Abstract

We report a novel imaging technique for fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (FDOT). Unlike conventional FDOT, this technique separates the imaging procedure into two steps to respectively reconstruct the structural information (such as the center position and the radius), and the functional information (such as the fluorophore concentration and/or lifetime) of a fluorescing target embedded in a turbid medium. The structural parameters of the target were estimated from the amplitude ratio and phase difference of fluorescence signals received at different detectors, because the amplitude ratio and phase difference were found independent of, or weakly related to, the functional parameters. Based on the estimated structural parameters, a dual-zone mesh technique was utilized to reconstruct the fluorophore concentration. Results of simulations and phantom experiments showed that the structural parameters could be accurately recovered, without knowing the functional information, and that the reconstruction accuracy of the functional parameter was greater than 80%.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005 (3)

2004 (9)

J. W. Bangerth and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Adaptive finite element based tomography for fluorescence optical imaging in tissue," Opt. Express 12,5402-5417 (2004).

N. G. Chen, M. M. Huang, H. Xia, D. Piao, and Q. Zhu, ‘‘Portable near-infrared diffusive light imager for breast cancer detection,’’J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 504-510 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Yuan and Q. Zhu, "Emission and absorption properties of indocyanine green in Intralipid solution," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 497-503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

U. Mahmood, "Near infrared optical applications in molecular imaging, earlier, more accurate assessment of disease presence, disease course, and efficacy of disease treatment," IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 23, 58-66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Gurfinkel, S Ke, X Wen, C Li, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Near-infrared fluorescence optical imaging and tomography," Dis. Markers 19, 107-121 (2003, 2004).

E. Graves, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Fluorescence molecular imaging of small animal tumor models," Curr. Mol. Med. 4, 419-430 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, J. L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, "Visualization of antitumor treatment by means of fluorescence molecular tomography with an annexin V-Cy5.5 conjugate," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 12294-12299 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Experimental fluorescence tomography of tissues with noncontact measurements," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23,492-500 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Milstein, J. J. Stott, S. Oh, D. A. Boas, R. P. Millane, C. A. Bouman, and K. J. Webb, "Fluorescence optical diffusion tomography using multiple-frequency data," J. Opt, Soc. Am. A. 21,1035-1049 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (8)

Q. Zhu, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, K. Zarfos, B. Jagjivan, M. Kane, P. Hegde, and S. H. Kurtzman, "Ultrasound-guided optical tomographic imaging of malignant and benign breast lesions," Neoplasia 5, 379-388 (2003).

T. F. Massoud and S. S. Gambhir, "Molecular imaging in living subjects: seeing fundamental biological processes in a new light," Genes Dev. 17, 545-580 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Houston, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Sensitivity and depth penetration of continuous wave versus frequency-domain photon migration near-infrared fluorescence contrast-enhanced imaging," Photochem. and Photobiol. 77, 420-430 (2003).

A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang, S. Theru, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging in large tissue volumes using a gain-modulated ICCD camera," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1701-1720 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Graves, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "A submillimeter resolution fluorescence molecular imaging system for small animal imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 901-911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhu, N. G. Chen, and S. Kurtzman, "Imaging tumor angiogenesis using combined near infrared diffusive light and ultrasound," Opt. Lett. 28, 337-339 (2003).

A. B. Milstein, S. Oh, K. J. Webb, C. A. Bouman, Q. Zhang, D. A. Boas, and R. P. Millane, "Fluorescence optical diffusion tomography," Appl. Opt. 42, 3081-3094 (2003).

R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Noncontact optical tomography of turbid media," Opt. Lett. 28,1701-1703 (2003).

2002 (4)

J. Lee and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Three-dimensional fluorescence enhanced optical tomography using referenced frequency domain photon migration measurements at emission and excitation wavelengths," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 759-771 (2002).

