Abstract

The detection of extrasolar planets implies an extremely high-contrast, long-exposure imaging capability at near infrared and probably visible wavelengths. We present here the core of any Planet Finder instrument, that is, the extreme adaptive optics (XAO) subsystem. The level of AO correction directly impacts the exposure time required for planet detection. In addition, the capacity of the AO system to calibrate all the instrument static defects ultimately limits detectivity. Hence, the extreme AO system has to adjust for the perturbations induced by the atmospheric turbulence, as well as for the internal aberrations of the instrument itself. We propose a feasibility study for an extreme AO system in the frame of the SPHERE (Spectro-Polarimetry High-contrast Exoplanet Research) instrument, which is currently under design and should equip one of the four VLT 8-m telescopes in 2010.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2006 (2)

C. Robert, J.-M. Conan, V. Michau, T. Fusco, and N. Vedrenne, "Scintillation and phase anisoplanatism in Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensing," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 613-624 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Cavarroc, A. Boccaletti, P. Baudoz, T. Fusco, and D. Rouan, "Fundamental limitations on Earth-like planet detection with extremely large telescopes," Astron. Astrophys. 447, 397-403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

O. Guyon, "Limits of adaptive optics for high-contrast imaging," Astrophys. J. 629, 592-614 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Soummer, "Apodized pupil Lyot coronagraphs for arbitrary telescope apertures," Astrophys. J. 618, 161-164 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Fusco, C. Petit, G. Rousset, J.-M. Conan, and J.-L. Beuzit, "Closed-loop experimental validation of the spatially filtered Shack-Hartmann concept," Opt. Lett. 30, 1255-1257 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (8)

M. Nicolle, T. Fusco, G. Rousset, and V. Michau, "Improvement of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor measurement for extreme adaptive optics," Opt. Lett. 29, 2743-2745 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, D. P. Looze, H. Bonnet, L. Ivanescu, and S. Oberti, "Fast calibration of high-order adaptive optics systems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 1004-1008 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Poyneer and B. Macintosh, "Spatially filtered wave-front sensor for high-order adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 810-819 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Fusco, M. Nicolle, G. Rousset, V. Michau, J.-L. Beuzit, and D. Mouillet, "Optimisation of Shack-Hartmannbased wavefront sensor for XAO system," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, Proc. SPIE 5490, 1155-1166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Boccaletti, P. Riaud, P. Baudoz, J. Baudrand, D. Rouan, D. Gratadour, F. Lacombe, and A.-M. Lagrange, "The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph IV. First light at the very large telescope," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pacific 116, 1061-1071 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Conan, T. Fusco, G. Rousset, D. Mouillet, J.-L. Beuzit, M. Nicolle, and C. Petit, "Modeling and analysis of XAO systems. Application to VLT-Planet Finder," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, Proc. SPIE 5490, 602-608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Masciadri, M. Feldt, and S. Hippler, "Scintillation effects on a high-contrast imaging instrument for direct extrasolar planets’ detection," Astrophys. J. 613, 572-579 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Petit, F. Quiros-Pacheco, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsar, H.-F. Raynaud, T. Fusco, and G. Rousset, "Kalman Filter based control loop for Adaptive Optics," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, Proc. SPIE 5490, 1414-1425 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

A. Blanc, T. Fusco, M. Hartung, L. M. Mugnier, and G. Rousset, "Calibration of NAOS and CONICA static aberrations. Application of the phase diversity technique," Astron. Astrophys. 399, 373-383 (2003), mugnier@onera.fr.
[CrossRef]

M. S. Robbins and B. J. Hadwen, "The noise performance of electron multiplying charge coupled device," IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 50, 1227-1232 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. Racine, G. A. Walker, D. Nadeau, and C. Marois, "Speckle noise and the detection of faint companions," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pacific 112, 587-594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

F. Rigaut, J.-P. Véran, and O. Lai, "Analytical model for Shack-Hartmann-based adaptive optics system," Proc. SPIE 3353, 1038-1048 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

E. Gendron and P. Léna, "Astronomical adaptive optics I. Modal control optimization," Astron. Astrophys. 291, 337-347 (1994).

