Abstract

A new mechanism of nonlinear absorption of intense femtosecond laser radiation in air in the intensity range I = 1011-1012 W/cm2 when the ionization is not important yet is experimentally observed and investigated. This absorption is much greater than for nanosecond pulses. A model of the nonlinear absorption based on the rotational excitation of molecules by linearly polarized ultrashort pulses through the interaction of an induced dipole moment with an electric field is developed. The observed nonlinear absorption of intense femtosecond laser radiation can play an important role in the process of propagation of such radiation in the atmosphere.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Self-channeling of high-peak-power femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett.,  20, 73 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. T. J. Nibbering, P. F. Curley, G. Grillon, B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, F. Salin, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Conical emission from self-guided femtosecond pulses in air,’ Opt. Lett,  21, 62 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. C. Tam, “Signal Enhancement and Noise Suppression Considerations in Photothermal Spectroscopy” in Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena III, D. Bicanic, ed., Springer-Verlag, Springer series in optical sciences 69, 447–462 (1992).
  4. J. Yu, D. Mondelain, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, S. Geffroy, C. Favre, V. Boutou, and J.-P. Wolf, ”Sonographic probing of laser filaments in air,” Appl. Opt,  42, 7117–7120 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  8. L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Quantum Mechanics: Non-Relativistic Theory (Pergamon, Oxford, 1977).
  9. H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, “Aligning molecules with strong laser pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys.,  75, 543 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. G. M. Fraiman, E. M. Sher, A. D. Yunakovsky, and W. Laedke, “Long-term evolution of strong 2-D NSE turbulence,” Physica D,  87, 325–334 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. G. Matvienko, Yu. N. Ponomarev, B. A. Tikhomirov, A. B. Tikhomirov, A. V. Kirsanov, A. M. Kiselev, and AN. Stepanov, “Photo-acoustic measurements of the Ti:Sa-laser femtosecond radiation absorption by atmospheric air,” Atmos.-Ocean Opt,  17, 95–97 (2004).
  16. R. P. WayneChemistry of Atmospheres (Oxford University Press, 3-rd Ed., 2000).

2004 (2)

L. Berge, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Mejean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L Woste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple Filamentation of Terawatt Laser Pulses in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  92, 225002 1–4 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Matvienko, Yu. N. Ponomarev, B. A. Tikhomirov, A. B. Tikhomirov, A. V. Kirsanov, A. M. Kiselev, and AN. Stepanov, “Photo-acoustic measurements of the Ti:Sa-laser femtosecond radiation absorption by atmospheric air,” Atmos.-Ocean Opt,  17, 95–97 (2004).

2003 (2)

J. Yu, D. Mondelain, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, S. Geffroy, C. Favre, V. Boutou, and J.-P. Wolf, ”Sonographic probing of laser filaments in air,” Appl. Opt,  42, 7117–7120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, “Aligning molecules with strong laser pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys.,  75, 543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

V. S. Kozlov, M. V. Panchenko, A. B. Tikhomirov, and B. A. Tikhomirov, “Measurements of aerosol absorption of the 694.300 nm radiation in the atmospheric surface layer,” Atmos.-Ocean Opt. 15, 684–688 (2002).

2001 (1)

A. P. Aleksandrov, A. A. Babin, A. M. Kiselev, D. I. Kulagin, V. V. Lozhkarev, and A. N. Stepanov, “Terawatt femtosecond Ti:Sa laser complex,” Quantum. Electron.,  31, 398–400 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. P. WayneChemistry of Atmospheres (Oxford University Press, 3-rd Ed., 2000).

1996 (1)

E. T. J. Nibbering, P. F. Curley, G. Grillon, B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, F. Salin, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Conical emission from self-guided femtosecond pulses in air,’ Opt. Lett,  21, 62 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Self-channeling of high-peak-power femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett.,  20, 73 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Fraiman, E. M. Sher, A. D. Yunakovsky, and W. Laedke, “Long-term evolution of strong 2-D NSE turbulence,” Physica D,  87, 325–334 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

A. C. Tam, “Signal Enhancement and Noise Suppression Considerations in Photothermal Spectroscopy” in Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena III, D. Bicanic, ed., Springer-Verlag, Springer series in optical sciences 69, 447–462 (1992).