V. Ntziachristos and R. Weissleder, "Charge-coupled-device based scanner for tomography of fluorescent near-infrared probes in turbid media," Med. Phys. 29, 803-809 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Eppstein, D. J. Hawrysz, A. Godavarty, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Three-dimensional, Bayesian image reconstruction from sparse and noisy data sets: near-infrared fluorescence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 9619-9624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, C. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo," Nat. Med. 8, 757-760 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

2000 (1)

N. Tromberg, R. Shah, A. Lanning, J. Cerussi, T. Espinoza, L. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, "Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy," Neoplasia 2, 26-40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

1997 (2)

D. Y. Paithankar, A. U. Chen, B. W. Pogue, M. S. Patterson, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Imaging of fluorescent yield and lifetime from multiply scattered light reemitted from random media," Appl. Opt. 36, 2260-2272 (1997).

M. Sevick-Muraca, G. Lopez, J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, and C. L. Hutchinson, "Fluorescence and absorption contrast mechanisms for biomedical optical imaging using frequency-domain techniques," J. Photochem. and Photobiol. 66, 55-64 (1997).

1996 (2)

1995 (1)

A. Yodh and B. Chance, "Spectroscopy and imaging with diffusing light," Phys. Today 3, 34-40 (1995).

1994 (1)

R. C. Haskell, L. O. Svaasand, T. Tsay, T. Feng, M. S. McAdams, and B. J. Tromberg, "Bondary conditions for the diffusion equation in radiative transfer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2727-2741 (1994).

‘t Hooft, G. W.

Achilefu, S.

Bacskai, B. J.

J. Skoch, A. Dunn, B. T. Hyman, and B. J. Bacskai, "Development of an optical approach for noninvasive imaging of Alzheimer’s disease pathology," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011007-1-7 (2005).

Bangerth, J. W.

Bloch, S. R.

Boas, D. A.

Bogdanov, A.

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, J. L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, "Visualization of antitumor treatment by means of fluorescence molecular tomography with an annexin V-Cy5.5 conjugate," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 12294-12299 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bouman, C. A.

B. Milstein, J. J. Stott, S. Oh, D. A. Boas, R. P. Millane, C. A. Bouman, and K. J. Webb, "Fluorescence optical diffusion tomography using multiple-frequency data," J. Opt, Soc. Am. A. 21,1035-1049 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Milstein, S. Oh, K. J. Webb, C. A. Bouman, Q. Zhang, D. A. Boas, and R. P. Millane, "Fluorescence optical diffusion tomography," Appl. Opt. 42, 3081-3094 (2003).

Bremer, C.

V. Ntziachristos, C. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo," Nat. Med. 8, 757-760 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Butler, J.

N. Tromberg, R. Shah, A. Lanning, J. Cerussi, T. Espinoza, L. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, "Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy," Neoplasia 2, 26-40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cerussi, J.

N. Tromberg, R. Shah, A. Lanning, J. Cerussi, T. Espinoza, L. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, "Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy," Neoplasia 2, 26-40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chance, B.

Chen, A. U.

Chen, N. G.

N. G. Chen, M. M. Huang, H. Xia, D. Piao, and Q. Zhu, ‘‘Portable near-infrared diffusive light imager for breast cancer detection,’’J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 504-510 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhu, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, K. Zarfos, B. Jagjivan, M. Kane, P. Hegde, and S. H. Kurtzman, "Ultrasound-guided optical tomographic imaging of malignant and benign breast lesions," Neoplasia 5, 379-388 (2003).

Q. Zhu, N. G. Chen, and S. Kurtzman, "Imaging tumor angiogenesis using combined near infrared diffusive light and ultrasound," Opt. Lett. 28, 337-339 (2003).

N. G. Chen, P. Guo, S. Yan, D. Piao, and Q. Zhu, "Simultaneous near infrared diffusive light and ultrasound imaging," Appl. Opt. 40, 6367-6380 (2001).

Culver, J. P.

Dunn, A.

J. Skoch, A. Dunn, B. T. Hyman, and B. J. Bacskai, "Development of an optical approach for noninvasive imaging of Alzheimer’s disease pathology," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011007-1-7 (2005).

