Abstract

Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics (LGS AO) systems use the return from an artificial guide star to measure the wavefront aberrations in the direction of the science object. We observe quasi-static differences between the measured wavefront and the wavefront aberration of the science object. This paper quantifies and explains the source of the difference between the wavefronts measured using an LGS and a natural guide star at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which can be as high as 1000 nm RMS.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. L. Fried and J. F. Belsher, "Analysis of fundamental limits to artificial-guide-star adaptive-optics-system performance for astronomical imaging," J. Opt. Soc. Am A 11, 277-287 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Ragazzoni, "Laser guide star advanced concepts: tilt problem," in Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics for Astronomy, N. Ageorges and C. Dainty, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1997), 125-146.
  3. C. E. Max, "Laser guide star operational issues," in Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics for Astronomy, N. Ageorges and C. Dainty, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1997), 89-106.
  4. P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth and D. M. Pennington, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," PASP 118, 297-309 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., D. M. Summers and P. L. Wizinowich, ‘TheW. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization," PASP 118, 310-318 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. A. van Dam, D. Le Mignant and B. A. Macintosh, "Performance of the Keck Observatory adaptive-optics system," Applied Optics 43, 5458-5467 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. Summers, A. H. Bouchez, J. Chin, A. Contos, S. Hartman, E. Johansson, R. Lafon, D. Le Mignant, P. Stomski, M. A. van Dam and P. L. Wizinowich, "Focus and pointing adjustments necessary for laser guide star adaptive optics at the W.M. Keck Observatory," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, D. Bonaccini Calia, B. L. Ellerbroek and R. Ragazzoni, eds, Proc. SPIE 5490, 1117-1128 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Ragazzoni, M. Tordi, and E. Diolati, "A fixed plate to remove spherical aberration in Rayleigh laser guide stars," Opt. Commun. 194, 243-250 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. J. Noll, "Zernike polynomials and atmospheric turbulence," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 207-211 (1976).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (2)

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth and D. M. Pennington, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," PASP 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., D. M. Summers and P. L. Wizinowich, ‘TheW. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization," PASP 118, 310-318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. A. van Dam, D. Le Mignant and B. A. Macintosh, "Performance of the Keck Observatory adaptive-optics system," Applied Optics 43, 5458-5467 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. Ragazzoni, M. Tordi, and E. Diolati, "A fixed plate to remove spherical aberration in Rayleigh laser guide stars," Opt. Commun. 194, 243-250 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

D. L. Fried and J. F. Belsher, "Analysis of fundamental limits to artificial-guide-star adaptive-optics-system performance for astronomical imaging," J. Opt. Soc. Am A 11, 277-287 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

Belsher, J. F.

D. L. Fried and J. F. Belsher, "Analysis of fundamental limits to artificial-guide-star adaptive-optics-system performance for astronomical imaging," J. Opt. Soc. Am A 11, 277-287 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bouchez, A. H.

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., D. M. Summers and P. L. Wizinowich, ‘TheW. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization," PASP 118, 310-318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth and D. M. Pennington, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," PASP 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. G.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth and D. M. Pennington, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," PASP 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, R. D.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth and D. M. Pennington, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," PASP 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., D. M. Summers and P. L. Wizinowich, ‘TheW. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization," PASP 118, 310-318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chin, J. C. Y.

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., D. M. Summers and P. L. Wizinowich, ‘TheW. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization," PASP 118, 310-318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth and D. M. Pennington, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," PASP 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Contos, A. R.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth and D. M. Pennington, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," PASP 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Danforth, P. M.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth and D. M. Pennington, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," PASP 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Diolati, E.

R. Ragazzoni, M. Tordi, and E. Diolati, "A fixed plate to remove spherical aberration in Rayleigh laser guide stars," Opt. Commun. 194, 243-250 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fried, D. L.

D. L. Fried and J. F. Belsher, "Analysis of fundamental limits to artificial-guide-star adaptive-optics-system performance for astronomical imaging," J. Opt. Soc. Am A 11, 277-287 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hartman, S. K.

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., D. M. Summers and P. L. Wizinowich, ‘TheW. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization," PASP 118, 310-318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth and D. M. Pennington, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," PASP 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, E. M.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth and D. M. Pennington, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," PASP 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., D. M. Summers and P. L. Wizinowich, ‘TheW. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization," PASP 118, 310-318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lafon, R.

