Abstract

The effect of axial variations in acoustooptic phase-mismatch coefficient of a two-mode birefringent photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is studied experimentally using two different methods. The first method is to determine axial non-uniformities directly from the transmission spectrum, while the second method is to use acoustic pulses. Both methods are seen to be in good agreement. It is found that axial non-uniformities increase the coupling bandwidth significantly as compared to an axially uniform fiber. The effect of acoustic birefringence is also considered.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. S. Kim, S. H. Yun, I. K. Kwang, and B. Y. Kim, "All-fiber acousto-optic tunable notch filter with electronically controllable spectral profile," Opt. Lett. 22, 1476-1478 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake, H. E. Engan, and H. J. Shaw, "All-fiber acousto-optic frequency shifter," Opt. Lett. 11, 389-391 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. E. Engan, B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake, and H. J. Shaw, "Propagation and Optical Interaction of Guided Acoustic Waves in Two-Mode Optical Fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 428-436 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Ramachandran, "Dispersion-Tailored Few-Mode Fibers: A Versatile Platform for In-Fiber Photonic Devices," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3426-3443 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Jin, Q. Li, J. Zhao, K. Cheng, and X. Liu, "Ultra-Broad-Band AOTF Based on Cladding Etched Single-Mode Fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1133-1135 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Q. Li, A. A. Au, C.-H. Lin, E. R. Lyons, and H. P. Lee, "An Efficient All-Fiber Variable Optical Attenuator via Acoustooptic Mode Coupling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1563-1565 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D . Ostling and H. E. Engan, "Narrow-band acousto-optic tunable filtering in a two-mode fiber," Opt. Lett. 20, 1247-1249 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. E. Dimmick, G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, A. Diez, and P. S. J. Russell, "Compact All-Fiber Acoustooptic Tunable Filters with Small Bandwidth-Length Product," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1210-1212 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Q. Li, X. Liu, and H. P. Lee, "Demonstration of Narrow-Band Acoustooptic Tunable Filters on Dispersion- Enhanced Single-Mode Fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1551-1553 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. I. Yeom, H. S. Kim, M. S. Kang, H. S. Park, and B. Y. Kim, "Narrow-Bandwidth All-Fiber Acoustooptic Tunable Filter With Low Polarization-Sensitivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2646-2648 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Broeng, D. Mogilevstev, S. E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, "Photonic Crystal Fibers: A New Class of Optical Waveguides," Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 305-330 (1999).
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  13. A. Diez, T. A. Birks,W. H. Reeves, B. J. Mangan, and P. S. J. Russell, "Excitation of cladding modes in photonic crystal fibers by flexural acoustic waves," Opt. Lett. 25, 1499-1501 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M.W. Haakestad and H. E. Engan, "Acoustooptic Properties of aWeakly Multimode Solid Core Photonic Crystal Fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 838-845 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake, S. Y. Huang, and H. J. Shaw, "Use of highly elliptical core fibers for two-mode fiber devices," Opt. Lett. 12, 729-731 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. W. Jin, Z. Wang, and J. Ju, "Two-mode photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 13, 2082-2088 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. W. R. Trutna, Jr., D. W. Dolfi, and C. A. Flory, "Anomalous sidelobes and birefringence apodization in acoustooptic tunable filters," Opt. Lett. 18, 28-30 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. A. Smith, A. d’Alessandro, J. E. Baran, and H. Herrmann, "Source of sidelobe asymmetry in integrated acousto-optic filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 814-816 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. Langli, D. Ostling, and K. Bløtekjær, "Axial Variations in the Acoustooptic Phase-Mismatch Coefficient of Two-Mode Fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 2443-2450 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, "A Practical Algorithm for the Determination of Phase from Image and Diffraction Plane Pictures," Optik 35, 237-246 (1972).
  21. J. Skaar and H. E. Engan, "Distributed intragrating sensing using phase retrieval," Proc. SPIE 3746, 588-591 (1999).
  22. A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, "Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 25, 1325-1327 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  23. T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, "Highly Birefringent Index-Guiding Photonic Crystal Fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588-590 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  24. K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, M. Tanaka, and M. Fujita, "High-speed bi-directional polarisation division multiplexed optical transmission in ultra low-loss (1.3 dB/km) polarisation-maintaining photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 37, 1399-1401 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. R. Folkenberg, M. D. Nielsen, N. A. Mortensen, C. Jakobsen, and H. R. Simonsen, "Polarization maintaining large mode area photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 12, 956-960 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell’s equations in a planewave basis," Opt. Express 8, 173-190 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. R. Feced, C. Alegria, M. N. Zervas, and R. I. Laming, "Acoustooptic Attenuation Filters Based on Tapered Optical Fibers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1278-1288 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  28. H. E. Engan, D. O¨ stling, P. O. Kval, and J. O. Askautrud, "Wideband operation of horns for excitation of acoustic modes in optical fibers," Proc. SPIE 2360, 568-571 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  29. B. Langli and K. Bløtekjær, "Effect of Acoustic Birefringence on Acoustooptic Interaction in Birefringent Two- Mode Optical Fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 528-535 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. O. Askautrud and H. E. Engan, "Distributed probing of the orientation of two-mode birefringent fiber using pulsed acoustic guided waves," Proc. SPIE 1267, 40-49 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (3)