Baudoz, P.

C. Cavarroc, A. Boccaletti, P. Baudoz, T. Fusco, and D. Rouan, "Fundamental limitations on Earth-like planet detection with extremely large telescopes," Astron. Astrophys. 447, 397-403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Boccaletti, P. Riaud, P. Baudoz, J. Baudrand, D. Rouan, D. Gratadour, F. Lacombe, and A.-M. Lagrange, "The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph IV. First light at the very large telescope," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pacific 116, 1061-1071 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baudrand, J.

A. Boccaletti, P. Riaud, P. Baudoz, J. Baudrand, D. Rouan, D. Gratadour, F. Lacombe, and A.-M. Lagrange, "The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph IV. First light at the very large telescope," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pacific 116, 1061-1071 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beuzit, J.-L.

T. Fusco, C. Petit, G. Rousset, J.-M. Conan, and J.-L. Beuzit, "Closed-loop experimental validation of the spatially filtered Shack-Hartmann concept," Opt. Lett. 30, 1255-1257 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fusco, M. Nicolle, G. Rousset, V. Michau, J.-L. Beuzit, and D. Mouillet, "Optimisation of Shack-Hartmannbased wavefront sensor for XAO system," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, Proc. SPIE 5490, 1155-1166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Conan, T. Fusco, G. Rousset, D. Mouillet, J.-L. Beuzit, M. Nicolle, and C. Petit, "Modeling and analysis of XAO systems. Application to VLT-Planet Finder," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, Proc. SPIE 5490, 602-608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Blanc, A.

A. Blanc, T. Fusco, M. Hartung, L. M. Mugnier, and G. Rousset, "Calibration of NAOS and CONICA static aberrations. Application of the phase diversity technique," Astron. Astrophys. 399, 373-383 (2003), mugnier@onera.fr.
[CrossRef]

Boccaletti, A.

C. Cavarroc, A. Boccaletti, P. Baudoz, T. Fusco, and D. Rouan, "Fundamental limitations on Earth-like planet detection with extremely large telescopes," Astron. Astrophys. 447, 397-403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Boccaletti, P. Riaud, P. Baudoz, J. Baudrand, D. Rouan, D. Gratadour, F. Lacombe, and A.-M. Lagrange, "The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph IV. First light at the very large telescope," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pacific 116, 1061-1071 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bonnet, H.

Cavarroc, C.

C. Cavarroc, A. Boccaletti, P. Baudoz, T. Fusco, and D. Rouan, "Fundamental limitations on Earth-like planet detection with extremely large telescopes," Astron. Astrophys. 447, 397-403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Conan, J.-M.

Conan, R.

R. Conan, T. Fusco, G. Rousset, D. Mouillet, J.-L. Beuzit, M. Nicolle, and C. Petit, "Modeling and analysis of XAO systems. Application to VLT-Planet Finder," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, Proc. SPIE 5490, 602-608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fedrigo, E.

Feldt, M.

E. Masciadri, M. Feldt, and S. Hippler, "Scintillation effects on a high-contrast imaging instrument for direct extrasolar planets’ detection," Astrophys. J. 613, 572-579 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fusco, T.

