Abstract

We report a novel imaging technique for fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (FDOT). Unlike conventional FDOT, this technique separates the imaging procedure into two steps to respectively reconstruct the structural information (such as the center position and the radius), and the functional information (such as the fluorophore concentration and/or lifetime) of a fluorescing target embedded in a turbid medium. The structural parameters of the target were estimated from the amplitude ratio and phase difference of fluorescence signals received at different detectors, because the amplitude ratio and phase difference were found independent of, or weakly related to, the functional parameters. Based on the estimated structural parameters, a dual-zone mesh technique was utilized to reconstruct the fluorophore concentration. Results of simulations and phantom experiments showed that the structural parameters could be accurately recovered, without knowing the functional information, and that the reconstruction accuracy of the functional parameter was greater than 80%.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. F. Massoud and S. S. Gambhir, "Molecular imaging in living subjects: seeing fundamental biological processes in a new light," Genes Dev. 17, 545-580 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. Weissleder and U. Mahmood, "Molecular Imaging," Radiology 219,316-333 (2001).
    [PubMed]
  3. W. Long and M. Vernon, "Optical molecular imaging: time domain advantages with explore OptixTM," January 2004, Advanced Research Technology Inc. http://www.art.ca/en/products/INOPaper040129.pdf.
  4. J. Skoch, A. Dunn, B. T. Hyman, and B. J. Bacskai, "Development of an optical approach for noninvasive imaging of Alzheimer’s disease pathology," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011007-1-7 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Yodh and B. Chance, "Spectroscopy and imaging with diffusing light," Phys. Today 3, 34-40 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Tromberg, R. Shah, A. Lanning, J. Cerussi, T. Espinoza, L. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, "Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy," Neoplasia 2, 26-40 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B. Murphy, Fundamentals of light microscopy and electronic imaging (Wiley-Liss, 2001).
  8. J. P. Houston, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Sensitivity and depth penetration of continuous wave versus frequency-domain photon migration near-infrared fluorescence contrast-enhanced imaging," Photochem. and Photobiol. 77, 420-430 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. B. Milstein, S. Oh, K. J. Webb, C. A. Bouman, Q. Zhang, D. A. Boas, and R. P. Millane, "Fluorescence optical diffusion tomography," Appl. Opt. 42, 3081-3094 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. A. O'Leary, D. A. Boas, X. D. Li, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Fluorescence lifetime imaging in turbid media," Opt. Lett. 21, 158-160 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Lee and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Three-dimensional fluorescence enhanced optical tomography using referenced frequency domain photon migration measurements at emission and excitation wavelengths," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 759-771 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. J. Eppstein, D. J. Hawrysz, A. Godavarty, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Three-dimensional, Bayesian image reconstruction from sparse and noisy data sets: near-infrared fluorescence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 9619-9624 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang, S. Theru, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging in large tissue volumes using a gain-modulated ICCD camera," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1701-1720 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. V. Ntziachristos and R. Weissleder, "Experimental three-dimensional fluorescence reconstruction of diffuse media by use of a normalized Born approximation," Opt. Lett. 26,893-895 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Gurfinkel, S Ke, X Wen, C Li, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Near-infrared fluorescence optical imaging and tomography," Dis. Markers 19, 107-121 (2003, 2004).
  16. M. Sevick-Muraca, G. Lopez, J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, and C. L. Hutchinson, "Fluorescence and absorption contrast mechanisms for biomedical optical imaging using frequency-domain techniques," J. Photochem. and Photobiol. 66, 55-64 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. Graves, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Fluorescence molecular imaging of small animal tumor models," Curr. Mol. Med. 4, 419-430 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. V. Ntziachristos, C. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo," Nat. Med. 8, 757-760 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. U. Mahmood, "Near infrared optical applications in molecular imaging, earlier, more accurate assessment of disease presence, disease course, and efficacy of disease treatment," IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 23, 58-66 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. E. Graves, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "A submillimeter resolution fluorescence molecular imaging system for small animal imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 901-911 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. V. Ntziachristos and R. Weissleder, "Charge-coupled-device based scanner for tomography of fluorescent near-infrared probes in turbid media," Med. Phys. 29, 803-809 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, J. L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, "Visualization of antitumor treatment by means of fluorescence molecular tomography with an annexin V-Cy5.5 conjugate," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 12294-12299 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Experimental fluorescence tomography of tissues with noncontact measurements," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23,492-500 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Noncontact optical tomography of turbid media," Opt. Lett. 28,1701-1703 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. B. Milstein, J. J. Stott, S. Oh, D. A. Boas, R. P. Millane, C. A. Bouman, and K. J. Webb, "Fluorescence optical diffusion tomography using multiple-frequency data," J. Opt, Soc. Am. A. 21,1035-1049 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  26. D. J. Hawrysz, M. J. Eppstein, J. Lee, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Error consideration in contrast-enhanced three-dimensional optical tomography," Opt. Lett. 26, 704-706 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  27. S. Lam, F. Lesage, and X. Intes, "Tim domain fluorescent diffuse optical tomography: analytical expressions," Opt. Express 13, 2263-2275 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. S. V. Patwardhan, S. R. Bloch, S. Achilefu, and J. P. Culver, "Time-dependent whole-body fluorescence tomography of probe bio-distributions in mice," Opt. Express 13, 2564-2577 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. J. W. Bangerth and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Adaptive finite element based tomography for fluorescence optical imaging in tissue," Opt. Express 12,5402-5417 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. Q. Zhu, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, K. Zarfos, B. Jagjivan, M. Kane, P. Hegde, and S. H. Kurtzman, "Ultrasound-guided optical tomographic imaging of malignant and benign breast lesions," Neoplasia 5, 379-388 (2003).
    [PubMed]
  31. Q. Zhu, N. G. Chen, and S. Kurtzman, "Imaging tumor angiogenesis using combined near infrared diffusive light and ultrasound," Opt. Lett. 28, 337-339 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. N. G. Chen, P. Guo, S. Yan, D. Piao, and Q. Zhu, "Simultaneous near infrared diffusive light and ultrasound imaging," Appl. Opt. 40, 6367-6380 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  33. X. D. Li, M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Fluorescent diffuse photon density waves in homogeneous and heterogeneous turbid media: analytic solutions and applications," Appl. Opt. 35, 3746-3758 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. R. C. Haskell, L. O. Svaasand, T. Tsay, T. Feng, M. S. McAdams, and B. J. Tromberg, "Bondary conditions for the diffusion equation in radiative transfer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2727-2741 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  35. J. C. J. Passchens and G. W. ‘t Hooft, "Influence of boundaries on the imaging of objects in turbid media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1797-1812 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  36. X. Li, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Fluorescent Heterogeneities in turbid media: Limits for detection, characterization and comparison with aAbsorption," Appl. Opt. 37,6833-6844 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  37. W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1992), Chap. 10.
  38. N. G. Chen, M. M. Huang, H. Xia, D. Piao, and Q. Zhu, ‘‘Portable near-infrared diffusive light imager for breast cancer detection,’’J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 504-510 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. B. Yuan and Q. Zhu, "Emission and absorption properties of indocyanine green in Intralipid solution," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 497-503 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. D. Y. Paithankar, A. U. Chen, B. W. Pogue, M. S. Patterson, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Imaging of fluorescent yield and lifetime from multiply scattered light reemitted from random media," Appl. Opt. 36, 2260-2272 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

