Abstract

The static and dynamic 1.34 μm laser output performance of the Nd:YxGd1-xVO4 mixed crystal, pumped by a flash-lamp, is investigated with different transmissions of output couplers (T =15%, 30%, and 40%) in a plano-concave laser cavity. With the output coupler transmission of T=30%, the static output energy of 62 mJ is obtained when the pump energy is 24.2 J, and the corresponding electric-optical conversion efficiency is 0.26%. By use of a new saturable absorber, Co2+:LaMgAl11O19 (Co:LMA), the passive Q-switching at 1.34 μm is realized when the second threshold condition of passive Q-switching is satisfied. With the cavity length of 245 mm and pump energy of 24.2 J, the single-pulse output energy, pulse width, and peak power are obtained to be 3.5 mJ, 45 ns, and 77.8 kW, respectively.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Qin, X. Meng, C. Du, L. Zhu, B. Xu, Z. Shao, Z. Liu, Q. Fang, and R. Cheng, "Growth and properties of mixed crystal Nd:YGdVO4," J. Alloys Comp. 354, 259-262 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Zhu, L. Qin, X. Meng, C. Du, J. Liu, B. Xu, Z. Shao, "New High-efficiency Laser Crystal Nd:YGdVO4," J. Synth. Cryst. 32, 148-151 (2003) (in Chinese).
  3. J. Liu, X. Meng, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, "Pulse energy enhancement in passive Q-switching operation with a class of Nd:GdxY1-xVO4 crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1289-1291 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. He, X. Hou, L. Qin, Y. Sun, Y. Li, H. Qi, and L. Pan, "Laser-diode pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YxGd1-xVO4 laser with a GaAs saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 234, 305-308 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Yang, J. Liu, and J. He, "Experimental study of diode-pumped Nd:GdxY1-xVO4 continuous wave laser," Acta Opt. Sin. 33, 1153-1155 (2004) (in Chinese).
  6. K. V. Yumashev, "Saturable absorber Co2+:MgAl2O4 crystal for Q switching of 1.34-μm Nd3+:YAlO3 and 1.54-μm Er3+:glass lasers," Appl. Opt. 38, 6343-6346 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Denisov, M. I. Demchuk, N. V. Kuleshov, and K. V. Yumashev, "Co2+:LiGa5O8 saturable absorber passive Q-switch for 1.34μm Nd3+:YAlO3 and 1.54μm Er3+:glass lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2455-2457 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. V. Yumashev, I. A. Denisov, N. N. Posnov, N. V. Kuleshov, R. Moncorge, "Excited state absorption and passive Q-switch performance of Co2+ doped oxide crystals," J. Alloys Comp. 341, 366-370 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T.-Y. Tsai and M. Birnbaum, "Characteristics of Co2+: ZnS saturable-absorber Q switched neodymium lasers at 1.3μm," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2006-2012 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. Ge, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, "Pulsed laser output of LD-end-pumped 1.34μm Nd:GdVO4 laser with Co:LaMgAl11O19 crystal as saturable absorber," Opt. Express 13, 3883-3889 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 5th ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1999), pp. 90-95.
  12. Y. F. Chen, Y. P. Lan, and H. L. Chang, "Analytical model for design criteria of passively Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 462-468 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

Y. He, X. Hou, L. Qin, Y. Sun, Y. Li, H. Qi, and L. Pan, "Laser-diode pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YxGd1-xVO4 laser with a GaAs saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 234, 305-308 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, J. Liu, and J. He, "Experimental study of diode-pumped Nd:GdxY1-xVO4 continuous wave laser," Acta Opt. Sin. 33, 1153-1155 (2004) (in Chinese).

2003 (3)

L. Qin, X. Meng, C. Du, L. Zhu, B. Xu, Z. Shao, Z. Liu, Q. Fang, and R. Cheng, "Growth and properties of mixed crystal Nd:YGdVO4," J. Alloys Comp. 354, 259-262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhu, L. Qin, X. Meng, C. Du, J. Liu, B. Xu, Z. Shao, "New High-efficiency Laser Crystal Nd:YGdVO4," J. Synth. Cryst. 32, 148-151 (2003) (in Chinese).

J. Liu, X. Meng, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, "Pulse energy enhancement in passive Q-switching operation with a class of Nd:GdxY1-xVO4 crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1289-1291 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

K. V. Yumashev, I. A. Denisov, N. N. Posnov, N. V. Kuleshov, R. Moncorge, "Excited state absorption and passive Q-switch performance of Co2+ doped oxide crystals," J. Alloys Comp. 341, 366-370 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

T.-Y. Tsai and M. Birnbaum, "Characteristics of Co2+: ZnS saturable-absorber Q switched neodymium lasers at 1.3μm," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2006-2012 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, Y. P. Lan, and H. L. Chang, "Analytical model for design criteria of passively Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 462-468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. Denisov, M. I. Demchuk, N. V. Kuleshov, and K. V. Yumashev, "Co2+:LiGa5O8 saturable absorber passive Q-switch for 1.34μm Nd3+:YAlO3 and 1.54μm Er3+:glass lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2455-2457 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Birnbaum, M.