C. Cavarroc, A. Boccaletti, P. Baudoz, T. Fusco, and D. Rouan, "Fundamental limitations on Earth-like planet detection with extremely large telescopes," Astron. Astrophys. 447, 397-403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Robert, J.-M. Conan, V. Michau, T. Fusco, and N. Vedrenne, "Scintillation and phase anisoplanatism in Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensing," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 613-624 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fusco, C. Petit, G. Rousset, J.-M. Conan, and J.-L. Beuzit, "Closed-loop experimental validation of the spatially filtered Shack-Hartmann concept," Opt. Lett. 30, 1255-1257 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nicolle, T. Fusco, G. Rousset, and V. Michau, "Improvement of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor measurement for extreme adaptive optics," Opt. Lett. 29, 2743-2745 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fusco, M. Nicolle, G. Rousset, V. Michau, J.-L. Beuzit, and D. Mouillet, "Optimisation of Shack-Hartmannbased wavefront sensor for XAO system," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, Proc. SPIE 5490, 1155-1166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Petit, F. Quiros-Pacheco, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsar, H.-F. Raynaud, T. Fusco, and G. Rousset, "Kalman Filter based control loop for Adaptive Optics," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, Proc. SPIE 5490, 1414-1425 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Conan, T. Fusco, G. Rousset, D. Mouillet, J.-L. Beuzit, M. Nicolle, and C. Petit, "Modeling and analysis of XAO systems. Application to VLT-Planet Finder," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, Proc. SPIE 5490, 602-608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Blanc, T. Fusco, M. Hartung, L. M. Mugnier, and G. Rousset, "Calibration of NAOS and CONICA static aberrations. Application of the phase diversity technique," Astron. Astrophys. 399, 373-383 (2003), mugnier@onera.fr.
[CrossRef]

Gendron, E.

E. Gendron and P. Léna, "Astronomical adaptive optics I. Modal control optimization," Astron. Astrophys. 291, 337-347 (1994).

Gratadour, D.

A. Boccaletti, P. Riaud, P. Baudoz, J. Baudrand, D. Rouan, D. Gratadour, F. Lacombe, and A.-M. Lagrange, "The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph IV. First light at the very large telescope," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pacific 116, 1061-1071 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guyon, O.

O. Guyon, "Limits of adaptive optics for high-contrast imaging," Astrophys. J. 629, 592-614 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hadwen, B. J.

M. S. Robbins and B. J. Hadwen, "The noise performance of electron multiplying charge coupled device," IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 50, 1227-1232 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hartung, M.

A. Blanc, T. Fusco, M. Hartung, L. M. Mugnier, and G. Rousset, "Calibration of NAOS and CONICA static aberrations. Application of the phase diversity technique," Astron. Astrophys. 399, 373-383 (2003), mugnier@onera.fr.
[CrossRef]

Hippler, S.

E. Masciadri, M. Feldt, and S. Hippler, "Scintillation effects on a high-contrast imaging instrument for direct extrasolar planets’ detection," Astrophys. J. 613, 572-579 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ivanescu, L.

Kasper, M.

Kulcsar, C.

C. Petit, F. Quiros-Pacheco, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsar, H.-F. Raynaud, T. Fusco, and G. Rousset, "Kalman Filter based control loop for Adaptive Optics," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, Proc. SPIE 5490, 1414-1425 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lacombe, F.

A. Boccaletti, P. Riaud, P. Baudoz, J. Baudrand, D. Rouan, D. Gratadour, F. Lacombe, and A.-M. Lagrange, "The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph IV. First light at the very large telescope," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pacific 116, 1061-1071 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lagrange, A.-M.

A. Boccaletti, P. Riaud, P. Baudoz, J. Baudrand, D. Rouan, D. Gratadour, F. Lacombe, and A.-M. Lagrange, "The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph IV. First light at the very large telescope," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pacific 116, 1061-1071 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lai, O.

F. Rigaut, J.-P. Véran, and O. Lai, "Analytical model for Shack-Hartmann-based adaptive optics system," Proc. SPIE 3353, 1038-1048 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Léna, P.

E. Gendron and P. Léna, "Astronomical adaptive optics I. Modal control optimization," Astron. Astrophys. 291, 337-347 (1994).

Looze, D. P.

Macintosh, B.

Marois, C.

R. Racine, G. A. Walker, D. Nadeau, and C. Marois, "Speckle noise and the detection of faint companions," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pacific 112, 587-594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Masciadri, E.

E. Masciadri, M. Feldt, and S. Hippler, "Scintillation effects on a high-contrast imaging instrument for direct extrasolar planets’ detection," Astrophys. J. 613, 572-579 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Michau, V.

Mouillet, D.