2004 (9)

J. W. Bangerth and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Adaptive finite element based tomography for fluorescence optical imaging in tissue," Opt. Express 12,5402-5417 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, J. L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, "Visualization of antitumor treatment by means of fluorescence molecular tomography with an annexin V-Cy5.5 conjugate," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 12294-12299 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Experimental fluorescence tomography of tissues with noncontact measurements," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23,492-500 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Milstein, J. J. Stott, S. Oh, D. A. Boas, R. P. Millane, C. A. Bouman, and K. J. Webb, "Fluorescence optical diffusion tomography using multiple-frequency data," J. Opt, Soc. Am. A. 21,1035-1049 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. G. Chen, M. M. Huang, H. Xia, D. Piao, and Q. Zhu, ‘‘Portable near-infrared diffusive light imager for breast cancer detection,’’J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 504-510 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Yuan and Q. Zhu, "Emission and absorption properties of indocyanine green in Intralipid solution," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 497-503 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gurfinkel, S Ke, X Wen, C Li, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Near-infrared fluorescence optical imaging and tomography," Dis. Markers 19, 107-121 (2003, 2004).

E. Graves, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Fluorescence molecular imaging of small animal tumor models," Curr. Mol. Med. 4, 419-430 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Mahmood, "Near infrared optical applications in molecular imaging, earlier, more accurate assessment of disease presence, disease course, and efficacy of disease treatment," IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 23, 58-66 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (8)

E. Graves, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "A submillimeter resolution fluorescence molecular imaging system for small animal imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 901-911 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang, S. Theru, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging in large tissue volumes using a gain-modulated ICCD camera," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1701-1720 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. F. Massoud and S. S. Gambhir, "Molecular imaging in living subjects: seeing fundamental biological processes in a new light," Genes Dev. 17, 545-580 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Houston, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Sensitivity and depth penetration of continuous wave versus frequency-domain photon migration near-infrared fluorescence contrast-enhanced imaging," Photochem. and Photobiol. 77, 420-430 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Milstein, S. Oh, K. J. Webb, C. A. Bouman, Q. Zhang, D. A. Boas, and R. P. Millane, "Fluorescence optical diffusion tomography," Appl. Opt. 42, 3081-3094 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Noncontact optical tomography of turbid media," Opt. Lett. 28,1701-1703 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhu, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, K. Zarfos, B. Jagjivan, M. Kane, P. Hegde, and S. H. Kurtzman, "Ultrasound-guided optical tomographic imaging of malignant and benign breast lesions," Neoplasia 5, 379-388 (2003).
[PubMed]

Q. Zhu, N. G. Chen, and S. Kurtzman, "Imaging tumor angiogenesis using combined near infrared diffusive light and ultrasound," Opt. Lett. 28, 337-339 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (4)

J. Lee and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Three-dimensional fluorescence enhanced optical tomography using referenced frequency domain photon migration measurements at emission and excitation wavelengths," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 759-771 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Eppstein, D. J. Hawrysz, A. Godavarty, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Three-dimensional, Bayesian image reconstruction from sparse and noisy data sets: near-infrared fluorescence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 9619-9624 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos and R. Weissleder, "Charge-coupled-device based scanner for tomography of fluorescent near-infrared probes in turbid media," Med. Phys. 29, 803-809 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, C. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo," Nat. Med. 8, 757-760 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (4)