T.-Y. Tsai and M. Birnbaum, "Characteristics of Co2+: ZnS saturable-absorber Q switched neodymium lasers at 1.3μm," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2006-2012 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H. L.

Y. F. Chen, Y. P. Lan, and H. L. Chang, "Analytical model for design criteria of passively Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 462-468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

Y. F. Chen, Y. P. Lan, and H. L. Chang, "Analytical model for design criteria of passively Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 462-468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, R.

L. Qin, X. Meng, C. Du, L. Zhu, B. Xu, Z. Shao, Z. Liu, Q. Fang, and R. Cheng, "Growth and properties of mixed crystal Nd:YGdVO4," J. Alloys Comp. 354, 259-262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Demchuk, M. I.

A. Denisov, M. I. Demchuk, N. V. Kuleshov, and K. V. Yumashev, "Co2+:LiGa5O8 saturable absorber passive Q-switch for 1.34μm Nd3+:YAlO3 and 1.54μm Er3+:glass lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2455-2457 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Denisov, A.

A. Denisov, M. I. Demchuk, N. V. Kuleshov, and K. V. Yumashev, "Co2+:LiGa5O8 saturable absorber passive Q-switch for 1.34μm Nd3+:YAlO3 and 1.54μm Er3+:glass lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2455-2457 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Denisov, I. A.

K. V. Yumashev, I. A. Denisov, N. N. Posnov, N. V. Kuleshov, R. Moncorge, "Excited state absorption and passive Q-switch performance of Co2+ doped oxide crystals," J. Alloys Comp. 341, 366-370 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ding, A.

J. Liu, X. Meng, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, "Pulse energy enhancement in passive Q-switching operation with a class of Nd:GdxY1-xVO4 crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1289-1291 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Du, C.

L. Qin, X. Meng, C. Du, L. Zhu, B. Xu, Z. Shao, Z. Liu, Q. Fang, and R. Cheng, "Growth and properties of mixed crystal Nd:YGdVO4," J. Alloys Comp. 354, 259-262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhu, L. Qin, X. Meng, C. Du, J. Liu, B. Xu, Z. Shao, "New High-efficiency Laser Crystal Nd:YGdVO4," J. Synth. Cryst. 32, 148-151 (2003) (in Chinese).

Fang, Q.

L. Qin, X. Meng, C. Du, L. Zhu, B. Xu, Z. Shao, Z. Liu, Q. Fang, and R. Cheng, "Growth and properties of mixed crystal Nd:YGdVO4," J. Alloys Comp. 354, 259-262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ge, W.

He, J.

J. Yang, J. Liu, and J. He, "Experimental study of diode-pumped Nd:GdxY1-xVO4 continuous wave laser," Acta Opt. Sin. 33, 1153-1155 (2004) (in Chinese).

He, Y.

Y. He, X. Hou, L. Qin, Y. Sun, Y. Li, H. Qi, and L. Pan, "Laser-diode pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YxGd1-xVO4 laser with a GaAs saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 234, 305-308 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hou, X.

Y. He, X. Hou, L. Qin, Y. Sun, Y. Li, H. Qi, and L. Pan, "Laser-diode pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YxGd1-xVO4 laser with a GaAs saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 234, 305-308 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, M.

J. Liu, X. Meng, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, "Pulse energy enhancement in passive Q-switching operation with a class of Nd:GdxY1-xVO4 crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1289-1291 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuleshov, N. V.

K. V. Yumashev, I. A. Denisov, N. N. Posnov, N. V. Kuleshov, R. Moncorge, "Excited state absorption and passive Q-switch performance of Co2+ doped oxide crystals," J. Alloys Comp. 341, 366-370 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Denisov, M. I. Demchuk, N. V. Kuleshov, and K. V. Yumashev, "Co2+:LiGa5O8 saturable absorber passive Q-switch for 1.34μm Nd3+:YAlO3 and 1.54μm Er3+:glass lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2455-2457 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lan, Y. P.

Y. F. Chen, Y. P. Lan, and H. L. Chang, "Analytical model for design criteria of passively Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 462-468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. He, X. Hou, L. Qin, Y. Sun, Y. Li, H. Qi, and L. Pan, "Laser-diode pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YxGd1-xVO4 laser with a GaAs saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 234, 305-308 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Yang, J. Liu, and J. He, "Experimental study of diode-pumped Nd:GdxY1-xVO4 continuous wave laser," Acta Opt. Sin. 33, 1153-1155 (2004) (in Chinese).