T. Fusco, M. Nicolle, G. Rousset, V. Michau, J.-L. Beuzit, and D. Mouillet, "Optimisation of Shack-Hartmannbased wavefront sensor for XAO system," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, Proc. SPIE 5490, 1155-1166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Conan, T. Fusco, G. Rousset, D. Mouillet, J.-L. Beuzit, M. Nicolle, and C. Petit, "Modeling and analysis of XAO systems. Application to VLT-Planet Finder," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, Proc. SPIE 5490, 602-608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mugnier, L. M.

A. Blanc, T. Fusco, M. Hartung, L. M. Mugnier, and G. Rousset, "Calibration of NAOS and CONICA static aberrations. Application of the phase diversity technique," Astron. Astrophys. 399, 373-383 (2003), mugnier@onera.fr.
[CrossRef]

Nadeau, D.

R. Racine, G. A. Walker, D. Nadeau, and C. Marois, "Speckle noise and the detection of faint companions," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pacific 112, 587-594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nicolle, M.

R. Conan, T. Fusco, G. Rousset, D. Mouillet, J.-L. Beuzit, M. Nicolle, and C. Petit, "Modeling and analysis of XAO systems. Application to VLT-Planet Finder," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, Proc. SPIE 5490, 602-608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Fusco, M. Nicolle, G. Rousset, V. Michau, J.-L. Beuzit, and D. Mouillet, "Optimisation of Shack-Hartmannbased wavefront sensor for XAO system," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, Proc. SPIE 5490, 1155-1166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Nicolle, T. Fusco, G. Rousset, and V. Michau, "Improvement of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor measurement for extreme adaptive optics," Opt. Lett. 29, 2743-2745 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oberti, S.

Petit, C.

T. Fusco, C. Petit, G. Rousset, J.-M. Conan, and J.-L. Beuzit, "Closed-loop experimental validation of the spatially filtered Shack-Hartmann concept," Opt. Lett. 30, 1255-1257 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Conan, T. Fusco, G. Rousset, D. Mouillet, J.-L. Beuzit, M. Nicolle, and C. Petit, "Modeling and analysis of XAO systems. Application to VLT-Planet Finder," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, Proc. SPIE 5490, 602-608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Petit, F. Quiros-Pacheco, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsar, H.-F. Raynaud, T. Fusco, and G. Rousset, "Kalman Filter based control loop for Adaptive Optics," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, Proc. SPIE 5490, 1414-1425 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Poyneer, L. A.

Quiros-Pacheco, F.

C. Petit, F. Quiros-Pacheco, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsar, H.-F. Raynaud, T. Fusco, and G. Rousset, "Kalman Filter based control loop for Adaptive Optics," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, Proc. SPIE 5490, 1414-1425 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Racine, R.

R. Racine, G. A. Walker, D. Nadeau, and C. Marois, "Speckle noise and the detection of faint companions," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pacific 112, 587-594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Raynaud, H.-F.

C. Petit, F. Quiros-Pacheco, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsar, H.-F. Raynaud, T. Fusco, and G. Rousset, "Kalman Filter based control loop for Adaptive Optics," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, Proc. SPIE 5490, 1414-1425 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Riaud, P.

A. Boccaletti, P. Riaud, P. Baudoz, J. Baudrand, D. Rouan, D. Gratadour, F. Lacombe, and A.-M. Lagrange, "The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph IV. First light at the very large telescope," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pacific 116, 1061-1071 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rigaut, F.

F. Rigaut, J.-P. Véran, and O. Lai, "Analytical model for Shack-Hartmann-based adaptive optics system," Proc. SPIE 3353, 1038-1048 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Robbins, M. S.

M. S. Robbins and B. J. Hadwen, "The noise performance of electron multiplying charge coupled device," IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 50, 1227-1232 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Robert, C.

Rouan, D.

C. Cavarroc, A. Boccaletti, P. Baudoz, T. Fusco, and D. Rouan, "Fundamental limitations on Earth-like planet detection with extremely large telescopes," Astron. Astrophys. 447, 397-403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Boccaletti, P. Riaud, P. Baudoz, J. Baudrand, D. Rouan, D. Gratadour, F. Lacombe, and A.-M. Lagrange, "The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph IV. First light at the very large telescope," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pacific 116, 1061-1071 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rousset, G.