W. Jin, Z. Wang, and J. Ju, "Two-mode photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 13, 2082-2088 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. I. Yeom, H. S. Kim, M. S. Kang, H. S. Park, and B. Y. Kim, "Narrow-Bandwidth All-Fiber Acoustooptic Tunable Filter With Low Polarization-Sensitivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2646-2648 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Ramachandran, "Dispersion-Tailored Few-Mode Fibers: A Versatile Platform for In-Fiber Photonic Devices," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3426-3443 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

2002 (3)

T. Jin, Q. Li, J. Zhao, K. Cheng, and X. Liu, "Ultra-Broad-Band AOTF Based on Cladding Etched Single-Mode Fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1133-1135 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, A. A. Au, C.-H. Lin, E. R. Lyons, and H. P. Lee, "An Efficient All-Fiber Variable Optical Attenuator via Acoustooptic Mode Coupling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1563-1565 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, X. Liu, and H. P. Lee, "Demonstration of Narrow-Band Acoustooptic Tunable Filters on Dispersion- Enhanced Single-Mode Fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1551-1553 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell’s equations in a planewave basis," Opt. Express 8, 173-190 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, "Highly Birefringent Index-Guiding Photonic Crystal Fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588-590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, M. Tanaka, and M. Fujita, "High-speed bi-directional polarisation division multiplexed optical transmission in ultra low-loss (1.3 dB/km) polarisation-maintaining photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 37, 1399-1401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

1999 (3)

J. Broeng, D. Mogilevstev, S. E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, "Photonic Crystal Fibers: A New Class of Optical Waveguides," Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 305-330 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Feced, C. Alegria, M. N. Zervas, and R. I. Laming, "Acoustooptic Attenuation Filters Based on Tapered Optical Fibers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1278-1288 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Skaar and H. E. Engan, "Distributed intragrating sensing using phase retrieval," Proc. SPIE 3746, 588-591 (1999).

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

H. E. Engan, D. O¨ stling, P. O. Kval, and J. O. Askautrud, "Wideband operation of horns for excitation of acoustic modes in optical fibers," Proc. SPIE 2360, 568-571 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

W. R. Trutna, Jr., D. W. Dolfi, and C. A. Flory, "Anomalous sidelobes and birefringence apodization in acoustooptic tunable filters," Opt. Lett. 18, 28-30 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Smith, A. d’Alessandro, J. E. Baran, and H. Herrmann, "Source of sidelobe asymmetry in integrated acousto-optic filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 814-816 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

J. O. Askautrud and H. E. Engan, "Distributed probing of the orientation of two-mode birefringent fiber using pulsed acoustic guided waves," Proc. SPIE 1267, 40-49 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

H. E. Engan, B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake, and H. J. Shaw, "Propagation and Optical Interaction of Guided Acoustic Waves in Two-Mode Optical Fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 428-436 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

1972 (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, "A Practical Algorithm for the Determination of Phase from Image and Diffraction Plane Pictures," Optik 35, 237-246 (1972).

Alegria, C.

R. Feced, C. Alegria, M. N. Zervas, and R. I. Laming, "Acoustooptic Attenuation Filters Based on Tapered Optical Fibers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1278-1288 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Arriaga, J.

Askautrud, J. O.

J. O. Askautrud and H. E. Engan, "Distributed probing of the orientation of two-mode birefringent fiber using pulsed acoustic guided waves," Proc. SPIE 1267, 40-49 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Au, A. A.