L. Zhu, L. Qin, X. Meng, C. Du, J. Liu, B. Xu, Z. Shao, "New High-efficiency Laser Crystal Nd:YGdVO4," J. Synth. Cryst. 32, 148-151 (2003) (in Chinese).

J. Liu, X. Meng, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, "Pulse energy enhancement in passive Q-switching operation with a class of Nd:GdxY1-xVO4 crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1289-1291 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

L. Qin, X. Meng, C. Du, L. Zhu, B. Xu, Z. Shao, Z. Liu, Q. Fang, and R. Cheng, "Growth and properties of mixed crystal Nd:YGdVO4," J. Alloys Comp. 354, 259-262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meng, X.

L. Qin, X. Meng, C. Du, L. Zhu, B. Xu, Z. Shao, Z. Liu, Q. Fang, and R. Cheng, "Growth and properties of mixed crystal Nd:YGdVO4," J. Alloys Comp. 354, 259-262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhu, L. Qin, X. Meng, C. Du, J. Liu, B. Xu, Z. Shao, "New High-efficiency Laser Crystal Nd:YGdVO4," J. Synth. Cryst. 32, 148-151 (2003) (in Chinese).

J. Liu, X. Meng, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, "Pulse energy enhancement in passive Q-switching operation with a class of Nd:GdxY1-xVO4 crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1289-1291 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moncorge, R.

K. V. Yumashev, I. A. Denisov, N. N. Posnov, N. V. Kuleshov, R. Moncorge, "Excited state absorption and passive Q-switch performance of Co2+ doped oxide crystals," J. Alloys Comp. 341, 366-370 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ozygus, B.

J. Liu, X. Meng, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, "Pulse energy enhancement in passive Q-switching operation with a class of Nd:GdxY1-xVO4 crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1289-1291 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pan, L.

Y. He, X. Hou, L. Qin, Y. Sun, Y. Li, H. Qi, and L. Pan, "Laser-diode pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YxGd1-xVO4 laser with a GaAs saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 234, 305-308 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Posnov, N. N.

K. V. Yumashev, I. A. Denisov, N. N. Posnov, N. V. Kuleshov, R. Moncorge, "Excited state absorption and passive Q-switch performance of Co2+ doped oxide crystals," J. Alloys Comp. 341, 366-370 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Qi, H.

Y. He, X. Hou, L. Qin, Y. Sun, Y. Li, H. Qi, and L. Pan, "Laser-diode pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YxGd1-xVO4 laser with a GaAs saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 234, 305-308 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Qin, L.

Y. He, X. Hou, L. Qin, Y. Sun, Y. Li, H. Qi, and L. Pan, "Laser-diode pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YxGd1-xVO4 laser with a GaAs saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 234, 305-308 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Qin, X. Meng, C. Du, L. Zhu, B. Xu, Z. Shao, Z. Liu, Q. Fang, and R. Cheng, "Growth and properties of mixed crystal Nd:YGdVO4," J. Alloys Comp. 354, 259-262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhu, L. Qin, X. Meng, C. Du, J. Liu, B. Xu, Z. Shao, "New High-efficiency Laser Crystal Nd:YGdVO4," J. Synth. Cryst. 32, 148-151 (2003) (in Chinese).

Shao, Z.

L. Zhu, L. Qin, X. Meng, C. Du, J. Liu, B. Xu, Z. Shao, "New High-efficiency Laser Crystal Nd:YGdVO4," J. Synth. Cryst. 32, 148-151 (2003) (in Chinese).

L. Qin, X. Meng, C. Du, L. Zhu, B. Xu, Z. Shao, Z. Liu, Q. Fang, and R. Cheng, "Growth and properties of mixed crystal Nd:YGdVO4," J. Alloys Comp. 354, 259-262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, X. Meng, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, "Pulse energy enhancement in passive Q-switching operation with a class of Nd:GdxY1-xVO4 crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1289-1291 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Y. He, X. Hou, L. Qin, Y. Sun, Y. Li, H. Qi, and L. Pan, "Laser-diode pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YxGd1-xVO4 laser with a GaAs saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 234, 305-308 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, T.-Y.

T.-Y. Tsai and M. Birnbaum, "Characteristics of Co2+: ZnS saturable-absorber Q switched neodymium lasers at 1.3μm," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2006-2012 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Weber, H.

J. Liu, X. Meng, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, "Pulse energy enhancement in passive Q-switching operation with a class of Nd:GdxY1-xVO4 crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1289-1291 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, B.