1983 (1)

J.-M. Heritier, “Electrostrictive limit and focusing effects in pulsed photoacoustic detection,” Opt. Comm.,  44, 267–272 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Aleksandrov, A. P.

A. P. Aleksandrov, A. A. Babin, A. M. Kiselev, D. I. Kulagin, V. V. Lozhkarev, and A. N. Stepanov, “Terawatt femtosecond Ti:Sa laser complex,” Quantum. Electron.,  31, 398–400 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Babin, A. A.

A. P. Aleksandrov, A. A. Babin, A. M. Kiselev, D. I. Kulagin, V. V. Lozhkarev, and A. N. Stepanov, “Terawatt femtosecond Ti:Sa laser complex,” Quantum. Electron.,  31, 398–400 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Berge, L.

L. Berge, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Mejean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L Woste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple Filamentation of Terawatt Laser Pulses in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  92, 225002 1–4 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bourayou, R.

L. Berge, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Mejean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L Woste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple Filamentation of Terawatt Laser Pulses in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  92, 225002 1–4 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boutou, V.

J. Yu, D. Mondelain, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, S. Geffroy, C. Favre, V. Boutou, and J.-P. Wolf, ”Sonographic probing of laser filaments in air,” Appl. Opt,  42, 7117–7120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Braun, A.

Curley, P. F.

E. T. J. Nibbering, P. F. Curley, G. Grillon, B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, F. Salin, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Conical emission from self-guided femtosecond pulses in air,’ Opt. Lett,  21, 62 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, D.

Favre, C.

J. Yu, D. Mondelain, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, S. Geffroy, C. Favre, V. Boutou, and J.-P. Wolf, ”Sonographic probing of laser filaments in air,” Appl. Opt,  42, 7117–7120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fraiman, G. M.

G. M. Fraiman, E. M. Sher, A. D. Yunakovsky, and W. Laedke, “Long-term evolution of strong 2-D NSE turbulence,” Physica D,  87, 325–334 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M. A.

E. T. J. Nibbering, P. F. Curley, G. Grillon, B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, F. Salin, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Conical emission from self-guided femtosecond pulses in air,’ Opt. Lett,  21, 62 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geffroy, S.

J. Yu, D. Mondelain, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, S. Geffroy, C. Favre, V. Boutou, and J.-P. Wolf, ”Sonographic probing of laser filaments in air,” Appl. Opt,  42, 7117–7120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grillon, G.

E. T. J. Nibbering, P. F. Curley, G. Grillon, B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, F. Salin, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Conical emission from self-guided femtosecond pulses in air,’ Opt. Lett,  21, 62 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heritier, J.-M.

J.-M. Heritier, “Electrostrictive limit and focusing effects in pulsed photoacoustic detection,” Opt. Comm.,  44, 267–272 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kasparian, J.

L. Berge, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Mejean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L Woste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple Filamentation of Terawatt Laser Pulses in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  92, 225002 1–4 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yu, D. Mondelain, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, S. Geffroy, C. Favre, V. Boutou, and J.-P. Wolf, ”Sonographic probing of laser filaments in air,” Appl. Opt,  42, 7117–7120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kirsanov, A. V.

G. G. Matvienko, Yu. N. Ponomarev, B. A. Tikhomirov, A. B. Tikhomirov, A. V. Kirsanov, A. M. Kiselev, and AN. Stepanov, “Photo-acoustic measurements of the Ti:Sa-laser femtosecond radiation absorption by atmospheric air,” Atmos.-Ocean Opt,  17, 95–97 (2004).

Kiselev, A. M.

G. G. Matvienko, Yu. N. Ponomarev, B. A. Tikhomirov, A. B. Tikhomirov, A. V. Kirsanov, A. M. Kiselev, and AN. Stepanov, “Photo-acoustic measurements of the Ti:Sa-laser femtosecond radiation absorption by atmospheric air,” Atmos.-Ocean Opt,  17, 95–97 (2004).

A. P. Aleksandrov, A. A. Babin, A. M. Kiselev, D. I. Kulagin, V. V. Lozhkarev, and A. N. Stepanov, “Terawatt femtosecond Ti:Sa laser complex,” Quantum. Electron.,  31, 398–400 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

Kozlov, V. S.