T. Fusco, C. Petit, G. Rousset, J.-M. Conan, and J.-L. Beuzit, "Closed-loop experimental validation of the spatially filtered Shack-Hartmann concept," Opt. Lett. 30, 1255-1257 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nicolle, T. Fusco, G. Rousset, and V. Michau, "Improvement of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor measurement for extreme adaptive optics," Opt. Lett. 29, 2743-2745 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fusco, M. Nicolle, G. Rousset, V. Michau, J.-L. Beuzit, and D. Mouillet, "Optimisation of Shack-Hartmannbased wavefront sensor for XAO system," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, Proc. SPIE 5490, 1155-1166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Conan, T. Fusco, G. Rousset, D. Mouillet, J.-L. Beuzit, M. Nicolle, and C. Petit, "Modeling and analysis of XAO systems. Application to VLT-Planet Finder," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, Proc. SPIE 5490, 602-608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Petit, F. Quiros-Pacheco, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsar, H.-F. Raynaud, T. Fusco, and G. Rousset, "Kalman Filter based control loop for Adaptive Optics," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, Proc. SPIE 5490, 1414-1425 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Blanc, T. Fusco, M. Hartung, L. M. Mugnier, and G. Rousset, "Calibration of NAOS and CONICA static aberrations. Application of the phase diversity technique," Astron. Astrophys. 399, 373-383 (2003), mugnier@onera.fr.
[CrossRef]

Soummer, R.

R. Soummer, "Apodized pupil Lyot coronagraphs for arbitrary telescope apertures," Astrophys. J. 618, 161-164 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vedrenne, N.

Véran, J.-P.

F. Rigaut, J.-P. Véran, and O. Lai, "Analytical model for Shack-Hartmann-based adaptive optics system," Proc. SPIE 3353, 1038-1048 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Walker, G. A.

R. Racine, G. A. Walker, D. Nadeau, and C. Marois, "Speckle noise and the detection of faint companions," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pacific 112, 587-594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys. (3)

C. Cavarroc, A. Boccaletti, P. Baudoz, T. Fusco, and D. Rouan, "Fundamental limitations on Earth-like planet detection with extremely large telescopes," Astron. Astrophys. 447, 397-403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Gendron and P. Léna, "Astronomical adaptive optics I. Modal control optimization," Astron. Astrophys. 291, 337-347 (1994).

A. Blanc, T. Fusco, M. Hartung, L. M. Mugnier, and G. Rousset, "Calibration of NAOS and CONICA static aberrations. Application of the phase diversity technique," Astron. Astrophys. 399, 373-383 (2003), mugnier@onera.fr.
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. (3)

E. Masciadri, M. Feldt, and S. Hippler, "Scintillation effects on a high-contrast imaging instrument for direct extrasolar planets’ detection," Astrophys. J. 613, 572-579 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Guyon, "Limits of adaptive optics for high-contrast imaging," Astrophys. J. 629, 592-614 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Soummer, "Apodized pupil Lyot coronagraphs for arbitrary telescope apertures," Astrophys. J. 618, 161-164 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices (1)

M. S. Robbins and B. J. Hadwen, "The noise performance of electron multiplying charge coupled device," IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 50, 1227-1232 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (4)

C. Petit, F. Quiros-Pacheco, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsar, H.-F. Raynaud, T. Fusco, and G. Rousset, "Kalman Filter based control loop for Adaptive Optics," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, Proc. SPIE 5490, 1414-1425 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Fusco, M. Nicolle, G. Rousset, V. Michau, J.-L. Beuzit, and D. Mouillet, "Optimisation of Shack-Hartmannbased wavefront sensor for XAO system," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, Proc. SPIE 5490, 1155-1166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Rigaut, J.-P. Véran, and O. Lai, "Analytical model for Shack-Hartmann-based adaptive optics system," Proc. SPIE 3353, 1038-1048 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Conan, T. Fusco, G. Rousset, D. Mouillet, J.-L. Beuzit, M. Nicolle, and C. Petit, "Modeling and analysis of XAO systems. Application to VLT-Planet Finder," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, Proc. SPIE 5490, 602-608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pub. Astron. Soc. Pacific (2)

