Abstract

Some complex microstructured fibers (MSFs) are well known to produce poor-quality cleaves or even to break at cleavage. But to find widespread use in photonics technology, MSFs will have to be easily cleavable using mechanical cleavers, since more sophisticated techniques add complexity. In this paper, the very different, yet reproducible cleavage patterns of three high air-fraction, double-clad microstructured fibers are analyzed. Fracture faces reveal the fracture propagation paths and provide measurements of the fracture lengths in the intercapillary bridges. These lengths prove to be always shorter than the critical fracture length predicted by fracture mechanics. A criterion based on critical fracture length is thus proposed to design cleavage-robust MSFs.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Huntington, K. Lyytikainen, and J. Canning “Analysis and removal of fracture damage during and subsequent to holey fiber cleaving,” Opt. Express 11, 535–540 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. C. Simonneau, P. Bousselet, G. Melin, L. Provost, C. Moreau, X. Rejeaunier, A.Le Sauze, L. Gassa, and D. Bayart, “High-power air-clad photonic crystal fiber cladding-pumped EDFA for WDM applications in the C-band,” presented at the Europeen Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC), PD57, (2003).
  3. W. J. Wadsworth, M. R. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. D. Hedley, and P. S. J. Russel, “Very high numerical aperture fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 843–845 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  4. R. O. Ritchie, “Mechanics of fatigue-crack propagation in ductile and brittle solids,” Int. J. Fract. 100, 55–83 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  5. D. G. Holloway, “The fracture of glass,” in Physics Education (1968), pp. 317–322.
    [Crossref]
  6. T. Kuwabara, Y. Mitsunaga, and H. Koga “Calculation method of failure probabilities of optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1132–1138 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. D. Yablon, Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing (Springer, Germany,2005).
  8. T. Haibara, M. Matsumoto, and M. Miyauchi, “Design and developpement of an automatic cutting tool for optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1434–1439 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. Glodge, P. W. Smith, D. L. Bisbee, and E. L. Chinnock, “Optical fiber end preparation for low-loss splices,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1579–1587 (1973).
  10. NIST, “SiO2 Base Glasses: S100a”, retrieved May 31, 2006, http://www.ceramics.nist.gov/srd/summary/glss100a.htm.
  11. S. S. Aboutorabi, “Clivage mécanique des fibres microstructurées,” M. Eng. Thesis (École de Technologie supérieure, Montreal, QC, Canada,2006).
  12. H. Tada, P. C. Paris, and G. R. Irwin, The Stress Analysis of Cracks Handbook, 3rd ed. (American Society of Mechanical Engineers Press, New York,2000).
    [Crossref]

2006 (1)

S. S. Aboutorabi, “Clivage mécanique des fibres microstructurées,” M. Eng. Thesis (École de Technologie supérieure, Montreal, QC, Canada,2006).

2004 (1)

W. J. Wadsworth, M. R. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. D. Hedley, and P. S. J. Russel, “Very high numerical aperture fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 843–845 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

1999 (1)

R. O. Ritchie, “Mechanics of fatigue-crack propagation in ductile and brittle solids,” Int. J. Fract. 100, 55–83 (1999).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

T. Kuwabara, Y. Mitsunaga, and H. Koga “Calculation method of failure probabilities of optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1132–1138 (1993).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

T. Haibara, M. Matsumoto, and M. Miyauchi, “Design and developpement of an automatic cutting tool for optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1434–1439 (1986).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

D. Glodge, P. W. Smith, D. L. Bisbee, and E. L. Chinnock, “Optical fiber end preparation for low-loss splices,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1579–1587 (1973).

Aboutorabi, S. S.

S. S. Aboutorabi, “Clivage mécanique des fibres microstructurées,” M. Eng. Thesis (École de Technologie supérieure, Montreal, QC, Canada,2006).

Bayart, D.

C. Simonneau, P. Bousselet, G. Melin, L. Provost, C. Moreau, X. Rejeaunier, A.Le Sauze, L. Gassa, and D. Bayart, “High-power air-clad photonic crystal fiber cladding-pumped EDFA for WDM applications in the C-band,” presented at the Europeen Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC), PD57, (2003).

Birks, T. A.

W. J. Wadsworth, M. R. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. D. Hedley, and P. S. J. Russel, “Very high numerical aperture fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 843–845 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bisbee, D. L.

D. Glodge, P. W. Smith, D. L. Bisbee, and E. L. Chinnock, “Optical fiber end preparation for low-loss splices,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1579–1587 (1973).

Bousselet, P.