2000 (1)

N. Tromberg, R. Shah, A. Lanning, J. Cerussi, T. Espinoza, L. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, "Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy," Neoplasia 2, 26-40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

1997 (2)

D. Y. Paithankar, A. U. Chen, B. W. Pogue, M. S. Patterson, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Imaging of fluorescent yield and lifetime from multiply scattered light reemitted from random media," Appl. Opt. 36, 2260-2272 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sevick-Muraca, G. Lopez, J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, and C. L. Hutchinson, "Fluorescence and absorption contrast mechanisms for biomedical optical imaging using frequency-domain techniques," J. Photochem. and Photobiol. 66, 55-64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

1995 (1)

A. Yodh and B. Chance, "Spectroscopy and imaging with diffusing light," Phys. Today 3, 34-40 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

R. C. Haskell, L. O. Svaasand, T. Tsay, T. Feng, M. S. McAdams, and B. J. Tromberg, "Bondary conditions for the diffusion equation in radiative transfer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2727-2741 (1994).
[CrossRef]

‘t Hooft, G. W.

Achilefu, S.

Bacskai, B. J.

J. Skoch, A. Dunn, B. T. Hyman, and B. J. Bacskai, "Development of an optical approach for noninvasive imaging of Alzheimer’s disease pathology," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011007-1-7 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bangerth, J. W.

Bloch, S. R.

Boas, D. A.

Bogdanov, A.

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, J. L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, "Visualization of antitumor treatment by means of fluorescence molecular tomography with an annexin V-Cy5.5 conjugate," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 12294-12299 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouman, C. A.

B. Milstein, J. J. Stott, S. Oh, D. A. Boas, R. P. Millane, C. A. Bouman, and K. J. Webb, "Fluorescence optical diffusion tomography using multiple-frequency data," J. Opt, Soc. Am. A. 21,1035-1049 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Milstein, S. Oh, K. J. Webb, C. A. Bouman, Q. Zhang, D. A. Boas, and R. P. Millane, "Fluorescence optical diffusion tomography," Appl. Opt. 42, 3081-3094 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bremer, C.

V. Ntziachristos, C. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo," Nat. Med. 8, 757-760 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Butler, J.

N. Tromberg, R. Shah, A. Lanning, J. Cerussi, T. Espinoza, L. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, "Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy," Neoplasia 2, 26-40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerussi, J.

N. Tromberg, R. Shah, A. Lanning, J. Cerussi, T. Espinoza, L. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, "Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy," Neoplasia 2, 26-40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

Chen, A. U.

Chen, N. G.

N. G. Chen, M. M. Huang, H. Xia, D. Piao, and Q. Zhu, ‘‘Portable near-infrared diffusive light imager for breast cancer detection,’’J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 504-510 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhu, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, K. Zarfos, B. Jagjivan, M. Kane, P. Hegde, and S. H. Kurtzman, "Ultrasound-guided optical tomographic imaging of malignant and benign breast lesions," Neoplasia 5, 379-388 (2003).
[PubMed]

Q. Zhu, N. G. Chen, and S. Kurtzman, "Imaging tumor angiogenesis using combined near infrared diffusive light and ultrasound," Opt. Lett. 28, 337-339 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. Chen, P. Guo, S. Yan, D. Piao, and Q. Zhu, "Simultaneous near infrared diffusive light and ultrasound imaging," Appl. Opt. 40, 6367-6380 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Culver, J. P.

Dunn, A.

J. Skoch, A. Dunn, B. T. Hyman, and B. J. Bacskai, "Development of an optical approach for noninvasive imaging of Alzheimer’s disease pathology," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011007-1-7 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eppstein, M. J.

A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang, S. Theru, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging in large tissue volumes using a gain-modulated ICCD camera," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1701-1720 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Eppstein, D. J. Hawrysz, A. Godavarty, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Three-dimensional, Bayesian image reconstruction from sparse and noisy data sets: near-infrared fluorescence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 9619-9624 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Hawrysz, M. J. Eppstein, J. Lee, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Error consideration in contrast-enhanced three-dimensional optical tomography," Opt. Lett. 26, 704-706 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Espinoza, T.

N. Tromberg, R. Shah, A. Lanning, J. Cerussi, T. Espinoza, L. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, "Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy," Neoplasia 2, 26-40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, T.

R. C. Haskell, L. O. Svaasand, T. Tsay, T. Feng, M. S. McAdams, and B. J. Tromberg, "Bondary conditions for the diffusion equation in radiative transfer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2727-2741 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gambhir, S. S.

T. F. Massoud and S. S. Gambhir, "Molecular imaging in living subjects: seeing fundamental biological processes in a new light," Genes Dev. 17, 545-580 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Godavarty, A.

A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang, S. Theru, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging in large tissue volumes using a gain-modulated ICCD camera," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1701-1720 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Eppstein, D. J. Hawrysz, A. Godavarty, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Three-dimensional, Bayesian image reconstruction from sparse and noisy data sets: near-infrared fluorescence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 9619-9624 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graves, E.