V. S. Kozlov, M. V. Panchenko, A. B. Tikhomirov, and B. A. Tikhomirov, “Measurements of aerosol absorption of the 694.300 nm radiation in the atmospheric surface layer,” Atmos.-Ocean Opt. 15, 684–688 (2002).

Kulagin, D. I.

A. P. Aleksandrov, A. A. Babin, A. M. Kiselev, D. I. Kulagin, V. V. Lozhkarev, and A. N. Stepanov, “Terawatt femtosecond Ti:Sa laser complex,” Quantum. Electron.,  31, 398–400 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Laedke, W.

G. M. Fraiman, E. M. Sher, A. D. Yunakovsky, and W. Laedke, “Long-term evolution of strong 2-D NSE turbulence,” Physica D,  87, 325–334 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Landau, L. D.

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Quantum Mechanics: Non-Relativistic Theory (Pergamon, Oxford, 1977).

Lederer, F.

L. Berge, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Mejean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L Woste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple Filamentation of Terawatt Laser Pulses in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  92, 225002 1–4 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lifshitz, E. M.

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Quantum Mechanics: Non-Relativistic Theory (Pergamon, Oxford, 1977).

Liu, X.

Lozhkarev, V. V.

A. P. Aleksandrov, A. A. Babin, A. M. Kiselev, D. I. Kulagin, V. V. Lozhkarev, and A. N. Stepanov, “Terawatt femtosecond Ti:Sa laser complex,” Quantum. Electron.,  31, 398–400 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Matvienko, G. G.

G. G. Matvienko, Yu. N. Ponomarev, B. A. Tikhomirov, A. B. Tikhomirov, A. V. Kirsanov, A. M. Kiselev, and AN. Stepanov, “Photo-acoustic measurements of the Ti:Sa-laser femtosecond radiation absorption by atmospheric air,” Atmos.-Ocean Opt,  17, 95–97 (2004).

Mejean, G.

L. Berge, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Mejean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L Woste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple Filamentation of Terawatt Laser Pulses in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  92, 225002 1–4 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mondelain, D.

J. Yu, D. Mondelain, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, S. Geffroy, C. Favre, V. Boutou, and J.-P. Wolf, ”Sonographic probing of laser filaments in air,” Appl. Opt,  42, 7117–7120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

Mysyrowicz, A.

E. T. J. Nibbering, P. F. Curley, G. Grillon, B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, F. Salin, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Conical emission from self-guided femtosecond pulses in air,’ Opt. Lett,  21, 62 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nibbering, E. T. J.

E. T. J. Nibbering, P. F. Curley, G. Grillon, B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, F. Salin, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Conical emission from self-guided femtosecond pulses in air,’ Opt. Lett,  21, 62 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panchenko, M. V.

V. S. Kozlov, M. V. Panchenko, A. B. Tikhomirov, and B. A. Tikhomirov, “Measurements of aerosol absorption of the 694.300 nm radiation in the atmospheric surface layer,” Atmos.-Ocean Opt. 15, 684–688 (2002).

Ponomarev, Yu. N.

G. G. Matvienko, Yu. N. Ponomarev, B. A. Tikhomirov, A. B. Tikhomirov, A. V. Kirsanov, A. M. Kiselev, and AN. Stepanov, “Photo-acoustic measurements of the Ti:Sa-laser femtosecond radiation absorption by atmospheric air,” Atmos.-Ocean Opt,  17, 95–97 (2004).

Prade, B. S.

E. T. J. Nibbering, P. F. Curley, G. Grillon, B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, F. Salin, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Conical emission from self-guided femtosecond pulses in air,’ Opt. Lett,  21, 62 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodriguez, M.

L. Berge, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Mejean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L Woste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple Filamentation of Terawatt Laser Pulses in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  92, 225002 1–4 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salin, F.

E. T. J. Nibbering, P. F. Curley, G. Grillon, B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, F. Salin, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Conical emission from self-guided femtosecond pulses in air,’ Opt. Lett,  21, 62 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salmon, E.

L. Berge, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Mejean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L Woste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple Filamentation of Terawatt Laser Pulses in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  92, 225002 1–4 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yu, D. Mondelain, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, S. Geffroy, C. Favre, V. Boutou, and J.-P. Wolf, ”Sonographic probing of laser filaments in air,” Appl. Opt,  42, 7117–7120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sauerbrey, R.