Eppstein, M. J.

A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang, S. Theru, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging in large tissue volumes using a gain-modulated ICCD camera," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1701-1720 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Eppstein, D. J. Hawrysz, A. Godavarty, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Three-dimensional, Bayesian image reconstruction from sparse and noisy data sets: near-infrared fluorescence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 9619-9624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hawrysz, M. J. Eppstein, J. Lee, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Error consideration in contrast-enhanced three-dimensional optical tomography," Opt. Lett. 26, 704-706 (2001).

Espinoza, T.

N. Tromberg, R. Shah, A. Lanning, J. Cerussi, T. Espinoza, L. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, "Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy," Neoplasia 2, 26-40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Feng, T.

R. C. Haskell, L. O. Svaasand, T. Tsay, T. Feng, M. S. McAdams, and B. J. Tromberg, "Bondary conditions for the diffusion equation in radiative transfer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2727-2741 (1994).

Gambhir, S. S.

T. F. Massoud and S. S. Gambhir, "Molecular imaging in living subjects: seeing fundamental biological processes in a new light," Genes Dev. 17, 545-580 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Godavarty, A.

A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang, S. Theru, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging in large tissue volumes using a gain-modulated ICCD camera," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1701-1720 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Eppstein, D. J. Hawrysz, A. Godavarty, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Three-dimensional, Bayesian image reconstruction from sparse and noisy data sets: near-infrared fluorescence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 9619-9624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Graves, E.

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, J. L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, "Visualization of antitumor treatment by means of fluorescence molecular tomography with an annexin V-Cy5.5 conjugate," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 12294-12299 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Graves, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Fluorescence molecular imaging of small animal tumor models," Curr. Mol. Med. 4, 419-430 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Graves, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "A submillimeter resolution fluorescence molecular imaging system for small animal imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 901-911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guo, P.

Gurfinkel, M.

M. Gurfinkel, S Ke, X Wen, C Li, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Near-infrared fluorescence optical imaging and tomography," Dis. Markers 19, 107-121 (2003, 2004).

J. P. Houston, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Sensitivity and depth penetration of continuous wave versus frequency-domain photon migration near-infrared fluorescence contrast-enhanced imaging," Photochem. and Photobiol. 77, 420-430 (2003).

A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang, S. Theru, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging in large tissue volumes using a gain-modulated ICCD camera," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1701-1720 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Haskell, R. C.

R. C. Haskell, L. O. Svaasand, T. Tsay, T. Feng, M. S. McAdams, and B. J. Tromberg, "Bondary conditions for the diffusion equation in radiative transfer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2727-2741 (1994).

Hawrysz, D. J.

M. J. Eppstein, D. J. Hawrysz, A. Godavarty, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Three-dimensional, Bayesian image reconstruction from sparse and noisy data sets: near-infrared fluorescence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 9619-9624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hawrysz, M. J. Eppstein, J. Lee, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Error consideration in contrast-enhanced three-dimensional optical tomography," Opt. Lett. 26, 704-706 (2001).

Hegde, P.

Q. Zhu, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, K. Zarfos, B. Jagjivan, M. Kane, P. Hegde, and S. H. Kurtzman, "Ultrasound-guided optical tomographic imaging of malignant and benign breast lesions," Neoplasia 5, 379-388 (2003).

Houston, J. P.

J. P. Houston, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Sensitivity and depth penetration of continuous wave versus frequency-domain photon migration near-infrared fluorescence contrast-enhanced imaging," Photochem. and Photobiol. 77, 420-430 (2003).

Huang, M.

Q. Zhu, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, K. Zarfos, B. Jagjivan, M. Kane, P. Hegde, and S. H. Kurtzman, "Ultrasound-guided optical tomographic imaging of malignant and benign breast lesions," Neoplasia 5, 379-388 (2003).

Huang, M. M.