A. Boccaletti, P. Riaud, P. Baudoz, J. Baudrand, D. Rouan, D. Gratadour, F. Lacombe, and A.-M. Lagrange, "The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph IV. First light at the very large telescope," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pacific 116, 1061-1071 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Racine, G. A. Walker, D. Nadeau, and C. Marois, "Speckle noise and the detection of faint companions," Pub. Astron. Soc. Pacific 112, 587-594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

R. Lenzen, L. Close, W. Brandner, M. Hartung, and B. Biller, "NACO-SDI: A novel simultaneous differential imager for the direct imaging of giant extra-solar planets," in Proceedings of Science with Adaptive Optics, W. Brandner and M. Kasper, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2004), pp. 47-50.

J.-F. Sauvage, L. Mugnier, T. Fusco, and G. Rousset "Post processing of differential images for direct extrasolar planet detection from the ground," in Advances in Adaptive Optics II, Proc. SPIE 6272, pp. 753-763.

H. M. Schmid, J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Gisler, R. Gratton, T. Henning, F. Joos, M. Kasper, R. Lenzen, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, A. Quirrenbach, D. M. Stam, C. Thalmann, J. Tinbergen, C. Verinaud, R. Waters, and R. Wolstencroft, "Search and investigation of extra-solar planets with polarimetry," in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 200, Direct Imaging of Exoplanets: Science & Techniques (Cambridge University Press, 2005), pp. 165-170.

J.-F. Sauvage, T. Fusco, G. Rousset, C. Petit, A. Blanc, B. Neichel, and J.-L. Beuzit, "Fine calibration and precompensation of non-common path aberrations for high performance AO system," in Astronomical Adaptive Optics Systems and Applications II, R. K. Tyson and M. Lloyd-Hart, eds., Proc. SPIE 5903, 88-95 (2005).

L. Jolissaint and J.-P. Véran, "Fast computation and morphologic interpretation of the Adaptive Optics Point Spread Function," in Beyond Conventional Adaptive Optics, E. Vernet, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and N. Hubin, eds., Vol. 58 of European Southern Observatory Conference and Workshop Proceedings (ESO, 2002), pp. 201-205.

J.-L. Beuzit, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, and A. Boccaletti, "A planet finder instrument for the VLT," in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 200, Direct Imaging of Exoplanets: Science & Techniques (Cambridge University Press, 2005), pp. 317-323.

F. Roddier and C. Roddier, "NOAO Infrared Adaptive Optics Program II: modeling atmospheric effects in adaptive optics systems for astronomical telescopes," in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes III, L. D. Barr, ed., Proc. SPIE 628, 298-304 (1986).

F. Mahé, V. Michau, G. Rousset, and J.-M. Conan, "Scintillation effects on wavefront sensing in the Rytov regime," in Propagation through the Atmosphere IV, M. Roggemann, ed., Proc. SPIE 4125, 77-86 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P.-Y. Madec, "Control techniques," in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, F. Roddier, ed. (Cambridge University Press, 1999), pp. 131-154.

T. Fusco, G. Rousset, and A. Blanc, "Calibration of AO system. Application to NAOS-CONICA," in Science with Adaptive Optics, W. Brandner and M. Kasper, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2004), pp. 103-107.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Global concept of the SPHERE instrument, indicating the four subsystems and the main functionalities within the common path subsystem. Optical beams are indicated in red for NIR, blue for Vis, and orange for common path.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Comparison of focal plane intensity repartition (expressed in terms of contrast versus the center of the FoV) for AO corrected PSF (without coronagraph) and for a perfect coronagraph, as defined in Eq. (1). The x-axis is in milli-arcsec in the focal plane.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison of coronagraphic images in the case of a fitting error only (without scintillation error) and in the case of a perfect phase correction but with a scintillation error. [Left] two Cn2 profiles are considered: a typical Paranal case (θ0 = 2.5 arcsec@0.5μm) [solid curve] and a pessimistic profile (θ0 = 1.2 arcsec@0.5μm). The fitting case [dotted curve] is plotted for comparison. [Right] Effect of the imaging wavelength (from 2.2 to 0.7 μm). The typical Cn2 profile is considered.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