Q. Li, A. A. Au, C.-H. Lin, E. R. Lyons, and H. P. Lee, "An Efficient All-Fiber Variable Optical Attenuator via Acoustooptic Mode Coupling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1563-1565 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baran, J. E.

D. A. Smith, A. d’Alessandro, J. E. Baran, and H. Herrmann, "Source of sidelobe asymmetry in integrated acousto-optic filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 814-816 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Barkou, S. E.

J. Broeng, D. Mogilevstev, S. E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, "Photonic Crystal Fibers: A New Class of Optical Waveguides," Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 305-330 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

Bjarklev, A.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, "Highly Birefringent Index-Guiding Photonic Crystal Fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588-590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Broeng, D. Mogilevstev, S. E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, "Photonic Crystal Fibers: A New Class of Optical Waveguides," Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 305-330 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Blake, J. N.

Bløtekjær, K.

Broeng, J.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, "Highly Birefringent Index-Guiding Photonic Crystal Fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588-590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Broeng, D. Mogilevstev, S. E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, "Photonic Crystal Fibers: A New Class of Optical Waveguides," Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 305-330 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, K.

T. Jin, Q. Li, J. Zhao, K. Cheng, and X. Liu, "Ultra-Broad-Band AOTF Based on Cladding Etched Single-Mode Fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1133-1135 (2002).
[CrossRef]

d’Alessandro, A.

D. A. Smith, A. d’Alessandro, J. E. Baran, and H. Herrmann, "Source of sidelobe asymmetry in integrated acousto-optic filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 814-816 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Diez, A.

T. E. Dimmick, G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, A. Diez, and P. S. J. Russell, "Compact All-Fiber Acoustooptic Tunable Filters with Small Bandwidth-Length Product," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1210-1212 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Diez, T. A. Birks,W. H. Reeves, B. J. Mangan, and P. S. J. Russell, "Excitation of cladding modes in photonic crystal fibers by flexural acoustic waves," Opt. Lett. 25, 1499-1501 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dimmick, T. E.

T. E. Dimmick, G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, A. Diez, and P. S. J. Russell, "Compact All-Fiber Acoustooptic Tunable Filters with Small Bandwidth-Length Product," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1210-1212 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dolfi, D. W.

Engan, H. E.

M.W. Haakestad and H. E. Engan, "Acoustooptic Properties of aWeakly Multimode Solid Core Photonic Crystal Fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 838-845 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Skaar and H. E. Engan, "Distributed intragrating sensing using phase retrieval," Proc. SPIE 3746, 588-591 (1999).

D . Ostling and H. E. Engan, "Narrow-band acousto-optic tunable filtering in a two-mode fiber," Opt. Lett. 20, 1247-1249 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. E. Engan, D. O¨ stling, P. O. Kval, and J. O. Askautrud, "Wideband operation of horns for excitation of acoustic modes in optical fibers," Proc. SPIE 2360, 568-571 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. O. Askautrud and H. E. Engan, "Distributed probing of the orientation of two-mode birefringent fiber using pulsed acoustic guided waves," Proc. SPIE 1267, 40-49 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Engan, B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake, and H. J. Shaw, "Propagation and Optical Interaction of Guided Acoustic Waves in Two-Mode Optical Fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 428-436 (1988).
[CrossRef]

B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake, H. E. Engan, and H. J. Shaw, "All-fiber acousto-optic frequency shifter," Opt. Lett. 11, 389-391 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feced, R.

R. Feced, C. Alegria, M. N. Zervas, and R. I. Laming, "Acoustooptic Attenuation Filters Based on Tapered Optical Fibers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1278-1288 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Flory, C. A.

Folkenberg, J. R.

Fujita, M.

K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, M. Tanaka, and M. Fujita, "High-speed bi-directional polarisation division multiplexed optical transmission in ultra low-loss (1.3 dB/km) polarisation-maintaining photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 37, 1399-1401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gerchberg, R. W.

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, "A Practical Algorithm for the Determination of Phase from Image and Diffraction Plane Pictures," Optik 35, 237-246 (1972).

Haakestad, M.W.

Hansen, T. P.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, "Highly Birefringent Index-Guiding Photonic Crystal Fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588-590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, H.

D. A. Smith, A. d’Alessandro, J. E. Baran, and H. Herrmann, "Source of sidelobe asymmetry in integrated acousto-optic filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 814-816 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. Y.

Jakobsen, C.