N. G. Chen, M. M. Huang, H. Xia, D. Piao, and Q. Zhu, ‘‘Portable near-infrared diffusive light imager for breast cancer detection,’’J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 504-510 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, C. L.

M. Sevick-Muraca, G. Lopez, J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, and C. L. Hutchinson, "Fluorescence and absorption contrast mechanisms for biomedical optical imaging using frequency-domain techniques," J. Photochem. and Photobiol. 66, 55-64 (1997).

Hyman, B. T.

J. Skoch, A. Dunn, B. T. Hyman, and B. J. Bacskai, "Development of an optical approach for noninvasive imaging of Alzheimer’s disease pathology," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011007-1-7 (2005).

Intes, X.

Jagjivan, B.

Q. Zhu, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, K. Zarfos, B. Jagjivan, M. Kane, P. Hegde, and S. H. Kurtzman, "Ultrasound-guided optical tomographic imaging of malignant and benign breast lesions," Neoplasia 5, 379-388 (2003).

Josephson, J. L.

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, J. L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, "Visualization of antitumor treatment by means of fluorescence molecular tomography with an annexin V-Cy5.5 conjugate," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 12294-12299 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kane, M.

Q. Zhu, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, K. Zarfos, B. Jagjivan, M. Kane, P. Hegde, and S. H. Kurtzman, "Ultrasound-guided optical tomographic imaging of malignant and benign breast lesions," Neoplasia 5, 379-388 (2003).

Ke, S

M. Gurfinkel, S Ke, X Wen, C Li, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Near-infrared fluorescence optical imaging and tomography," Dis. Markers 19, 107-121 (2003, 2004).

Kurtzman, S.

Kurtzman, S. H.

Q. Zhu, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, K. Zarfos, B. Jagjivan, M. Kane, P. Hegde, and S. H. Kurtzman, "Ultrasound-guided optical tomographic imaging of malignant and benign breast lesions," Neoplasia 5, 379-388 (2003).

Lam, S.

Lanning, A.

N. Tromberg, R. Shah, A. Lanning, J. Cerussi, T. Espinoza, L. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, "Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy," Neoplasia 2, 26-40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

Lesage, F.

Li, C

M. Gurfinkel, S Ke, X Wen, C Li, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Near-infrared fluorescence optical imaging and tomography," Dis. Markers 19, 107-121 (2003, 2004).

Li, X.

Li, X. D.

Lopez, G.

M. Sevick-Muraca, G. Lopez, J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, and C. L. Hutchinson, "Fluorescence and absorption contrast mechanisms for biomedical optical imaging using frequency-domain techniques," J. Photochem. and Photobiol. 66, 55-64 (1997).

Mahmood, U.

U. Mahmood, "Near infrared optical applications in molecular imaging, earlier, more accurate assessment of disease presence, disease course, and efficacy of disease treatment," IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 23, 58-66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Weissleder and U. Mahmood, "Molecular Imaging," Radiology 219,316-333 (2001).

Massoud, T. F.

T. F. Massoud and S. S. Gambhir, "Molecular imaging in living subjects: seeing fundamental biological processes in a new light," Genes Dev. 17, 545-580 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McAdams, M. S.

R. C. Haskell, L. O. Svaasand, T. Tsay, T. Feng, M. S. McAdams, and B. J. Tromberg, "Bondary conditions for the diffusion equation in radiative transfer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2727-2741 (1994).

Millane, R. P.

B. Milstein, J. J. Stott, S. Oh, D. A. Boas, R. P. Millane, C. A. Bouman, and K. J. Webb, "Fluorescence optical diffusion tomography using multiple-frequency data," J. Opt, Soc. Am. A. 21,1035-1049 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Milstein, S. Oh, K. J. Webb, C. A. Bouman, Q. Zhang, D. A. Boas, and R. P. Millane, "Fluorescence optical diffusion tomography," Appl. Opt. 42, 3081-3094 (2003).

Milstein, A. B.

Milstein, B.