[Left] Schematic representation of the differential refraction effect. [Right] Influence of the zenith angle for a 1.65μm imaging wavelength and a 0.65μm WFS wavelength (a perfect correction at WFS wavelength is assumed in each case). A typical C 2 n profile has been considered. The fitting error of a 40x40 subapertures system has been plotted for comparison).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Impact of theWFS wavelength on chromatic errors (differential refraction and wavefront correction). The imaging wavelength is 1.6μm. The Zenith angle is equal to 40 o . A typical C 2 n profile has been considered (a perfect correction at WFS wavelength is assumed in each case). The fitting error of a 40x40 subapertures system has been plotted for comparison).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

[Left] Effect of the number of actuators on the coronagraphic image. Four actuator grids (20x20, 40x40, 60x60 and 80x80) have been considered. The imaging wavelength is set to 1.65 μm. Only the fitting error is considered. [Right] Effects of temporal errors on the coronagraphic images. Only atmospheric perturbations are introduced (no vibrations). The average wind speed is equal to 12.5 m/s.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Impact of aliasing effects on coronagraphic images. The case of a classical SH, a spatially filtered SH, and an aliasing-free WFS have been considered.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

[Left] Comparison of system zero-points for various GS types and assuming an IR or a VIS-WFS. [Right] Comparison of coronagraphic images in the case of a Pyramid (perfect and with diffraction effects) and a SH WFS.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

[left]Wavefront error of static aberration on the ONERA AO bench before and after measurements and precompensation. Twenty-five Zernike polynomials have been measured and precompensated. [Right] PSF before and after precompensation. The SR goes from 72±2% up to 93±2% at 633 nm.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

[Left] Differential coronagraphic (4-quadrant) image (λ1 = 1.56μm, l2 = 1.59μm). [Right] differential coronagraphic image + reference subtraction: pupil shift between object and reference star = 0, 0.6, and 1.2 % of the full pupil. The companion (Δ m = 15, separation = 0.6 arcsec) is clearly distinguishable from residual fixed speckles for a fixed pupil.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Impact of pupil shift between DM and WFS.

Equations (14)

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C r e s ( ρ ) = FT [ P ( r ) A ( r ) e i φ r e s ( r ) E c P ( r ) ] 2 .
E c = exp [ σ φ 2 σ log ( A ) 2 ] ,
σ φ 2 = 1 S { S ( φ ( r ' ) ( 1 S S φ ( r ) d r ) ) 2 d r ' }
σ log ( A ) 2 = 1 S { S ( log [ A ( r ' ) ] ( 1 S S log [ A ( r ) ] d r ) ) 2 d r ' } .
C r e s ( ρ ) FT [ φ r e s ( r ) ] 2 .
S N R 2 T i n t C r e s ( ρ ) N s D 2 S N P ,
C r e s ( ρ ) = C scint + C diff + C chrom + C refrac + C aniso atmospheric limitation
+ C fit + C temp + C alias + C noise low order residual error AO loop residual error + C calib + C aberr calibration errors .
Δ n ( λ ) = [ 10 6 ( 23.7 + 6839.4 130 ( λ ) 2 + 45.47 38.9 λ 2 ) ] P T 2 Δ T ,
n ( λ ) = n average + Δ n ( λ ) .
θ = ( Δ n [ λ wfs ] Δ n [ λ im ] ) tan ( zenith ) ,
ϕ turb ( λ 1 ) = Δ n ( λ 1 ) Δ n ( λ 0 ) ϕ turb ( λ 0 ) .
ϕ corr ( λ 1 ) = n ( λ 1 ) n ( λ 0 ) ϕ corr ( λ 0 ) .
ϕ res ( λ 1 ) = ϕ turb ( λ 1 ) ϕ corr ( λ 0 ) ( α 1 ) α ϕ turb ( λ 1 ) ,

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