E. Graves, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Fluorescence molecular imaging of small animal tumor models," Curr. Mol. Med. 4, 419-430 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, J. L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, "Visualization of antitumor treatment by means of fluorescence molecular tomography with an annexin V-Cy5.5 conjugate," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 12294-12299 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Graves, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "A submillimeter resolution fluorescence molecular imaging system for small animal imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 901-911 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, P.

Gurfinkel, M.

M. Gurfinkel, S Ke, X Wen, C Li, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Near-infrared fluorescence optical imaging and tomography," Dis. Markers 19, 107-121 (2003, 2004).

A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang, S. Theru, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging in large tissue volumes using a gain-modulated ICCD camera," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1701-1720 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Houston, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Sensitivity and depth penetration of continuous wave versus frequency-domain photon migration near-infrared fluorescence contrast-enhanced imaging," Photochem. and Photobiol. 77, 420-430 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Haskell, R. C.

R. C. Haskell, L. O. Svaasand, T. Tsay, T. Feng, M. S. McAdams, and B. J. Tromberg, "Bondary conditions for the diffusion equation in radiative transfer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2727-2741 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hawrysz, D. J.

M. J. Eppstein, D. J. Hawrysz, A. Godavarty, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Three-dimensional, Bayesian image reconstruction from sparse and noisy data sets: near-infrared fluorescence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 9619-9624 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Hawrysz, M. J. Eppstein, J. Lee, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Error consideration in contrast-enhanced three-dimensional optical tomography," Opt. Lett. 26, 704-706 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hegde, P.

Q. Zhu, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, K. Zarfos, B. Jagjivan, M. Kane, P. Hegde, and S. H. Kurtzman, "Ultrasound-guided optical tomographic imaging of malignant and benign breast lesions," Neoplasia 5, 379-388 (2003).
[PubMed]

Houston, J. P.

J. P. Houston, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Sensitivity and depth penetration of continuous wave versus frequency-domain photon migration near-infrared fluorescence contrast-enhanced imaging," Photochem. and Photobiol. 77, 420-430 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

Q. Zhu, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, K. Zarfos, B. Jagjivan, M. Kane, P. Hegde, and S. H. Kurtzman, "Ultrasound-guided optical tomographic imaging of malignant and benign breast lesions," Neoplasia 5, 379-388 (2003).
[PubMed]

Huang, M. M.

N. G. Chen, M. M. Huang, H. Xia, D. Piao, and Q. Zhu, ‘‘Portable near-infrared diffusive light imager for breast cancer detection,’’J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 504-510 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hutchinson, C. L.

M. Sevick-Muraca, G. Lopez, J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, and C. L. Hutchinson, "Fluorescence and absorption contrast mechanisms for biomedical optical imaging using frequency-domain techniques," J. Photochem. and Photobiol. 66, 55-64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hyman, B. T.

J. Skoch, A. Dunn, B. T. Hyman, and B. J. Bacskai, "Development of an optical approach for noninvasive imaging of Alzheimer’s disease pathology," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011007-1-7 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Intes, X.

Jagjivan, B.

Q. Zhu, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, K. Zarfos, B. Jagjivan, M. Kane, P. Hegde, and S. H. Kurtzman, "Ultrasound-guided optical tomographic imaging of malignant and benign breast lesions," Neoplasia 5, 379-388 (2003).
[PubMed]

Josephson, J. L.

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, J. L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, "Visualization of antitumor treatment by means of fluorescence molecular tomography with an annexin V-Cy5.5 conjugate," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 12294-12299 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kane, M.

Q. Zhu, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, K. Zarfos, B. Jagjivan, M. Kane, P. Hegde, and S. H. Kurtzman, "Ultrasound-guided optical tomographic imaging of malignant and benign breast lesions," Neoplasia 5, 379-388 (2003).
[PubMed]

Ke, S

M. Gurfinkel, S Ke, X Wen, C Li, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Near-infrared fluorescence optical imaging and tomography," Dis. Markers 19, 107-121 (2003, 2004).

Kurtzman, S.

Kurtzman, S. H.

Q. Zhu, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, K. Zarfos, B. Jagjivan, M. Kane, P. Hegde, and S. H. Kurtzman, "Ultrasound-guided optical tomographic imaging of malignant and benign breast lesions," Neoplasia 5, 379-388 (2003).
[PubMed]

Lam, S.

Lanning, A.

N. Tromberg, R. Shah, A. Lanning, J. Cerussi, T. Espinoza, L. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, "Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy," Neoplasia 2, 26-40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

Lesage, F.

Li, C

M. Gurfinkel, S Ke, X Wen, C Li, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Near-infrared fluorescence optical imaging and tomography," Dis. Markers 19, 107-121 (2003, 2004).

Li, X.

Li, X. D.

Lopez, G.

M. Sevick-Muraca, G. Lopez, J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, and C. L. Hutchinson, "Fluorescence and absorption contrast mechanisms for biomedical optical imaging using frequency-domain techniques," J. Photochem. and Photobiol. 66, 55-64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mahmood, U.

U. Mahmood, "Near infrared optical applications in molecular imaging, earlier, more accurate assessment of disease presence, disease course, and efficacy of disease treatment," IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 23, 58-66 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Weissleder and U. Mahmood, "Molecular Imaging," Radiology 219,316-333 (2001).
[PubMed]

Massoud, T. F.

T. F. Massoud and S. S. Gambhir, "Molecular imaging in living subjects: seeing fundamental biological processes in a new light," Genes Dev. 17, 545-580 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McAdams, M. S.