Jensen, J. R.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, "Highly Birefringent Index-Guiding Photonic Crystal Fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588-590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jin, T.

T. Jin, Q. Li, J. Zhao, K. Cheng, and X. Liu, "Ultra-Broad-Band AOTF Based on Cladding Etched Single-Mode Fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1133-1135 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jin, W.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Johnson, S. G.

Ju, J.

Kakarantzas, G.

T. E. Dimmick, G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, A. Diez, and P. S. J. Russell, "Compact All-Fiber Acoustooptic Tunable Filters with Small Bandwidth-Length Product," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1210-1212 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kang, M. S.

D. I. Yeom, H. S. Kim, M. S. Kang, H. S. Park, and B. Y. Kim, "Narrow-Bandwidth All-Fiber Acoustooptic Tunable Filter With Low Polarization-Sensitivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2646-2648 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kawanishi, S.

K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, M. Tanaka, and M. Fujita, "High-speed bi-directional polarisation division multiplexed optical transmission in ultra low-loss (1.3 dB/km) polarisation-maintaining photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 37, 1399-1401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. Y.

D. I. Yeom, H. S. Kim, M. S. Kang, H. S. Park, and B. Y. Kim, "Narrow-Bandwidth All-Fiber Acoustooptic Tunable Filter With Low Polarization-Sensitivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2646-2648 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Kim, S. H. Yun, I. K. Kwang, and B. Y. Kim, "All-fiber acousto-optic tunable notch filter with electronically controllable spectral profile," Opt. Lett. 22, 1476-1478 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Engan, B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake, and H. J. Shaw, "Propagation and Optical Interaction of Guided Acoustic Waves in Two-Mode Optical Fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 428-436 (1988).
[CrossRef]

B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake, S. Y. Huang, and H. J. Shaw, "Use of highly elliptical core fibers for two-mode fiber devices," Opt. Lett. 12, 729-731 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake, H. E. Engan, and H. J. Shaw, "All-fiber acousto-optic frequency shifter," Opt. Lett. 11, 389-391 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H. S.

D. I. Yeom, H. S. Kim, M. S. Kang, H. S. Park, and B. Y. Kim, "Narrow-Bandwidth All-Fiber Acoustooptic Tunable Filter With Low Polarization-Sensitivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2646-2648 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Kim, S. H. Yun, I. K. Kwang, and B. Y. Kim, "All-fiber acousto-optic tunable notch filter with electronically controllable spectral profile," Opt. Lett. 22, 1476-1478 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

Knudsen, E.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, "Highly Birefringent Index-Guiding Photonic Crystal Fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588-590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, H.

K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, M. Tanaka, and M. Fujita, "High-speed bi-directional polarisation division multiplexed optical transmission in ultra low-loss (1.3 dB/km) polarisation-maintaining photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 37, 1399-1401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kwang, I. K.

Laming, R. I.

R. Feced, C. Alegria, M. N. Zervas, and R. I. Laming, "Acoustooptic Attenuation Filters Based on Tapered Optical Fibers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1278-1288 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Langli, B.

Lee, H. P.

Q. Li, X. Liu, and H. P. Lee, "Demonstration of Narrow-Band Acoustooptic Tunable Filters on Dispersion- Enhanced Single-Mode Fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1551-1553 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, A. A. Au, C.-H. Lin, E. R. Lyons, and H. P. Lee, "An Efficient All-Fiber Variable Optical Attenuator via Acoustooptic Mode Coupling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1563-1565 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q.

Q. Li, A. A. Au, C.-H. Lin, E. R. Lyons, and H. P. Lee, "An Efficient All-Fiber Variable Optical Attenuator via Acoustooptic Mode Coupling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1563-1565 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Jin, Q. Li, J. Zhao, K. Cheng, and X. Liu, "Ultra-Broad-Band AOTF Based on Cladding Etched Single-Mode Fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1133-1135 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, X. Liu, and H. P. Lee, "Demonstration of Narrow-Band Acoustooptic Tunable Filters on Dispersion- Enhanced Single-Mode Fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1551-1553 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Libori, S. E. B.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, "Highly Birefringent Index-Guiding Photonic Crystal Fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588-590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-H.