B. Milstein, J. J. Stott, S. Oh, D. A. Boas, R. P. Millane, C. A. Bouman, and K. J. Webb, "Fluorescence optical diffusion tomography using multiple-frequency data," J. Opt, Soc. Am. A. 21,1035-1049 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ntziachristos, V.

R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Experimental fluorescence tomography of tissues with noncontact measurements," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23,492-500 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, J. L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, "Visualization of antitumor treatment by means of fluorescence molecular tomography with an annexin V-Cy5.5 conjugate," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 12294-12299 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Graves, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Fluorescence molecular imaging of small animal tumor models," Curr. Mol. Med. 4, 419-430 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Graves, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "A submillimeter resolution fluorescence molecular imaging system for small animal imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 901-911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Noncontact optical tomography of turbid media," Opt. Lett. 28,1701-1703 (2003).

V. Ntziachristos and R. Weissleder, "Charge-coupled-device based scanner for tomography of fluorescent near-infrared probes in turbid media," Med. Phys. 29, 803-809 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, C. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo," Nat. Med. 8, 757-760 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos and R. Weissleder, "Experimental three-dimensional fluorescence reconstruction of diffuse media by use of a normalized Born approximation," Opt. Lett. 26,893-895 (2001).

O’Leary, M. A.

Oh, S.

B. Milstein, J. J. Stott, S. Oh, D. A. Boas, R. P. Millane, C. A. Bouman, and K. J. Webb, "Fluorescence optical diffusion tomography using multiple-frequency data," J. Opt, Soc. Am. A. 21,1035-1049 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Milstein, S. Oh, K. J. Webb, C. A. Bouman, Q. Zhang, D. A. Boas, and R. P. Millane, "Fluorescence optical diffusion tomography," Appl. Opt. 42, 3081-3094 (2003).

O'Leary, M. A.

Paithankar, D. Y.

Passchens, J. C. J.

Patterson, M. S.

Patwardhan, S. V.

Pham, L.

N. Tromberg, R. Shah, A. Lanning, J. Cerussi, T. Espinoza, L. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, "Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy," Neoplasia 2, 26-40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Piao, D.

N. G. Chen, M. M. Huang, H. Xia, D. Piao, and Q. Zhu, ‘‘Portable near-infrared diffusive light imager for breast cancer detection,’’J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 504-510 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. G. Chen, P. Guo, S. Yan, D. Piao, and Q. Zhu, "Simultaneous near infrared diffusive light and ultrasound imaging," Appl. Opt. 40, 6367-6380 (2001).

Pogue, B. W.

Reynolds, J. S.

M. Sevick-Muraca, G. Lopez, J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, and C. L. Hutchinson, "Fluorescence and absorption contrast mechanisms for biomedical optical imaging using frequency-domain techniques," J. Photochem. and Photobiol. 66, 55-64 (1997).

Ripoll, J.

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, J. L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, "Visualization of antitumor treatment by means of fluorescence molecular tomography with an annexin V-Cy5.5 conjugate," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 12294-12299 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Experimental fluorescence tomography of tissues with noncontact measurements," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23,492-500 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Graves, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "A submillimeter resolution fluorescence molecular imaging system for small animal imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 901-911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Noncontact optical tomography of turbid media," Opt. Lett. 28,1701-1703 (2003).

Schellenberger, E. A.

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, J. L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, "Visualization of antitumor treatment by means of fluorescence molecular tomography with an annexin V-Cy5.5 conjugate," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 12294-12299 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, R. B.

R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Experimental fluorescence tomography of tissues with noncontact measurements," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23,492-500 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Noncontact optical tomography of turbid media," Opt. Lett. 28,1701-1703 (2003).

Sevick-Muraca, E. M.

J. W. Bangerth and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Adaptive finite element based tomography for fluorescence optical imaging in tissue," Opt. Express 12,5402-5417 (2004).