R. C. Haskell, L. O. Svaasand, T. Tsay, T. Feng, M. S. McAdams, and B. J. Tromberg, "Bondary conditions for the diffusion equation in radiative transfer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2727-2741 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Millane, R. P.

B. Milstein, J. J. Stott, S. Oh, D. A. Boas, R. P. Millane, C. A. Bouman, and K. J. Webb, "Fluorescence optical diffusion tomography using multiple-frequency data," J. Opt, Soc. Am. A. 21,1035-1049 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Milstein, S. Oh, K. J. Webb, C. A. Bouman, Q. Zhang, D. A. Boas, and R. P. Millane, "Fluorescence optical diffusion tomography," Appl. Opt. 42, 3081-3094 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milstein, A. B.

Milstein, B.

B. Milstein, J. J. Stott, S. Oh, D. A. Boas, R. P. Millane, C. A. Bouman, and K. J. Webb, "Fluorescence optical diffusion tomography using multiple-frequency data," J. Opt, Soc. Am. A. 21,1035-1049 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ntziachristos, V.

R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Experimental fluorescence tomography of tissues with noncontact measurements," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23,492-500 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, J. L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, "Visualization of antitumor treatment by means of fluorescence molecular tomography with an annexin V-Cy5.5 conjugate," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 12294-12299 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Graves, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Fluorescence molecular imaging of small animal tumor models," Curr. Mol. Med. 4, 419-430 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Graves, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "A submillimeter resolution fluorescence molecular imaging system for small animal imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 901-911 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Noncontact optical tomography of turbid media," Opt. Lett. 28,1701-1703 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos and R. Weissleder, "Charge-coupled-device based scanner for tomography of fluorescent near-infrared probes in turbid media," Med. Phys. 29, 803-809 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, C. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo," Nat. Med. 8, 757-760 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos and R. Weissleder, "Experimental three-dimensional fluorescence reconstruction of diffuse media by use of a normalized Born approximation," Opt. Lett. 26,893-895 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O’Leary, M. A.

Oh, S.

B. Milstein, J. J. Stott, S. Oh, D. A. Boas, R. P. Millane, C. A. Bouman, and K. J. Webb, "Fluorescence optical diffusion tomography using multiple-frequency data," J. Opt, Soc. Am. A. 21,1035-1049 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Milstein, S. Oh, K. J. Webb, C. A. Bouman, Q. Zhang, D. A. Boas, and R. P. Millane, "Fluorescence optical diffusion tomography," Appl. Opt. 42, 3081-3094 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O'Leary, M. A.

Paithankar, D. Y.

Passchens, J. C. J.

Patterson, M. S.

Patwardhan, S. V.

Pham, L.

N. Tromberg, R. Shah, A. Lanning, J. Cerussi, T. Espinoza, L. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, "Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy," Neoplasia 2, 26-40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piao, D.

N. G. Chen, M. M. Huang, H. Xia, D. Piao, and Q. Zhu, ‘‘Portable near-infrared diffusive light imager for breast cancer detection,’’J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 504-510 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. Chen, P. Guo, S. Yan, D. Piao, and Q. Zhu, "Simultaneous near infrared diffusive light and ultrasound imaging," Appl. Opt. 40, 6367-6380 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pogue, B. W.

Reynolds, J. S.

M. Sevick-Muraca, G. Lopez, J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, and C. L. Hutchinson, "Fluorescence and absorption contrast mechanisms for biomedical optical imaging using frequency-domain techniques," J. Photochem. and Photobiol. 66, 55-64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ripoll, J.

R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Experimental fluorescence tomography of tissues with noncontact measurements," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23,492-500 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, J. L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, "Visualization of antitumor treatment by means of fluorescence molecular tomography with an annexin V-Cy5.5 conjugate," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 12294-12299 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Noncontact optical tomography of turbid media," Opt. Lett. 28,1701-1703 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Graves, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "A submillimeter resolution fluorescence molecular imaging system for small animal imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 901-911 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schellenberger, E. A.

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, J. L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, "Visualization of antitumor treatment by means of fluorescence molecular tomography with an annexin V-Cy5.5 conjugate," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 12294-12299 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulz, R. B.

R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Experimental fluorescence tomography of tissues with noncontact measurements," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23,492-500 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Noncontact optical tomography of turbid media," Opt. Lett. 28,1701-1703 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sevick-Muraca, E. M.

J. W. Bangerth and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Adaptive finite element based tomography for fluorescence optical imaging in tissue," Opt. Express 12,5402-5417 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gurfinkel, S Ke, X Wen, C Li, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Near-infrared fluorescence optical imaging and tomography," Dis. Markers 19, 107-121 (2003, 2004).

A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang, S. Theru, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging in large tissue volumes using a gain-modulated ICCD camera," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1701-1720 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Houston, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Sensitivity and depth penetration of continuous wave versus frequency-domain photon migration near-infrared fluorescence contrast-enhanced imaging," Photochem. and Photobiol. 77, 420-430 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Three-dimensional fluorescence enhanced optical tomography using referenced frequency domain photon migration measurements at emission and excitation wavelengths," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 759-771 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Eppstein, D. J. Hawrysz, A. Godavarty, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Three-dimensional, Bayesian image reconstruction from sparse and noisy data sets: near-infrared fluorescence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 9619-9624 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Hawrysz, M. J. Eppstein, J. Lee, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Error consideration in contrast-enhanced three-dimensional optical tomography," Opt. Lett. 26, 704-706 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Paithankar, A. U. Chen, B. W. Pogue, M. S. Patterson, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Imaging of fluorescent yield and lifetime from multiply scattered light reemitted from random media," Appl. Opt. 36, 2260-2272 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sevick-Muraca, M.