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., D. M. Summers and P. L. Wizinowich, ‘TheW. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization," PASP 118, 310-318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lafon, R. E.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth and D. M. Pennington, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," PASP 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Le Mignant, D.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth and D. M. Pennington, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," PASP 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., D. M. Summers and P. L. Wizinowich, ‘TheW. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization," PASP 118, 310-318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Dam, D. Le Mignant and B. A. Macintosh, "Performance of the Keck Observatory adaptive-optics system," Applied Optics 43, 5458-5467 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, H.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth and D. M. Pennington, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," PASP 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Macintosh, B. A.

M. A. van Dam, D. Le Mignant and B. A. Macintosh, "Performance of the Keck Observatory adaptive-optics system," Applied Optics 43, 5458-5467 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noll, R. J.

Pennington, D. M.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth and D. M. Pennington, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," PASP 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ragazzoni, R.

R. Ragazzoni, M. Tordi, and E. Diolati, "A fixed plate to remove spherical aberration in Rayleigh laser guide stars," Opt. Commun. 194, 243-250 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stomski, P. J.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth and D. M. Pennington, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," PASP 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., D. M. Summers and P. L. Wizinowich, ‘TheW. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization," PASP 118, 310-318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Summers, D. M.

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., D. M. Summers and P. L. Wizinowich, ‘TheW. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization," PASP 118, 310-318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth and D. M. Pennington, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," PASP 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tordi, M.

R. Ragazzoni, M. Tordi, and E. Diolati, "A fixed plate to remove spherical aberration in Rayleigh laser guide stars," Opt. Commun. 194, 243-250 (2001).
[CrossRef]

van Dam, M. A.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth and D. M. Pennington, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," PASP 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., D. M. Summers and P. L. Wizinowich, ‘TheW. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization," PASP 118, 310-318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Dam, D. Le Mignant and B. A. Macintosh, "Performance of the Keck Observatory adaptive-optics system," Applied Optics 43, 5458-5467 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wizinowich, P. L.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth and D. M. Pennington, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," PASP 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., D. M. Summers and P. L. Wizinowich, ‘TheW. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization," PASP 118, 310-318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Applied Optics (1)

M. A. van Dam, D. Le Mignant and B. A. Macintosh, "Performance of the Keck Observatory adaptive-optics system," Applied Optics 43, 5458-5467 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am A (1)

D. L. Fried and J. F. Belsher, "Analysis of fundamental limits to artificial-guide-star adaptive-optics-system performance for astronomical imaging," J. Opt. Soc. Am A 11, 277-287 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Ragazzoni, M. Tordi, and E. Diolati, "A fixed plate to remove spherical aberration in Rayleigh laser guide stars," Opt. Commun. 194, 243-250 (2001).
[CrossRef]

PASP (2)

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth and D. M. Pennington, "The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview," PASP 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, Jr., D. M. Summers and P. L. Wizinowich, ‘TheW. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization," PASP 118, 310-318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

R. Ragazzoni, "Laser guide star advanced concepts: tilt problem," in Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics for Astronomy, N. Ageorges and C. Dainty, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1997), 125-146.

C. E. Max, "Laser guide star operational issues," in Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics for Astronomy, N. Ageorges and C. Dainty, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1997), 89-106.

D. Summers, A. H. Bouchez, J. Chin, A. Contos, S. Hartman, E. Johansson, R. Lafon, D. Le Mignant, P. Stomski, M. A. van Dam and P. L. Wizinowich, "Focus and pointing adjustments necessary for laser guide star adaptive optics at the W.M. Keck Observatory," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, D. Bonaccini Calia, B. L. Ellerbroek and R. Ragazzoni, eds, Proc. SPIE 5490, 1117-1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Images of the LGS on January 26, 2005, formed by adding focus across the primary mirror segments (left), and a corresponding simulated image (center) using an estimated sodium profile (right). The launch telescope is located to the right of the pupil, where the Rayleigh scatter can be seen.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The measured (left) and modeled (right) LGS aberrations as a function of pupil angle near zenith. The curves are, 0° astigmatism (red), 45° astigmatism (black), spherical aberration (light blue), y-coma (green) and x-coma (dark blue).

Equations (5)

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η = cos ( ζ ) bt h 2 ,
s x = f ( x ) g ( r )
s y = f ( y ) g ( r ) .
s x = signum ( x ) x α r β
s y = signum ( y ) y α r β ,

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