L. Berge, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Mejean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L Woste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple Filamentation of Terawatt Laser Pulses in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  92, 225002 1–4 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schawlow, A. L.

C. H. Townes and A. L. Schawlow, Microwave spectroscopy (Dover Publications, New York, 1975).

Seideman, T.

H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, “Aligning molecules with strong laser pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys.,  75, 543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sher, E. M.

G. M. Fraiman, E. M. Sher, A. D. Yunakovsky, and W. Laedke, “Long-term evolution of strong 2-D NSE turbulence,” Physica D,  87, 325–334 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Skupin, S.

L. Berge, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Mejean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L Woste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple Filamentation of Terawatt Laser Pulses in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  92, 225002 1–4 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Squier, J.

Stapelfeldt, H.

H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, “Aligning molecules with strong laser pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys.,  75, 543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, A. N.

A. P. Aleksandrov, A. A. Babin, A. M. Kiselev, D. I. Kulagin, V. V. Lozhkarev, and A. N. Stepanov, “Terawatt femtosecond Ti:Sa laser complex,” Quantum. Electron.,  31, 398–400 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, AN.

G. G. Matvienko, Yu. N. Ponomarev, B. A. Tikhomirov, A. B. Tikhomirov, A. V. Kirsanov, A. M. Kiselev, and AN. Stepanov, “Photo-acoustic measurements of the Ti:Sa-laser femtosecond radiation absorption by atmospheric air,” Atmos.-Ocean Opt,  17, 95–97 (2004).

Tam, A. C.

A. C. Tam, “Signal Enhancement and Noise Suppression Considerations in Photothermal Spectroscopy” in Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena III, D. Bicanic, ed., Springer-Verlag, Springer series in optical sciences 69, 447–462 (1992).

Tikhomirov, A. B.

G. G. Matvienko, Yu. N. Ponomarev, B. A. Tikhomirov, A. B. Tikhomirov, A. V. Kirsanov, A. M. Kiselev, and AN. Stepanov, “Photo-acoustic measurements of the Ti:Sa-laser femtosecond radiation absorption by atmospheric air,” Atmos.-Ocean Opt,  17, 95–97 (2004).

V. S. Kozlov, M. V. Panchenko, A. B. Tikhomirov, and B. A. Tikhomirov, “Measurements of aerosol absorption of the 694.300 nm radiation in the atmospheric surface layer,” Atmos.-Ocean Opt. 15, 684–688 (2002).

Tikhomirov, B. A.

G. G. Matvienko, Yu. N. Ponomarev, B. A. Tikhomirov, A. B. Tikhomirov, A. V. Kirsanov, A. M. Kiselev, and AN. Stepanov, “Photo-acoustic measurements of the Ti:Sa-laser femtosecond radiation absorption by atmospheric air,” Atmos.-Ocean Opt,  17, 95–97 (2004).

V. S. Kozlov, M. V. Panchenko, A. B. Tikhomirov, and B. A. Tikhomirov, “Measurements of aerosol absorption of the 694.300 nm radiation in the atmospheric surface layer,” Atmos.-Ocean Opt. 15, 684–688 (2002).

Townes, C. H.

C. H. Townes and A. L. Schawlow, Microwave spectroscopy (Dover Publications, New York, 1975).

Wayne, R. P.

R. P. WayneChemistry of Atmospheres (Oxford University Press, 3-rd Ed., 2000).

Wolf, J. P.

L. Berge, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Mejean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L Woste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple Filamentation of Terawatt Laser Pulses in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  92, 225002 1–4 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, J.-P.

J. Yu, D. Mondelain, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, S. Geffroy, C. Favre, V. Boutou, and J.-P. Wolf, ”Sonographic probing of laser filaments in air,” Appl. Opt,  42, 7117–7120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Woste, L

L. Berge, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Mejean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L Woste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple Filamentation of Terawatt Laser Pulses in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  92, 225002 1–4 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, J.

L. Berge, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Mejean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L Woste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple Filamentation of Terawatt Laser Pulses in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  92, 225002 1–4 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yu, D. Mondelain, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, S. Geffroy, C. Favre, V. Boutou, and J.-P. Wolf, ”Sonographic probing of laser filaments in air,” Appl. Opt,  42, 7117–7120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yunakovsky, A. D.

