modeling of laser-pumped Tm and Ho lasers accounting for up-conversion and ground-state depletion," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1645-1655 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, "Coherent laser radar at 2µm using solid-state lasers," IEEE Trans. Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 31, 4-15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

P. J. M. Paul and S. W. Henderson, "1-mJ/pulse Tm:YAG laser pumped by a 3-W diode laser," Opt. Lett. 16, 317-319 (1991).

B. T. Mcguckin, R. T. Menzies, and H. Hemmati, "Efficient energy extraction from a diode-pumped Q-switched Tm,Ho:YLiF4 laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2926-2928 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Asai, K.

V. Sudesh and K. Asai, "Spectroscopic and diode-pumped-laser properties of Tm,Ho:YLF; Tm,Ho:LuLF; and Tm,Ho:LuAG crystals: A comparative study," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 20, 1829-1837 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bai, Y.

Bourdet, G. L.

Bruns, D. L.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, "Coherent laser radar at 2µm using solid-state lasers," IEEE Trans. Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 31, 4-15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

Chen, Y. F.

Y. F. Chen, Y. P. Lan, and S. C. Wang, "Modeling of diode-end-pumped Q-switched solid-state lasers: influence of energy-transfer upconversion," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 19, 1558-1563 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Lan, Y. F. Chen, and S. C. Wang, "Repetition-rate dependence of thermal loading in diode-end-pumped Q-switched laser: influence of energy-transfer upconversion," Appl. Phys. B 71, 27-31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Della Valle, G.

Dong, L.

X. Zhang, Y. Wang, B. Yao, and L. Dong, "Performance of end-pumped Tm,Ho:YLF microchip laser," Chin. J. Lasers. 31, 9-12 (2004).

Galzerano, G.

Gunnar, R.

R. Gunnar and S. Knut, "Modeling of laser-pumped Tm and Ho lasers accounting for up-conversion and ground-state depletion," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1645-1655 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hale, C. P.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, "Coherent laser radar at 2µm using solid-state lasers," IEEE Trans. Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 31, 4-15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hannon, S. M.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, "Coherent laser radar at 2µm using solid-state lasers," IEEE Trans. Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 31, 4-15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hemmati, H.

B. T. Mcguckin, R. T. Menzies, and H. Hemmati, "Efficient energy extraction from a diode-pumped Q-switched Tm,Ho:YLiF4 laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2926-2928 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, S. W.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, "Coherent laser radar at 2µm using solid-state lasers," IEEE Trans. Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 31, 4-15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. J. M. Paul and S. W. Henderson, "1-mJ/pulse Tm:YAG laser pumped by a 3-W diode laser," Opt. Lett. 16, 317-319 (1991).

Ju, Y.

X. Zhang, Y. Ju, and Y. Wang, "Diode-end-pumped room temperature Tm,Ho:YLF lasers," Opt. Express 13, 4056-4063 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, Y. Wang, and Y. Ju, "Influence of energy-transfer up-conversion on Tm,Ho:YLF laser threshold," Acta Phys. Sin. 54, 117-122 (2005).

Kavaya, M. J.

Knut, S.

R. Gunnar and S. Knut, "Modeling of laser-pumped Tm and Ho lasers accounting for up-conversion and ground-state depletion," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1645-1655 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lan, Y. P.

Y. F. Chen, Y. P. Lan, and S. C. Wang, "Modeling of diode-end-pumped Q-switched solid-state lasers: influence of energy-transfer upconversion," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 19, 1558-1563 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Lan, Y. F. Chen, and S. C. Wang, "Repetition-rate dependence of thermal loading in diode-end-pumped Q-switched laser: influence of energy-transfer upconversion," Appl. Phys. B 71, 27-31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laporta, P.

Lescroart, G.

Magee, J. R.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, "Coherent laser radar at 2µm using solid-state lasers," IEEE Trans. Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 31, 4-15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mcguckin, B. T.

B. T. Mcguckin, R. T. Menzies, and H. Hemmati, "Efficient energy extraction from a diode-pumped Q-switched Tm,Ho:YLiF4 laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2926-2928 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Menzies, R. T.

B. T. Mcguckin, R. T. Menzies, and H. Hemmati, "Efficient energy extraction from a diode-pumped Q-switched Tm,Ho:YLiF4 laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2926-2928 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Modin, E. A.

Paul, P. J. M.

P. J. M. Paul and S. W. Henderson, "1-mJ/pulse Tm:YAG laser pumped by a 3-W diode laser," Opt. Lett. 16, 317-319 (1991).

Petros, M.

Petzar, P. J.

Sani, E.

Singh, U. P.

Sudesh, V.

V. Sudesh and K. Asai, "Spectroscopic and diode-pumped-laser properties of Tm,Ho:YLF; Tm,Ho:LuLF; and Tm,Ho:LuAG crystals: A comparative study," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 20, 1829-1837 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Suni, P. J. M.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, "Coherent laser radar at 2µm using solid-state lasers," IEEE Trans. Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 31, 4-15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Taccheo, S.

Toncelli, A.

Tonelli, M.

Trieu, B. C.

Wang, S. C.

Y. F. Chen, Y. P. Lan, and S. C. Wang, "Modeling of diode-end-pumped Q-switched solid-state lasers: influence of energy-transfer upconversion," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 19, 1558-1563 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Lan, Y. F. Chen, and S. C. Wang, "Repetition-rate dependence of thermal loading in diode-end-pumped Q-switched laser: influence of energy-transfer upconversion," Appl. Phys. B 71, 27-31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

X. Zhang, Y. Wang, and Y. Ju, "Influence of energy-transfer up-conversion on Tm,Ho:YLF laser threshold," Acta Phys. Sin. 54, 117-122 (2005).