M. Gurfinkel, S Ke, X Wen, C Li, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Near-infrared fluorescence optical imaging and tomography," Dis. Markers 19, 107-121 (2003, 2004).

J. P. Houston, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Sensitivity and depth penetration of continuous wave versus frequency-domain photon migration near-infrared fluorescence contrast-enhanced imaging," Photochem. and Photobiol. 77, 420-430 (2003).

A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang, S. Theru, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging in large tissue volumes using a gain-modulated ICCD camera," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1701-1720 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Three-dimensional fluorescence enhanced optical tomography using referenced frequency domain photon migration measurements at emission and excitation wavelengths," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 759-771 (2002).

M. J. Eppstein, D. J. Hawrysz, A. Godavarty, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Three-dimensional, Bayesian image reconstruction from sparse and noisy data sets: near-infrared fluorescence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 9619-9624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hawrysz, M. J. Eppstein, J. Lee, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Error consideration in contrast-enhanced three-dimensional optical tomography," Opt. Lett. 26, 704-706 (2001).

D. Y. Paithankar, A. U. Chen, B. W. Pogue, M. S. Patterson, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Imaging of fluorescent yield and lifetime from multiply scattered light reemitted from random media," Appl. Opt. 36, 2260-2272 (1997).

Sevick-Muraca, M.

M. Sevick-Muraca, G. Lopez, J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, and C. L. Hutchinson, "Fluorescence and absorption contrast mechanisms for biomedical optical imaging using frequency-domain techniques," J. Photochem. and Photobiol. 66, 55-64 (1997).

Shah, R.

N. Tromberg, R. Shah, A. Lanning, J. Cerussi, T. Espinoza, L. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, "Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy," Neoplasia 2, 26-40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Skoch, J.

J. Skoch, A. Dunn, B. T. Hyman, and B. J. Bacskai, "Development of an optical approach for noninvasive imaging of Alzheimer’s disease pathology," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011007-1-7 (2005).

Stott, J. J.

B. Milstein, J. J. Stott, S. Oh, D. A. Boas, R. P. Millane, C. A. Bouman, and K. J. Webb, "Fluorescence optical diffusion tomography using multiple-frequency data," J. Opt, Soc. Am. A. 21,1035-1049 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Svaasand, L.

N. Tromberg, R. Shah, A. Lanning, J. Cerussi, T. Espinoza, L. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, "Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy," Neoplasia 2, 26-40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Svaasand, L. O.

R. C. Haskell, L. O. Svaasand, T. Tsay, T. Feng, M. S. McAdams, and B. J. Tromberg, "Bondary conditions for the diffusion equation in radiative transfer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2727-2741 (1994).

Theru, S.

A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang, S. Theru, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging in large tissue volumes using a gain-modulated ICCD camera," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1701-1720 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, A. B.

A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang, S. Theru, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging in large tissue volumes using a gain-modulated ICCD camera," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1701-1720 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Houston, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Sensitivity and depth penetration of continuous wave versus frequency-domain photon migration near-infrared fluorescence contrast-enhanced imaging," Photochem. and Photobiol. 77, 420-430 (2003).

Tromberg, B. J.

R. C. Haskell, L. O. Svaasand, T. Tsay, T. Feng, M. S. McAdams, and B. J. Tromberg, "Bondary conditions for the diffusion equation in radiative transfer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2727-2741 (1994).

Tromberg, N.

N. Tromberg, R. Shah, A. Lanning, J. Cerussi, T. Espinoza, L. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, "Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy," Neoplasia 2, 26-40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Troy, T. L.

M. Sevick-Muraca, G. Lopez, J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, and C. L. Hutchinson, "Fluorescence and absorption contrast mechanisms for biomedical optical imaging using frequency-domain techniques," J. Photochem. and Photobiol. 66, 55-64 (1997).

Tsay, T.

R. C. Haskell, L. O. Svaasand, T. Tsay, T. Feng, M. S. McAdams, and B. J. Tromberg, "Bondary conditions for the diffusion equation in radiative transfer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2727-2741 (1994).

