Abstract

Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics (LGS AO) systems use the return from an artificial guide star to measure the wavefront aberrations in the direction of the science object. We observe quasi-static differences between the measured wavefront and the wavefront aberration of the science object. This paper quantifies and explains the source of the difference between the wavefronts measured using an LGS and a natural guide star at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which can be as high as 1000 nm RMS.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. L. Fried and J. F. Belsher, “Analysis of fundamental limits to artificial-guide-star adaptive-optics-system performance for astronomical imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am A 11, 277–287 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Ragazzoni, “Laser guide star advanced concepts: tilt problem,” in Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics for Astronomy, N. Ageorges and C. Dainty, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1997), 125–146.
  3. C. E. Max, “Laser guide star operational issues,” in Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics for Astronomy, N. Ageorges and C. Dainty, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1997), 89–106.
  4. P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” PASP 118, 297–309 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, and P. L. Wizinowich, ‘The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” PASP 118, 310–318 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. A. van Dam, D. Le Mignant, and B. A. Macintosh, “Performance of the Keck Observatory adaptive-optics system,” Applied Optics 43, 5458–5467 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. Summers, A. H. Bouchez, J. Chin, A. Contos, S. Hartman, E. Johansson, R. Lafon, D. Le Mignant, P. Stomski, M. A. van Dam, and P. L. Wizinowich, “Focus and pointing adjustments necessary for laser guide star adaptive optics at the W.M. Keck Observatory,” in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, D. Bonaccini Calia, B. L. Ellerbroek, and R. Ragazzoni, eds, Proc. SPIE 5490, 1117–1128 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Ragazzoni, M. Tordi, and E. Diolati, “A fixed plate to remove spherical aberration in Rayleigh laser guide stars,”, Opt. Comms. 194, 243–250 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. J. Noll, “Zernike polynomials and atmospheric turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 207–211 (1976).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (2)

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” PASP 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, and P. L. Wizinowich, ‘The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” PASP 118, 310–318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

M. A. van Dam, D. Le Mignant, and B. A. Macintosh, “Performance of the Keck Observatory adaptive-optics system,” Applied Optics 43, 5458–5467 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Summers, A. H. Bouchez, J. Chin, A. Contos, S. Hartman, E. Johansson, R. Lafon, D. Le Mignant, P. Stomski, M. A. van Dam, and P. L. Wizinowich, “Focus and pointing adjustments necessary for laser guide star adaptive optics at the W.M. Keck Observatory,” in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, D. Bonaccini Calia, B. L. Ellerbroek, and R. Ragazzoni, eds, Proc. SPIE 5490, 1117–1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. Ragazzoni, M. Tordi, and E. Diolati, “A fixed plate to remove spherical aberration in Rayleigh laser guide stars,”, Opt. Comms. 194, 243–250 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

D. L. Fried and J. F. Belsher, “Analysis of fundamental limits to artificial-guide-star adaptive-optics-system performance for astronomical imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am A 11, 277–287 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

Belsher, J. F.

D. L. Fried and J. F. Belsher, “Analysis of fundamental limits to artificial-guide-star adaptive-optics-system performance for astronomical imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am A 11, 277–287 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bouchez, A. H.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” PASP 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, and P. L. Wizinowich, ‘The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” PASP 118, 310–318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Summers, A. H. Bouchez, J. Chin, A. Contos, S. Hartman, E. Johansson, R. Lafon, D. Le Mignant, P. Stomski, M. A. van Dam, and P. L. Wizinowich, “Focus and pointing adjustments necessary for laser guide star adaptive optics at the W.M. Keck Observatory,” in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, D. Bonaccini Calia, B. L. Ellerbroek, and R. Ragazzoni, eds, Proc. SPIE 5490, 1117–1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. G.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” PASP 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, R. D.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” PASP 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, and P. L. Wizinowich, ‘The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” PASP 118, 310–318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chin, J.

D. Summers, A. H. Bouchez, J. Chin, A. Contos, S. Hartman, E. Johansson, R. Lafon, D. Le Mignant, P. Stomski, M. A. van Dam, and P. L. Wizinowich, “Focus and pointing adjustments necessary for laser guide star adaptive optics at the W.M. Keck Observatory,” in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, D. Bonaccini Calia, B. L. Ellerbroek, and R. Ragazzoni, eds, Proc. SPIE 5490, 1117–1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chin, J. C. Y.