G. M. Fraiman, E. M. Sher, A. D. Yunakovsky, and W. Laedke, “Long-term evolution of strong 2-D NSE turbulence,” Physica D,  87, 325–334 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt (1)

J. Yu, D. Mondelain, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, S. Geffroy, C. Favre, V. Boutou, and J.-P. Wolf, ”Sonographic probing of laser filaments in air,” Appl. Opt,  42, 7117–7120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Atmos.-Ocean Opt (1)

G. G. Matvienko, Yu. N. Ponomarev, B. A. Tikhomirov, A. B. Tikhomirov, A. V. Kirsanov, A. M. Kiselev, and AN. Stepanov, “Photo-acoustic measurements of the Ti:Sa-laser femtosecond radiation absorption by atmospheric air,” Atmos.-Ocean Opt,  17, 95–97 (2004).

Atmos.-Ocean Opt. (1)

V. S. Kozlov, M. V. Panchenko, A. B. Tikhomirov, and B. A. Tikhomirov, “Measurements of aerosol absorption of the 694.300 nm radiation in the atmospheric surface layer,” Atmos.-Ocean Opt. 15, 684–688 (2002).

Opt. Comm. (1)

J.-M. Heritier, “Electrostrictive limit and focusing effects in pulsed photoacoustic detection,” Opt. Comm.,  44, 267–272 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett (1)

E. T. J. Nibbering, P. F. Curley, G. Grillon, B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, F. Salin, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Conical emission from self-guided femtosecond pulses in air,’ Opt. Lett,  21, 62 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

L. Berge, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Mejean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L Woste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple Filamentation of Terawatt Laser Pulses in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  92, 225002 1–4 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physica D (1)

G. M. Fraiman, E. M. Sher, A. D. Yunakovsky, and W. Laedke, “Long-term evolution of strong 2-D NSE turbulence,” Physica D,  87, 325–334 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Quantum. Electron. (1)

A. P. Aleksandrov, A. A. Babin, A. M. Kiselev, D. I. Kulagin, V. V. Lozhkarev, and A. N. Stepanov, “Terawatt femtosecond Ti:Sa laser complex,” Quantum. Electron.,  31, 398–400 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, “Aligning molecules with strong laser pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys.,  75, 543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Springer-Verlag, Springer series in optical sciences (1)

A. C. Tam, “Signal Enhancement and Noise Suppression Considerations in Photothermal Spectroscopy” in Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena III, D. Bicanic, ed., Springer-Verlag, Springer series in optical sciences 69, 447–462 (1992).

Other (5)

C. H. Townes and A. L. Schawlow, Microwave spectroscopy (Dover Publications, New York, 1975).

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Quantum Mechanics: Non-Relativistic Theory (Pergamon, Oxford, 1977).

http://srdata.nist.gov/cccbdb/exp2.asp?casno=7727379.

I. S. Grigoryev and E. Z. Meylikhova eds., Handbook of physical values (in Russian), (Energoatomizdat, Moscow, 1991).

R. P. WayneChemistry of Atmospheres (Oxford University Press, 3-rd Ed., 2000).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for photoacoustic absorption measurement in atmosphere.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Dependence of the peak of acoustic signal on laser energy. Circles – nanosecond pulses, squares – femtosecond pulses, solid line – model.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Distribution of normalized intensity of a beam at different energies in a pulse.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Acoustic signals for linear (magenta) and circular (blue) polarizations.

Equations (7)

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w ij = 1 ħ 2 V ij e i ω ij t dt 2
V = 1 4 α E 0 2 e t 2 τ 2 cos 2 ( ω t ) cos θ 2
w j , j + 2 = π 3 15 ( α τ I ħc ) 2 e 2 B 2 ħ 2 ( 2 j + 3 ) 2 τ 2 ( j + 1 ) ( 2 j 3 + 4 j 2 + 26 j + 15 ) ( 2 j + 3 ) 2 ( 2 j + 5 ) ,
dE = π 3 15 ( α τ I c ) 2 1 JQ S
dW dz = π 15 Q α 2 n W 2 J c 2 a 2 S
p max 0.42 Q S α 2 n W 2 v 2 c p r 0 1 2 T . J c 2 a 7 2
a = a 0 ( 1 + 0.00167 W 0.005 W 2 )

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