L. Zhu, L. Qin, X. Meng, C. Du, J. Liu, B. Xu, Z. Shao, "New High-efficiency Laser Crystal Nd:YGdVO4," J. Synth. Cryst. 32, 148-151 (2003) (in Chinese).

L. Qin, X. Meng, C. Du, L. Zhu, B. Xu, Z. Shao, Z. Liu, Q. Fang, and R. Cheng, "Growth and properties of mixed crystal Nd:YGdVO4," J. Alloys Comp. 354, 259-262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

J. Yang, J. Liu, and J. He, "Experimental study of diode-pumped Nd:GdxY1-xVO4 continuous wave laser," Acta Opt. Sin. 33, 1153-1155 (2004) (in Chinese).

Yumashev, K. V.

K. V. Yumashev, I. A. Denisov, N. N. Posnov, N. V. Kuleshov, R. Moncorge, "Excited state absorption and passive Q-switch performance of Co2+ doped oxide crystals," J. Alloys Comp. 341, 366-370 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Denisov, M. I. Demchuk, N. V. Kuleshov, and K. V. Yumashev, "Co2+:LiGa5O8 saturable absorber passive Q-switch for 1.34μm Nd3+:YAlO3 and 1.54μm Er3+:glass lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2455-2457 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Yumashev, "Saturable absorber Co2+:MgAl2O4 crystal for Q switching of 1.34-μm Nd3+:YAlO3 and 1.54-μm Er3+:glass lasers," Appl. Opt. 38, 6343-6346 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Zhu, L.

L. Zhu, L. Qin, X. Meng, C. Du, J. Liu, B. Xu, Z. Shao, "New High-efficiency Laser Crystal Nd:YGdVO4," J. Synth. Cryst. 32, 148-151 (2003) (in Chinese).

L. Qin, X. Meng, C. Du, L. Zhu, B. Xu, Z. Shao, Z. Liu, Q. Fang, and R. Cheng, "Growth and properties of mixed crystal Nd:YGdVO4," J. Alloys Comp. 354, 259-262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Acta Opt. Sin. (1)

J. Yang, J. Liu, and J. He, "Experimental study of diode-pumped Nd:GdxY1-xVO4 continuous wave laser," Acta Opt. Sin. 33, 1153-1155 (2004) (in Chinese).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Denisov, M. I. Demchuk, N. V. Kuleshov, and K. V. Yumashev, "Co2+:LiGa5O8 saturable absorber passive Q-switch for 1.34μm Nd3+:YAlO3 and 1.54μm Er3+:glass lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2455-2457 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, X. Meng, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, B. Ozygus, A. Ding, and H. Weber, "Pulse energy enhancement in passive Q-switching operation with a class of Nd:GdxY1-xVO4 crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1289-1291 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. F. Chen, Y. P. Lan, and H. L. Chang, "Analytical model for design criteria of passively Q-switched lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 462-468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloys Comp. (2)

L. Qin, X. Meng, C. Du, L. Zhu, B. Xu, Z. Shao, Z. Liu, Q. Fang, and R. Cheng, "Growth and properties of mixed crystal Nd:YGdVO4," J. Alloys Comp. 354, 259-262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Yumashev, I. A. Denisov, N. N. Posnov, N. V. Kuleshov, R. Moncorge, "Excited state absorption and passive Q-switch performance of Co2+ doped oxide crystals," J. Alloys Comp. 341, 366-370 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T.-Y. Tsai and M. Birnbaum, "Characteristics of Co2+: ZnS saturable-absorber Q switched neodymium lasers at 1.3μm," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2006-2012 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Synth. Cryst. (1)

L. Zhu, L. Qin, X. Meng, C. Du, J. Liu, B. Xu, Z. Shao, "New High-efficiency Laser Crystal Nd:YGdVO4," J. Synth. Cryst. 32, 148-151 (2003) (in Chinese).

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. He, X. Hou, L. Qin, Y. Sun, Y. Li, H. Qi, and L. Pan, "Laser-diode pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YxGd1-xVO4 laser with a GaAs saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 234, 305-308 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Other (1)

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 5th ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1999), pp. 90-95.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup of Q-switched laser cavity structure.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Static output energy of Nd:YxGd1-xVO4 I versus pump energy with different output couplers transmissions.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Q-switched pulse energy versus pump energy.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Variation of pulse width versus the pump energy.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Variation of peak power versus the pump energy.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Single-pulse profile of Nd:YxGd1-xVO4 I mixed crystal.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Single-pulse profile of Nd:YxGd1-xVO4 II mixed crystal.

Equations (2)

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P th = ( L ln R ) Ah ν p 2 στ η ge ,
ln ( 1 T 0 2 ) ln ( 1 T 0 2 ) + ln ( 1 R ) + L σ gs σ A A s > γ 1 β ,

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