Q. Li, A. A. Au, C.-H. Lin, E. R. Lyons, and H. P. Lee, "An Efficient All-Fiber Variable Optical Attenuator via Acoustooptic Mode Coupling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1563-1565 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

T. Jin, Q. Li, J. Zhao, K. Cheng, and X. Liu, "Ultra-Broad-Band AOTF Based on Cladding Etched Single-Mode Fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1133-1135 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, X. Liu, and H. P. Lee, "Demonstration of Narrow-Band Acoustooptic Tunable Filters on Dispersion- Enhanced Single-Mode Fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1551-1553 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lyons, E. R.

Q. Li, A. A. Au, C.-H. Lin, E. R. Lyons, and H. P. Lee, "An Efficient All-Fiber Variable Optical Attenuator via Acoustooptic Mode Coupling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1563-1565 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mangan, B. J.

Mogilevstev, D.

J. Broeng, D. Mogilevstev, S. E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, "Photonic Crystal Fibers: A New Class of Optical Waveguides," Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 305-330 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mortensen, N. A.

Nielsen, M. D.

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

Ostling, D

Park, H. S.

D. I. Yeom, H. S. Kim, M. S. Kang, H. S. Park, and B. Y. Kim, "Narrow-Bandwidth All-Fiber Acoustooptic Tunable Filter With Low Polarization-Sensitivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2646-2648 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ramachandran, S.

Reeves, W. H.

Russell, P.

P. Russell, "Photonic Crystal Fibers," Science 299, 358-362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. S. J.

Saxton, W. O.

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, "A Practical Algorithm for the Determination of Phase from Image and Diffraction Plane Pictures," Optik 35, 237-246 (1972).

Shaw, H. J.

Simonsen, H.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, "Highly Birefringent Index-Guiding Photonic Crystal Fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588-590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Simonsen, H. R.

Skaar, J.

J. Skaar and H. E. Engan, "Distributed intragrating sensing using phase retrieval," Proc. SPIE 3746, 588-591 (1999).

Smith, D. A.

D. A. Smith, A. d’Alessandro, J. E. Baran, and H. Herrmann, "Source of sidelobe asymmetry in integrated acousto-optic filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 814-816 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, M. Tanaka, and M. Fujita, "High-speed bi-directional polarisation division multiplexed optical transmission in ultra low-loss (1.3 dB/km) polarisation-maintaining photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 37, 1399-1401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, M. Tanaka, and M. Fujita, "High-speed bi-directional polarisation division multiplexed optical transmission in ultra low-loss (1.3 dB/km) polarisation-maintaining photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 37, 1399-1401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Trutna, W. R.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wang, Z.

Yeom, D. I.

D. I. Yeom, H. S. Kim, M. S. Kang, H. S. Park, and B. Y. Kim, "Narrow-Bandwidth All-Fiber Acoustooptic Tunable Filter With Low Polarization-Sensitivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2646-2648 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yun, S. H.

Zervas, M. N.

R. Feced, C. Alegria, M. N. Zervas, and R. I. Laming, "Acoustooptic Attenuation Filters Based on Tapered Optical Fibers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1278-1288 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

T. Jin, Q. Li, J. Zhao, K. Cheng, and X. Liu, "Ultra-Broad-Band AOTF Based on Cladding Etched Single-Mode Fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1133-1135 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. A. Smith, A. d’Alessandro, J. E. Baran, and H. Herrmann, "Source of sidelobe asymmetry in integrated acousto-optic filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 814-816 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, M. Tanaka, and M. Fujita, "High-speed bi-directional polarisation division multiplexed optical transmission in ultra low-loss (1.3 dB/km) polarisation-maintaining photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 37, 1399-1401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Feced, C. Alegria, M. N. Zervas, and R. I. Laming, "Acoustooptic Attenuation Filters Based on Tapered Optical Fibers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1278-1288 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (6)

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, "Highly Birefringent Index-Guiding Photonic Crystal Fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588-590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Jin, Q. Li, J. Zhao, K. Cheng, and X. Liu, "Ultra-Broad-Band AOTF Based on Cladding Etched Single-Mode Fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1133-1135 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, A. A. Au, C.-H. Lin, E. R. Lyons, and H. P. Lee, "An Efficient All-Fiber Variable Optical Attenuator via Acoustooptic Mode Coupling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1563-1565 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Dimmick, G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, A. Diez, and P. S. J. Russell, "Compact All-Fiber Acoustooptic Tunable Filters with Small Bandwidth-Length Product," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1210-1212 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, X. Liu, and H. P. Lee, "Demonstration of Narrow-Band Acoustooptic Tunable Filters on Dispersion- Enhanced Single-Mode Fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1551-1553 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. I. Yeom, H. S. Kim, M. S. Kang, H. S. Park, and B. Y. Kim, "Narrow-Bandwidth All-Fiber Acoustooptic Tunable Filter With Low Polarization-Sensitivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2646-2648 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

J. Broeng, D. Mogilevstev, S. E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, "Photonic Crystal Fibers: A New Class of Optical Waveguides," Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 305-330 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (7)

Optik (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, "A Practical Algorithm for the Determination of Phase from Image and Diffraction Plane Pictures," Optik 35, 237-246 (1972).