X. Zhang, Y. Ju, and Y. Wang, "Diode-end-pumped room temperature Tm,Ho:YLF lasers," Opt. Express 13, 4056-4063 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, Y. Wang, and B. Yao, "Study of LD end-pumped Tm,Ho:YLF laser," Acta Opt. Sin. 24, 88-93 (2004).

X. Zhang, Y. Wang, B. Yao, and L. Dong, "Performance of end-pumped Tm,Ho:YLF microchip laser," Chin. J. Lasers. 31, 9-12 (2004).

Y. Wang, X. Zhang, and B. Yao, "Performance of a liquid-nitrogen-cooled CW Tm,Ho:YLF laser," Chin. Opt. Lett. 1, 281-282 (2003).

Yao, B.

X. Zhang, Y. Wang, B. Yao, and L. Dong, "Performance of end-pumped Tm,Ho:YLF microchip laser," Chin. J. Lasers. 31, 9-12 (2004).

X. Zhang, Y. Wang, and B. Yao, "Study of LD end-pumped Tm,Ho:YLF laser," Acta Opt. Sin. 24, 88-93 (2004).

Y. Wang, X. Zhang, and B. Yao, "Performance of a liquid-nitrogen-cooled CW Tm,Ho:YLF laser," Chin. Opt. Lett. 1, 281-282 (2003).

Yu, J.

Yuen, E. H.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, "Coherent laser radar at 2µm using solid-state lasers," IEEE Trans. Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 31, 4-15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, Y. Wang, and Y. Ju, "Influence of energy-transfer up-conversion on Tm,Ho:YLF laser threshold," Acta Phys. Sin. 54, 117-122 (2005).

X. Zhang, Y. Ju, and Y. Wang, "Diode-end-pumped room temperature Tm,Ho:YLF lasers," Opt. Express 13, 4056-4063 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, Y. Wang, and B. Yao, "Study of LD end-pumped Tm,Ho:YLF laser," Acta Opt. Sin. 24, 88-93 (2004).

X. Zhang, Y. Wang, B. Yao, and L. Dong, "Performance of end-pumped Tm,Ho:YLF microchip laser," Chin. J. Lasers. 31, 9-12 (2004).

Y. Wang, X. Zhang, and B. Yao, "Performance of a liquid-nitrogen-cooled CW Tm,Ho:YLF laser," Chin. Opt. Lett. 1, 281-282 (2003).

Acta Opt. Sin. (1)

X. Zhang, Y. Wang, and B. Yao, "Study of LD end-pumped Tm,Ho:YLF laser," Acta Opt. Sin. 24, 88-93 (2004).

Acta Phys. Sin. (1)

X. Zhang, Y. Wang, and Y. Ju, "Influence of energy-transfer up-conversion on Tm,Ho:YLF laser threshold," Acta Phys. Sin. 54, 117-122 (2005).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

Y. P. Lan, Y. F. Chen, and S. C. Wang, "Repetition-rate dependence of thermal loading in diode-end-pumped Q-switched laser: influence of energy-transfer upconversion," Appl. Phys. B 71, 27-31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. T. Mcguckin, R. T. Menzies, and H. Hemmati, "Efficient energy extraction from a diode-pumped Q-switched Tm,Ho:YLiF4 laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2926-2928 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chin. J. Lasers. (1)

X. Zhang, Y. Wang, B. Yao, and L. Dong, "Performance of end-pumped Tm,Ho:YLF microchip laser," Chin. J. Lasers. 31, 9-12 (2004).

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Gunnar and S. Knut, "Modeling of laser-pumped Tm and Ho lasers accounting for up-conversion and ground-state depletion," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1645-1655 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geoscience and Remote Sensing. (1)

S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, "Coherent laser radar at 2µm using solid-state lasers," IEEE Trans. Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 31, 4-15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. (2)

V. Sudesh and K. Asai, "Spectroscopic and diode-pumped-laser properties of Tm,Ho:YLF; Tm,Ho:LuLF; and Tm,Ho:LuAG crystals: A comparative study," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 20, 1829-1837 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, Y. P. Lan, and S. C. Wang, "Modeling of diode-end-pumped Q-switched solid-state lasers: influence of energy-transfer upconversion," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 19, 1558-1563 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (1)

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer, Berlin, 1976).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Pulse energy versus pulse repetition frequency for different energy transfer up-conversion rates

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Pulse energy versus pulse repetition frequency for different pump powers at the same energy transfer up-conversion rate

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The schematic diagram of LD-pumped Q-switched Tm,Ho:YLF laser

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Pulse energy versus pulse repetition frequency

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d N u dt = R P N u τ ξ N u 2
R P = η P η α P in h v P 1 π ω P 2 l
N max = 1 B [ A ( 1 + B N f + A ) + ( 1 + B N f A ) exp ( A τf ) ( 1 + B N f + A ) ( 1 + B N f A ) exp ( A τf ) 1 ]
A = 1 + 4 τ 2 ξ R P
B = 2 τ ξ
Δ n i = f Ho γ B [ A ( 1 + B N f + A ) + ( 1 + B N f A ) exp ( A τf ) ( 1 + B N f + A ) ( 1 + B N f A ) exp ( A τf ) 1 ] f l N Ho
Δ n f = L 2 σ e l
N f = Δ n f + f l N Ho γ f Ho
E = π ω l 2 lh v l γ ( Δ n i Δ n f ) In ( 1 R ) In ( 1 R ) + L

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