M. Sevick-Muraca, G. Lopez, J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, and C. L. Hutchinson, "Fluorescence and absorption contrast mechanisms for biomedical optical imaging using frequency-domain techniques," J. Photochem. and Photobiol. 66, 55-64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shah, R.

N. Tromberg, R. Shah, A. Lanning, J. Cerussi, T. Espinoza, L. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, "Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy," Neoplasia 2, 26-40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skoch, J.

J. Skoch, A. Dunn, B. T. Hyman, and B. J. Bacskai, "Development of an optical approach for noninvasive imaging of Alzheimer’s disease pathology," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011007-1-7 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stott, J. J.

B. Milstein, J. J. Stott, S. Oh, D. A. Boas, R. P. Millane, C. A. Bouman, and K. J. Webb, "Fluorescence optical diffusion tomography using multiple-frequency data," J. Opt, Soc. Am. A. 21,1035-1049 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Svaasand, L.

N. Tromberg, R. Shah, A. Lanning, J. Cerussi, T. Espinoza, L. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, "Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy," Neoplasia 2, 26-40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svaasand, L. O.

R. C. Haskell, L. O. Svaasand, T. Tsay, T. Feng, M. S. McAdams, and B. J. Tromberg, "Bondary conditions for the diffusion equation in radiative transfer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2727-2741 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Theru, S.

A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang, S. Theru, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging in large tissue volumes using a gain-modulated ICCD camera," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1701-1720 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, A. B.

A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang, S. Theru, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging in large tissue volumes using a gain-modulated ICCD camera," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1701-1720 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Houston, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Sensitivity and depth penetration of continuous wave versus frequency-domain photon migration near-infrared fluorescence contrast-enhanced imaging," Photochem. and Photobiol. 77, 420-430 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tromberg, B. J.

R. C. Haskell, L. O. Svaasand, T. Tsay, T. Feng, M. S. McAdams, and B. J. Tromberg, "Bondary conditions for the diffusion equation in radiative transfer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2727-2741 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tromberg, N.

N. Tromberg, R. Shah, A. Lanning, J. Cerussi, T. Espinoza, L. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, "Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy," Neoplasia 2, 26-40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Troy, T. L.

M. Sevick-Muraca, G. Lopez, J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, and C. L. Hutchinson, "Fluorescence and absorption contrast mechanisms for biomedical optical imaging using frequency-domain techniques," J. Photochem. and Photobiol. 66, 55-64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsay, T.

R. C. Haskell, L. O. Svaasand, T. Tsay, T. Feng, M. S. McAdams, and B. J. Tromberg, "Bondary conditions for the diffusion equation in radiative transfer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2727-2741 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tung, C.

V. Ntziachristos, C. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo," Nat. Med. 8, 757-760 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, K. J.

B. Milstein, J. J. Stott, S. Oh, D. A. Boas, R. P. Millane, C. A. Bouman, and K. J. Webb, "Fluorescence optical diffusion tomography using multiple-frequency data," J. Opt, Soc. Am. A. 21,1035-1049 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Milstein, S. Oh, K. J. Webb, C. A. Bouman, Q. Zhang, D. A. Boas, and R. P. Millane, "Fluorescence optical diffusion tomography," Appl. Opt. 42, 3081-3094 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weissleder, R.

E. Graves, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Fluorescence molecular imaging of small animal tumor models," Curr. Mol. Med. 4, 419-430 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, J. L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, "Visualization of antitumor treatment by means of fluorescence molecular tomography with an annexin V-Cy5.5 conjugate," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 12294-12299 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Graves, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "A submillimeter resolution fluorescence molecular imaging system for small animal imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 901-911 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos and R. Weissleder, "Charge-coupled-device based scanner for tomography of fluorescent near-infrared probes in turbid media," Med. Phys. 29, 803-809 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, C. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo," Nat. Med. 8, 757-760 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos and R. Weissleder, "Experimental three-dimensional fluorescence reconstruction of diffuse media by use of a normalized Born approximation," Opt. Lett. 26,893-895 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Weissleder and U. Mahmood, "Molecular Imaging," Radiology 219,316-333 (2001).
[PubMed]

Wen, X

M. Gurfinkel, S Ke, X Wen, C Li, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Near-infrared fluorescence optical imaging and tomography," Dis. Markers 19, 107-121 (2003, 2004).

Xia, H.

N. G. Chen, M. M. Huang, H. Xia, D. Piao, and Q. Zhu, ‘‘Portable near-infrared diffusive light imager for breast cancer detection,’’J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 504-510 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, S.

Yessayan, D.

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, J. L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, "Visualization of antitumor treatment by means of fluorescence molecular tomography with an annexin V-Cy5.5 conjugate," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 12294-12299 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yodh, A.

A. Yodh and B. Chance, "Spectroscopy and imaging with diffusing light," Phys. Today 3, 34-40 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yodh, A. G.