Proc. SPIE (3)

J. Skaar and H. E. Engan, "Distributed intragrating sensing using phase retrieval," Proc. SPIE 3746, 588-591 (1999).

H. E. Engan, D. O¨ stling, P. O. Kval, and J. O. Askautrud, "Wideband operation of horns for excitation of acoustic modes in optical fibers," Proc. SPIE 2360, 568-571 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. O. Askautrud and H. E. Engan, "Distributed probing of the orientation of two-mode birefringent fiber using pulsed acoustic guided waves," Proc. SPIE 1267, 40-49 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

P. Russell, "Photonic Crystal Fibers," Science 299, 358-362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) The birefringent PCF. Calculated intensity profiles of (b) the fundamental modes and (c) the second order modes. (d) Mode diagram. ng : Refractive index of silica, n cl: Effective cladding index.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup. (a) Stationary acoustooptic interaction region. (b) Acoustic pulses. PC: Polarization controller, L: Lens, MS: mode stripper.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured mode profile for (a) acoustic wave off and (b) acoustic wave on.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Interferograms. (a) Ac. pol. 2, opt. pol. 1. (b) Ac. pol. 2, opt. pol. 1 and 2. (c) Ac. pol. 2, opt. pol. 2. (d) Ac. pol. 1 and 2, opt. pol. 1. (e) Ac. pol. 1, opt. pol. 1. (f) A 180° twist of the AO-region. (g) A 360° twist of the AO-region. (h) A 540° twist of the AO-region.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Measured transmission in section 1. (b) Retrieved Δβ(z) using the G-S algorithm. (c) Retrieved Δβ(z) using acoustic pulses. Red curves: Ac. pol 2, opt. pol. 2. Magenta curves: Ac. pol. 1, opt. pol. 2. Blue curves: Ac. pol. 2, opt. pol. 1. Green curves: Ac. pol. 1, opt. pol. 1. Black curve: Ideal computed transmission for an axially uniform fiber.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Measured transmission in section 2 (magenta curve), computed transmission using Δβ(z) found by the G-S method (red curve) and by acoustic pulses (blue curve). (b) Retrieved Δβ(z) in section 2 using the G-S algorithm (red curve) and acoustic pulses (blue curve).

Equations (11)

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ψ ( r , t ) = i = 01,11 a i ( z ) ψ i ( x , y ) exp [ i L 2 z β i ( z′ ) dz′ ] exp ( i ω i t ) ,
d d z a 01 ( z ) = ( z ) a 11 ( z ) exp [ i L 2 z Δ β ( z , Ω a ) d z′ ]
d d z a 11 ( z ) = * ( z ) a 01 ( z ) exp [ i L 2 z Δ β ( z , Ω a ) d z′ ] ,
Δ β ( z , Ω a ) = β 01 ( z ) β 11 ( z ) K a ( z , Ω a ) ,
Δ β ( z , Ω a ) = Δ β ( z , Ω a ) + Δ β ˜ ( Ω a ) Δ β ( z ) + Δ β ˜ ( Ω a ) ,
d d z a 11 ( z ) = * exp [ i L 2 z Δ β ( z ) d z′ ] exp [ β ˜ ( Ω a ) ( z + L 2 ) ] .
Δ β ˜ ( Ω a ) β ˜ ( Ω 0 ) d Ω a ( Ω a Ω 0 ) = d K ( Ω 0 ) d Ω a ΔΩ = ΔΩ v g ( Ω 0 ) ,
u ( Ω a ) = h ( z ) exp [ iΔΩ z v g ( Ω 0 ) ] d z ,
h ( z ) = { exp [ ( z ) if L 2 z < L 2 0 otherwise
Δ β ( z ) = d d z ϕ ( z ) .
Δ β ( z ) = Ω ( z v g ) Ω a v g ,

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