C. Simonneau, P. Bousselet, G. Melin, L. Provost, C. Moreau, X. Rejeaunier, A.Le Sauze, L. Gassa, and D. Bayart, “High-power air-clad photonic crystal fiber cladding-pumped EDFA for WDM applications in the C-band,” presented at the Europeen Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC), PD57, (2003).

Bouwmans, G.

W. J. Wadsworth, M. R. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. D. Hedley, and P. S. J. Russel, “Very high numerical aperture fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 843–845 (2004).
[Crossref]

Canning, J.

Chinnock, E. L.

D. Glodge, P. W. Smith, D. L. Bisbee, and E. L. Chinnock, “Optical fiber end preparation for low-loss splices,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1579–1587 (1973).

Gassa, L.

C. Simonneau, P. Bousselet, G. Melin, L. Provost, C. Moreau, X. Rejeaunier, A.Le Sauze, L. Gassa, and D. Bayart, “High-power air-clad photonic crystal fiber cladding-pumped EDFA for WDM applications in the C-band,” presented at the Europeen Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC), PD57, (2003).

Glodge, D.

D. Glodge, P. W. Smith, D. L. Bisbee, and E. L. Chinnock, “Optical fiber end preparation for low-loss splices,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1579–1587 (1973).

Haibara, T.

T. Haibara, M. Matsumoto, and M. Miyauchi, “Design and developpement of an automatic cutting tool for optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1434–1439 (1986).
[Crossref]

Hedley, T. D.

W. J. Wadsworth, M. R. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. D. Hedley, and P. S. J. Russel, “Very high numerical aperture fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 843–845 (2004).
[Crossref]

Holloway, D. G.

D. G. Holloway, “The fracture of glass,” in Physics Education (1968), pp. 317–322.
[Crossref]

Huntington, S.

Irwin, G. R.

H. Tada, P. C. Paris, and G. R. Irwin, The Stress Analysis of Cracks Handbook, 3rd ed. (American Society of Mechanical Engineers Press, New York,2000).
[Crossref]

Knight, J. C.

W. J. Wadsworth, M. R. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. D. Hedley, and P. S. J. Russel, “Very high numerical aperture fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 843–845 (2004).
[Crossref]

Koga, H.

T. Kuwabara, Y. Mitsunaga, and H. Koga “Calculation method of failure probabilities of optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1132–1138 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kuwabara, T.

T. Kuwabara, Y. Mitsunaga, and H. Koga “Calculation method of failure probabilities of optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1132–1138 (1993).
[Crossref]

Lyytikainen, K.

Matsumoto, M.

T. Haibara, M. Matsumoto, and M. Miyauchi, “Design and developpement of an automatic cutting tool for optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1434–1439 (1986).
[Crossref]

Melin, G.

C. Simonneau, P. Bousselet, G. Melin, L. Provost, C. Moreau, X. Rejeaunier, A.Le Sauze, L. Gassa, and D. Bayart, “High-power air-clad photonic crystal fiber cladding-pumped EDFA for WDM applications in the C-band,” presented at the Europeen Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC), PD57, (2003).

Mitsunaga, Y.

T. Kuwabara, Y. Mitsunaga, and H. Koga “Calculation method of failure probabilities of optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1132–1138 (1993).
[Crossref]

Miyauchi, M.

T. Haibara, M. Matsumoto, and M. Miyauchi, “Design and developpement of an automatic cutting tool for optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1434–1439 (1986).
[Crossref]

Moreau, C.

C. Simonneau, P. Bousselet, G. Melin, L. Provost, C. Moreau, X. Rejeaunier, A.Le Sauze, L. Gassa, and D. Bayart, “High-power air-clad photonic crystal fiber cladding-pumped EDFA for WDM applications in the C-band,” presented at the Europeen Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC), PD57, (2003).

Paris, P. C.

H. Tada, P. C. Paris, and G. R. Irwin, The Stress Analysis of Cracks Handbook, 3rd ed. (American Society of Mechanical Engineers Press, New York,2000).
[Crossref]

Percival, M. R.

W. J. Wadsworth, M. R. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. D. Hedley, and P. S. J. Russel, “Very high numerical aperture fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 843–845 (2004).
[Crossref]

Provost, L.

C. Simonneau, P. Bousselet, G. Melin, L. Provost, C. Moreau, X. Rejeaunier, A.Le Sauze, L. Gassa, and D. Bayart, “High-power air-clad photonic crystal fiber cladding-pumped EDFA for WDM applications in the C-band,” presented at the Europeen Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC), PD57, (2003).

Rejeaunier, X.

C. Simonneau, P. Bousselet, G. Melin, L. Provost, C. Moreau, X. Rejeaunier, A.Le Sauze, L. Gassa, and D. Bayart, “High-power air-clad photonic crystal fiber cladding-pumped EDFA for WDM applications in the C-band,” presented at the Europeen Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC), PD57, (2003).