Yuan, B.

B. Yuan and Q. Zhu, "Emission and absorption properties of indocyanine green in Intralipid solution," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 497-503 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zarfos, K.

Q. Zhu, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, K. Zarfos, B. Jagjivan, M. Kane, P. Hegde, and S. H. Kurtzman, "Ultrasound-guided optical tomographic imaging of malignant and benign breast lesions," Neoplasia 5, 379-388 (2003).
[PubMed]

Zhang, C.

A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang, S. Theru, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging in large tissue volumes using a gain-modulated ICCD camera," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1701-1720 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

Zhu, Q.

B. Yuan and Q. Zhu, "Emission and absorption properties of indocyanine green in Intralipid solution," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 497-503 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. Chen, M. M. Huang, H. Xia, D. Piao, and Q. Zhu, ‘‘Portable near-infrared diffusive light imager for breast cancer detection,’’J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 504-510 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhu, N. G. Chen, and S. Kurtzman, "Imaging tumor angiogenesis using combined near infrared diffusive light and ultrasound," Opt. Lett. 28, 337-339 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhu, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, K. Zarfos, B. Jagjivan, M. Kane, P. Hegde, and S. H. Kurtzman, "Ultrasound-guided optical tomographic imaging of malignant and benign breast lesions," Neoplasia 5, 379-388 (2003).
[PubMed]

N. G. Chen, P. Guo, S. Yan, D. Piao, and Q. Zhu, "Simultaneous near infrared diffusive light and ultrasound imaging," Appl. Opt. 40, 6367-6380 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Biomed. Opt. (1)

J. Skoch, A. Dunn, B. T. Hyman, and B. J. Bacskai, "Development of an optical approach for noninvasive imaging of Alzheimer’s disease pathology," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011007-1-7 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Mol. Med. (1)

E. Graves, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Fluorescence molecular imaging of small animal tumor models," Curr. Mol. Med. 4, 419-430 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dis. Markers (1)

M. Gurfinkel, S Ke, X Wen, C Li, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Near-infrared fluorescence optical imaging and tomography," Dis. Markers 19, 107-121 (2003, 2004).

Genes Dev. (1)

T. F. Massoud and S. S. Gambhir, "Molecular imaging in living subjects: seeing fundamental biological processes in a new light," Genes Dev. 17, 545-580 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. (1)

U. Mahmood, "Near infrared optical applications in molecular imaging, earlier, more accurate assessment of disease presence, disease course, and efficacy of disease treatment," IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 23, 58-66 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Experimental fluorescence tomography of tissues with noncontact measurements," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23,492-500 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

N. G. Chen, M. M. Huang, H. Xia, D. Piao, and Q. Zhu, ‘‘Portable near-infrared diffusive light imager for breast cancer detection,’’J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 504-510 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Yuan and Q. Zhu, "Emission and absorption properties of indocyanine green in Intralipid solution," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 497-503 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt, Soc. Am. A. (1)

B. Milstein, J. J. Stott, S. Oh, D. A. Boas, R. P. Millane, C. A. Bouman, and K. J. Webb, "Fluorescence optical diffusion tomography using multiple-frequency data," J. Opt, Soc. Am. A. 21,1035-1049 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

J. Photochem. and Photobiol. (1)

M. Sevick-Muraca, G. Lopez, J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, and C. L. Hutchinson, "Fluorescence and absorption contrast mechanisms for biomedical optical imaging using frequency-domain techniques," J. Photochem. and Photobiol. 66, 55-64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys. (2)

E. Graves, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "A submillimeter resolution fluorescence molecular imaging system for small animal imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 901-911 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos and R. Weissleder, "Charge-coupled-device based scanner for tomography of fluorescent near-infrared probes in turbid media," Med. Phys. 29, 803-809 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Med. (1)

V. Ntziachristos, C. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo," Nat. Med. 8, 757-760 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neoplasia (2)

N. Tromberg, R. Shah, A. Lanning, J. Cerussi, T. Espinoza, L. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, "Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy," Neoplasia 2, 26-40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhu, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, K. Zarfos, B. Jagjivan, M. Kane, P. Hegde, and S. H. Kurtzman, "Ultrasound-guided optical tomographic imaging of malignant and benign breast lesions," Neoplasia 5, 379-388 (2003).
[PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Photochem. and Photobiol. (1)

J. P. Houston, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Sensitivity and depth penetration of continuous wave versus frequency-domain photon migration near-infrared fluorescence contrast-enhanced imaging," Photochem. and Photobiol. 77, 420-430 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang, S. Theru, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging in large tissue volumes using a gain-modulated ICCD camera," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1701-1720 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Today (1)

A. Yodh and B. Chance, "Spectroscopy and imaging with diffusing light," Phys. Today 3, 34-40 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2)

M. J. Eppstein, D. J. Hawrysz, A. Godavarty, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Three-dimensional, Bayesian image reconstruction from sparse and noisy data sets: near-infrared fluorescence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 9619-9624 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, J. L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, "Visualization of antitumor treatment by means of fluorescence molecular tomography with an annexin V-Cy5.5 conjugate," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 12294-12299 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radiology (1)

R. Weissleder and U. Mahmood, "Molecular Imaging," Radiology 219,316-333 (2001).
[PubMed]

Other (3)

W. Long and M. Vernon, "Optical molecular imaging: time domain advantages with explore OptixTM," January 2004, Advanced Research Technology Inc. http://www.art.ca/en/products/INOPaper040129.pdf.