Tung, C.

V. Ntziachristos, C. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo," Nat. Med. 8, 757-760 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Webb, K. J.

B. Milstein, J. J. Stott, S. Oh, D. A. Boas, R. P. Millane, C. A. Bouman, and K. J. Webb, "Fluorescence optical diffusion tomography using multiple-frequency data," J. Opt, Soc. Am. A. 21,1035-1049 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Milstein, S. Oh, K. J. Webb, C. A. Bouman, Q. Zhang, D. A. Boas, and R. P. Millane, "Fluorescence optical diffusion tomography," Appl. Opt. 42, 3081-3094 (2003).

Weissleder, R.

E. Graves, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Fluorescence molecular imaging of small animal tumor models," Curr. Mol. Med. 4, 419-430 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, J. L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, "Visualization of antitumor treatment by means of fluorescence molecular tomography with an annexin V-Cy5.5 conjugate," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 12294-12299 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Graves, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "A submillimeter resolution fluorescence molecular imaging system for small animal imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 901-911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, C. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo," Nat. Med. 8, 757-760 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos and R. Weissleder, "Charge-coupled-device based scanner for tomography of fluorescent near-infrared probes in turbid media," Med. Phys. 29, 803-809 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Weissleder and U. Mahmood, "Molecular Imaging," Radiology 219,316-333 (2001).

V. Ntziachristos and R. Weissleder, "Experimental three-dimensional fluorescence reconstruction of diffuse media by use of a normalized Born approximation," Opt. Lett. 26,893-895 (2001).

Wen, X

M. Gurfinkel, S Ke, X Wen, C Li, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Near-infrared fluorescence optical imaging and tomography," Dis. Markers 19, 107-121 (2003, 2004).

Xia, H.

N. G. Chen, M. M. Huang, H. Xia, D. Piao, and Q. Zhu, ‘‘Portable near-infrared diffusive light imager for breast cancer detection,’’J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 504-510 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yan, S.

Yessayan, D.

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, J. L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, "Visualization of antitumor treatment by means of fluorescence molecular tomography with an annexin V-Cy5.5 conjugate," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 12294-12299 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yodh, A.

A. Yodh and B. Chance, "Spectroscopy and imaging with diffusing light," Phys. Today 3, 34-40 (1995).

Yodh, A. G.

Yuan, B.

B. Yuan and Q. Zhu, "Emission and absorption properties of indocyanine green in Intralipid solution," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 497-503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zarfos, K.

Q. Zhu, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, K. Zarfos, B. Jagjivan, M. Kane, P. Hegde, and S. H. Kurtzman, "Ultrasound-guided optical tomographic imaging of malignant and benign breast lesions," Neoplasia 5, 379-388 (2003).

Zhang, C.

A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang, S. Theru, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging in large tissue volumes using a gain-modulated ICCD camera," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1701-1720 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

Zhu, Q.

B. Yuan and Q. Zhu, "Emission and absorption properties of indocyanine green in Intralipid solution," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 497-503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. G. Chen, M. M. Huang, H. Xia, D. Piao, and Q. Zhu, ‘‘Portable near-infrared diffusive light imager for breast cancer detection,’’J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 504-510 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhu, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, K. Zarfos, B. Jagjivan, M. Kane, P. Hegde, and S. H. Kurtzman, "Ultrasound-guided optical tomographic imaging of malignant and benign breast lesions," Neoplasia 5, 379-388 (2003).

Q. Zhu, N. G. Chen, and S. Kurtzman, "Imaging tumor angiogenesis using combined near infrared diffusive light and ultrasound," Opt. Lett. 28, 337-339 (2003).

N. G. Chen, P. Guo, S. Yan, D. Piao, and Q. Zhu, "Simultaneous near infrared diffusive light and ultrasound imaging," Appl. Opt. 40, 6367-6380 (2001).