Ritchie, R. O.

R. O. Ritchie, “Mechanics of fatigue-crack propagation in ductile and brittle solids,” Int. J. Fract. 100, 55–83 (1999).
[Crossref]

Russel, P. S. J.

W. J. Wadsworth, M. R. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. D. Hedley, and P. S. J. Russel, “Very high numerical aperture fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 843–845 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sauze, A.Le

C. Simonneau, P. Bousselet, G. Melin, L. Provost, C. Moreau, X. Rejeaunier, A.Le Sauze, L. Gassa, and D. Bayart, “High-power air-clad photonic crystal fiber cladding-pumped EDFA for WDM applications in the C-band,” presented at the Europeen Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC), PD57, (2003).

Simonneau, C.

C. Simonneau, P. Bousselet, G. Melin, L. Provost, C. Moreau, X. Rejeaunier, A.Le Sauze, L. Gassa, and D. Bayart, “High-power air-clad photonic crystal fiber cladding-pumped EDFA for WDM applications in the C-band,” presented at the Europeen Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC), PD57, (2003).

Smith, P. W.

D. Glodge, P. W. Smith, D. L. Bisbee, and E. L. Chinnock, “Optical fiber end preparation for low-loss splices,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1579–1587 (1973).

Tada, H.

H. Tada, P. C. Paris, and G. R. Irwin, The Stress Analysis of Cracks Handbook, 3rd ed. (American Society of Mechanical Engineers Press, New York,2000).
[Crossref]

Wadsworth, W. J.

W. J. Wadsworth, M. R. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. D. Hedley, and P. S. J. Russel, “Very high numerical aperture fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 843–845 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yablon, A. D.

A. D. Yablon, Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing (Springer, Germany,2005).

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

D. Glodge, P. W. Smith, D. L. Bisbee, and E. L. Chinnock, “Optical fiber end preparation for low-loss splices,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1579–1587 (1973).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

W. J. Wadsworth, M. R. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. D. Hedley, and P. S. J. Russel, “Very high numerical aperture fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 843–845 (2004).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Fract. (1)

R. O. Ritchie, “Mechanics of fatigue-crack propagation in ductile and brittle solids,” Int. J. Fract. 100, 55–83 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

T. Kuwabara, Y. Mitsunaga, and H. Koga “Calculation method of failure probabilities of optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1132–1138 (1993).
[Crossref]

T. Haibara, M. Matsumoto, and M. Miyauchi, “Design and developpement of an automatic cutting tool for optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1434–1439 (1986).
[Crossref]

M. Eng. Thesis (1)

S. S. Aboutorabi, “Clivage mécanique des fibres microstructurées,” M. Eng. Thesis (École de Technologie supérieure, Montreal, QC, Canada,2006).

Opt. Express (1)

Other (5)

C. Simonneau, P. Bousselet, G. Melin, L. Provost, C. Moreau, X. Rejeaunier, A.Le Sauze, L. Gassa, and D. Bayart, “High-power air-clad photonic crystal fiber cladding-pumped EDFA for WDM applications in the C-band,” presented at the Europeen Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC), PD57, (2003).

D. G. Holloway, “The fracture of glass,” in Physics Education (1968), pp. 317–322.
[Crossref]

A. D. Yablon, Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing (Springer, Germany,2005).

NIST, “SiO2 Base Glasses: S100a”, retrieved May 31, 2006, http://www.ceramics.nist.gov/srd/summary/glss100a.htm.

H. Tada, P. C. Paris, and G. R. Irwin, The Stress Analysis of Cracks Handbook, 3rd ed. (American Society of Mechanical Engineers Press, New York,2000).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Cleaved surfaces of the MSF samples, obtained with an EFC-11 cleaver; a) out-of-focus optical micrograph of Fiber 1 revealing the fracture propagation path, from the blade-impact point to the final fracture ridge; b), c) and d) scanning-electron micrographs of Fibers 1, 2 and 3 respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Ingliss model of fracture propagation in a bar.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measurement of fracture length in a typical broken bridge.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Maximum fracture length in bridges for Fibers 2 and 3.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Design criterion for robust capillary bridges: any BC and DE segments should be larger than the critical fracture length ac .

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. MSF dimensions.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Cleaving conditions using the EFC-11 cleaver.

Equations (4)

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σ app a c Y = K IC ,
σ app D mist = K fract ,
K IC Y σ app a K fract
f ( a , W ) = 1.12 0.231 ( a W ) + 10.55 ( a W ) 2 21.72 ( a W ) 3 + 30.39 ( a W ) 4 .

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