B. Murphy, Fundamentals of light microscopy and electronic imaging (Wiley-Liss, 2001).

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1992), Chap. 10.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Configuration of a source and two detectors for calculating R and ΔΨ in (b)-(e). (b) Calculated results of R and ΔΨ as a function of the target depth and the radius. The background concentration of fluorophore is zero. (c) Calculated R and ΔΨ as a function of the target depth with different background parameters (the target radius is 0.4 cm ). (d) Calculated R and ΔΨ as a function of the target radius with different background parameters (the target depth is 1.5 cm ). (e) Calculated R as a function of the inclusion depth at different ratios of the target concentration to background.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The schematic of the optical probe. The total imaging region underneath the probe is 9x9x4 (X, Y, Z) cm3, which can be flexibly adjusted.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The structural parameters recovered from the simulation data. (a) Estimated X and Y, (b) Estimated depth Z, and (c) Estimated radius α versus their true values, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Images reconstructed from the simulated data (added with noise) using dual-zone mesh. The center of the target is located at X=Y=0.0 cm, Z=2.5 cm. The radius of the spherical target is 0.4 cm. The slices at the first row from left to right correspond to imaging depth of 0.5 cm, 1.0 cm and 1.5 cm, respectively. The slices at the second row from left to right correspond to imaging depth of 2.0 cm, 2.5 cm, and 3.0 cm, respectively. The slices at the third row correspond to imaging depth of 3.5 cm and 4.0 cm, respectively. (b) The reconstructed images with single mesh obtained from the same data. (c) The reconstructed images based on the parameters used in (a) except background parameters (see the background parameters in Sec. 4.1.2).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Reconstruction results of two targets: (a) Reconstructed structural parameters; the red dash circles in (a) represent the positions of the two targets and the blue dots are the estimated positions. The green dashed square indicates the target region and the black dashed square shows the region where the sources and the detectors are distributed. (b) Reconstructed fluorophore concentration distribution within the region marked by the green dashed square in (a). Note the image size is 3 cm by 3 cm, which is 1/3 of the image size used in Fig. 4 for each slice.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The structural parameters recovered from the experimental data. (a) the estimated X and Y, and (b) the estimated depth Z versus their expected values, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Images reconstructed from the experimental data with dual-zone mesh. The center of the target is located at X= 0.24 cm, Y= -0.33 cm, and Z=2.65 cm. The target is a 0.4x0.4x0.4 cm3 cube. The imaging depth used for each slice is the same as Fig. 4. The reconstructed images occur at both the fifth and sixth slices, which corresponds to imaging depths of 2.5 cm and 3.0 cm, respectively. (b) The reconstructed images with single mesh from the same data.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Background parameters of the medium. μα,660c and μ ´ s, 660 were measured by the method used in Ref. [39]. μα,694c and μ ´ s, 694 were extracted by fitting the experimental data of the homogeneous Cy5.5 solution to the theoretical data based on the measured values of μα,660c and μ ´ s, 660. ε 660 and ε 694 were approximated from the maximum molar excitation coefficient of Cy5.5 in water (0.25 cm -1 μM -1) at 675 nm. Units of the absorption and scattering coefficients are cm -1

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ϕ f l r S r D = S 0 4 π D e x D f l Λ ε ( 1 iωτ ) Ω G e x r S r G f l r r D N ( r ) d r 3 ,
ϕ f l r S 1 r D 2 ϕ f l r S 1 r D 1 = Ω G e x r S 1 r G f l r r D 2 N ( r ) d r 3 Ω G e x r S 1 r G f l r r D 1 N ( r ) d r 3 .
R = ϕ f l r S 1 r D 2 ϕ f l r S 1 r D 1
ΔΨ = phase [ ϕ f l r S 1 r D 2 ϕ f l r S 1 r D 1 ] .
ϕ f l ϕ 0 f l = j ( ( k e x 2 k f l 2 ) Δ v 4 π N 0 f l G j r s r j G j r j r d [ ( G e x r s r d G f l r s r d ) ] ) N ( r j ) ,
[ M ] T × 1 = [ W L , W B ] T × N 0 [ X L , X B ] N 0 × 1 ,
ϕ f l r s r d = ϕ out f l r s r d + ϕ i n f l r s r r d
ϕ out f l r s r d = S 0 D e x D f l Λ σ N b g ( 1 iωτ ) 1 4 π 1 ( k e x 2 k f l 2 ) × [ ( G e x r s r d G f l r s r d ) ]
ϕ inside r s r r d = S 0 Λ σ N in 1 iωτ α 2 k i n _ e x 2 k i n _ f l 2
× l m { [ k i n _ f l j l ( k i n _ e x α ) j l ( k i n _ f l α ) k i n _ e x j l ( k i n _ e x α ) j l ( k i n _ f l α ) ]
× R l e x R l f l h l ( 1 ) ( k out _ f l r d r ) h l ( 1 ) ( k out _ e x r s r ) Y l m ( Ω d , r ) Y l m * ( Ω s , r ) }
G e x ( f l ) r s r d = exp ( i k e x ( f l ) r s r d ) r s r d

Metrics