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, and P. L. Wizinowich, ‘The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” PASP 118, 310–318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” PASP 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Contos, A.

D. Summers, A. H. Bouchez, J. Chin, A. Contos, S. Hartman, E. Johansson, R. Lafon, D. Le Mignant, P. Stomski, M. A. van Dam, and P. L. Wizinowich, “Focus and pointing adjustments necessary for laser guide star adaptive optics at the W.M. Keck Observatory,” in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, D. Bonaccini Calia, B. L. Ellerbroek, and R. Ragazzoni, eds, Proc. SPIE 5490, 1117–1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Contos, A. R.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” PASP 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dam, M. A. van

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” PASP 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, and P. L. Wizinowich, ‘The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” PASP 118, 310–318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Dam, D. Le Mignant, and B. A. Macintosh, “Performance of the Keck Observatory adaptive-optics system,” Applied Optics 43, 5458–5467 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Summers, A. H. Bouchez, J. Chin, A. Contos, S. Hartman, E. Johansson, R. Lafon, D. Le Mignant, P. Stomski, M. A. van Dam, and P. L. Wizinowich, “Focus and pointing adjustments necessary for laser guide star adaptive optics at the W.M. Keck Observatory,” in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, D. Bonaccini Calia, B. L. Ellerbroek, and R. Ragazzoni, eds, Proc. SPIE 5490, 1117–1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Danforth, P. M.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” PASP 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Diolati, E.

R. Ragazzoni, M. Tordi, and E. Diolati, “A fixed plate to remove spherical aberration in Rayleigh laser guide stars,”, Opt. Comms. 194, 243–250 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fried, D. L.

D. L. Fried and J. F. Belsher, “Analysis of fundamental limits to artificial-guide-star adaptive-optics-system performance for astronomical imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am A 11, 277–287 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hartman, S.

D. Summers, A. H. Bouchez, J. Chin, A. Contos, S. Hartman, E. Johansson, R. Lafon, D. Le Mignant, P. Stomski, M. A. van Dam, and P. L. Wizinowich, “Focus and pointing adjustments necessary for laser guide star adaptive optics at the W.M. Keck Observatory,” in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, D. Bonaccini Calia, B. L. Ellerbroek, and R. Ragazzoni, eds, Proc. SPIE 5490, 1117–1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hartman, S. K.

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, and P. L. Wizinowich, ‘The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” PASP 118, 310–318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” PASP 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, E.

D. Summers, A. H. Bouchez, J. Chin, A. Contos, S. Hartman, E. Johansson, R. Lafon, D. Le Mignant, P. Stomski, M. A. van Dam, and P. L. Wizinowich, “Focus and pointing adjustments necessary for laser guide star adaptive optics at the W.M. Keck Observatory,” in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, D. Bonaccini Calia, B. L. Ellerbroek, and R. Ragazzoni, eds, Proc. SPIE 5490, 1117–1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, E. M.

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, and P. L. Wizinowich, ‘The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” PASP 118, 310–318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” PASP 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lafon, R.

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, and P. L. Wizinowich, ‘The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” PASP 118, 310–318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Summers, A. H. Bouchez, J. Chin, A. Contos, S. Hartman, E. Johansson, R. Lafon, D. Le Mignant, P. Stomski, M. A. van Dam, and P. L. Wizinowich, “Focus and pointing adjustments necessary for laser guide star adaptive optics at the W.M. Keck Observatory,” in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, D. Bonaccini Calia, B. L. Ellerbroek, and R. Ragazzoni, eds, Proc. SPIE 5490, 1117–1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lafon, R. E.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” PASP 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, H.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” PASP 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Macintosh, B. A.

M. A. van Dam, D. Le Mignant, and B. A. Macintosh, “Performance of the Keck Observatory adaptive-optics system,” Applied Optics 43, 5458–5467 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Max, C. E.

C. E. Max, “Laser guide star operational issues,” in Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics for Astronomy, N. Ageorges and C. Dainty, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1997), 89–106.

Mignant, D. Le

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” PASP 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, and P. L. Wizinowich, ‘The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” PASP 118, 310–318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Dam, D. Le Mignant, and B. A. Macintosh, “Performance of the Keck Observatory adaptive-optics system,” Applied Optics 43, 5458–5467 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Summers, A. H. Bouchez, J. Chin, A. Contos, S. Hartman, E. Johansson, R. Lafon, D. Le Mignant, P. Stomski, M. A. van Dam, and P. L. Wizinowich, “Focus and pointing adjustments necessary for laser guide star adaptive optics at the W.M. Keck Observatory,” in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, D. Bonaccini Calia, B. L. Ellerbroek, and R. Ragazzoni, eds, Proc. SPIE 5490, 1117–1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Noll, R. J.

Pennington, D. M.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” PASP 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ragazzoni, R.

R. Ragazzoni, M. Tordi, and E. Diolati, “A fixed plate to remove spherical aberration in Rayleigh laser guide stars,”, Opt. Comms. 194, 243–250 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, “Laser guide star advanced concepts: tilt problem,” in Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics for Astronomy, N. Ageorges and C. Dainty, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1997), 125–146.

Stomski, P.

D. Summers, A. H. Bouchez, J. Chin, A. Contos, S. Hartman, E. Johansson, R. Lafon, D. Le Mignant, P. Stomski, M. A. van Dam, and P. L. Wizinowich, “Focus and pointing adjustments necessary for laser guide star adaptive optics at the W.M. Keck Observatory,” in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, D. Bonaccini Calia, B. L. Ellerbroek, and R. Ragazzoni, eds, Proc. SPIE 5490, 1117–1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stomski, P. J.

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, and P. L. Wizinowich, ‘The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” PASP 118, 310–318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” PASP 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Summers, D.

D. Summers, A. H. Bouchez, J. Chin, A. Contos, S. Hartman, E. Johansson, R. Lafon, D. Le Mignant, P. Stomski, M. A. van Dam, and P. L. Wizinowich, “Focus and pointing adjustments necessary for laser guide star adaptive optics at the W.M. Keck Observatory,” in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, D. Bonaccini Calia, B. L. Ellerbroek, and R. Ragazzoni, eds, Proc. SPIE 5490, 1117–1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Summers, D. M.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” PASP 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, and P. L. Wizinowich, ‘The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” PASP 118, 310–318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tordi, M.

R. Ragazzoni, M. Tordi, and E. Diolati, “A fixed plate to remove spherical aberration in Rayleigh laser guide stars,”, Opt. Comms. 194, 243–250 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wizinowich, P. L.

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, and P. L. Wizinowich, ‘The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” PASP 118, 310–318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” PASP 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Summers, A. H. Bouchez, J. Chin, A. Contos, S. Hartman, E. Johansson, R. Lafon, D. Le Mignant, P. Stomski, M. A. van Dam, and P. L. Wizinowich, “Focus and pointing adjustments necessary for laser guide star adaptive optics at the W.M. Keck Observatory,” in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, D. Bonaccini Calia, B. L. Ellerbroek, and R. Ragazzoni, eds, Proc. SPIE 5490, 1117–1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Applied Optics (1)

M. A. van Dam, D. Le Mignant, and B. A. Macintosh, “Performance of the Keck Observatory adaptive-optics system,” Applied Optics 43, 5458–5467 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am A (1)

D. L. Fried and J. F. Belsher, “Analysis of fundamental limits to artificial-guide-star adaptive-optics-system performance for astronomical imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am A 11, 277–287 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Comms. (1)

R. Ragazzoni, M. Tordi, and E. Diolati, “A fixed plate to remove spherical aberration in Rayleigh laser guide stars,”, Opt. Comms. 194, 243–250 (2001).
[CrossRef]

PASP (2)

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” PASP 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. Le Mignant, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. Lafon, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, and P. L. Wizinowich, ‘The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: performance characterization,” PASP 118, 310–318 (2006).
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Proc. SPIE (1)

D. Summers, A. H. Bouchez, J. Chin, A. Contos, S. Hartman, E. Johansson, R. Lafon, D. Le Mignant, P. Stomski, M. A. van Dam, and P. L. Wizinowich, “Focus and pointing adjustments necessary for laser guide star adaptive optics at the W.M. Keck Observatory,” in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, D. Bonaccini Calia, B. L. Ellerbroek, and R. Ragazzoni, eds, Proc. SPIE 5490, 1117–1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

R. Ragazzoni, “Laser guide star advanced concepts: tilt problem,” in Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics for Astronomy, N. Ageorges and C. Dainty, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1997), 125–146.

C. E. Max, “Laser guide star operational issues,” in Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics for Astronomy, N. Ageorges and C. Dainty, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1997), 89–106.

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