Appl. Opt. (5)

Biomed. Opt. (1)

J. Skoch, A. Dunn, B. T. Hyman, and B. J. Bacskai, "Development of an optical approach for noninvasive imaging of Alzheimer’s disease pathology," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011007-1-7 (2005).

Curr. Mol. Med. (1)

E. Graves, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Fluorescence molecular imaging of small animal tumor models," Curr. Mol. Med. 4, 419-430 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dis. Markers (1)

M. Gurfinkel, S Ke, X Wen, C Li, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Near-infrared fluorescence optical imaging and tomography," Dis. Markers 19, 107-121 (2003, 2004).

Genes Dev. (1)

T. F. Massoud and S. S. Gambhir, "Molecular imaging in living subjects: seeing fundamental biological processes in a new light," Genes Dev. 17, 545-580 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. (1)

U. Mahmood, "Near infrared optical applications in molecular imaging, earlier, more accurate assessment of disease presence, disease course, and efficacy of disease treatment," IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 23, 58-66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Experimental fluorescence tomography of tissues with noncontact measurements," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23,492-500 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

N. G. Chen, M. M. Huang, H. Xia, D. Piao, and Q. Zhu, ‘‘Portable near-infrared diffusive light imager for breast cancer detection,’’J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 504-510 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Yuan and Q. Zhu, "Emission and absorption properties of indocyanine green in Intralipid solution," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 497-503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt, Soc. Am. A. (1)

B. Milstein, J. J. Stott, S. Oh, D. A. Boas, R. P. Millane, C. A. Bouman, and K. J. Webb, "Fluorescence optical diffusion tomography using multiple-frequency data," J. Opt, Soc. Am. A. 21,1035-1049 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

J. Photochem. and Photobiol. (1)

M. Sevick-Muraca, G. Lopez, J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, and C. L. Hutchinson, "Fluorescence and absorption contrast mechanisms for biomedical optical imaging using frequency-domain techniques," J. Photochem. and Photobiol. 66, 55-64 (1997).

Med. Phys. (2)

E. Graves, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "A submillimeter resolution fluorescence molecular imaging system for small animal imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 901-911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos and R. Weissleder, "Charge-coupled-device based scanner for tomography of fluorescent near-infrared probes in turbid media," Med. Phys. 29, 803-809 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Med. (1)

V. Ntziachristos, C. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo," Nat. Med. 8, 757-760 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Neoplasia (2)

N. Tromberg, R. Shah, A. Lanning, J. Cerussi, T. Espinoza, L. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, "Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy," Neoplasia 2, 26-40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhu, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, K. Zarfos, B. Jagjivan, M. Kane, P. Hegde, and S. H. Kurtzman, "Ultrasound-guided optical tomographic imaging of malignant and benign breast lesions," Neoplasia 5, 379-388 (2003).

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Photochem. and Photobiol. (1)

J. P. Houston, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Sensitivity and depth penetration of continuous wave versus frequency-domain photon migration near-infrared fluorescence contrast-enhanced imaging," Photochem. and Photobiol. 77, 420-430 (2003).

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang, S. Theru, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging in large tissue volumes using a gain-modulated ICCD camera," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1701-1720 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Today (1)

A. Yodh and B. Chance, "Spectroscopy and imaging with diffusing light," Phys. Today 3, 34-40 (1995).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2)

M. J. Eppstein, D. J. Hawrysz, A. Godavarty, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Three-dimensional, Bayesian image reconstruction from sparse and noisy data sets: near-infrared fluorescence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 9619-9624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, J. L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, "Visualization of antitumor treatment by means of fluorescence molecular tomography with an annexin V-Cy5.5 conjugate," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 12294-12299 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Radiology (1)

R. Weissleder and U. Mahmood, "Molecular Imaging," Radiology 219,316-333 (2001).

Other (3)

W. Long and M. Vernon, "Optical molecular imaging: time domain advantages with explore OptixTM," January 2004, Advanced Research Technology Inc. http://www.art.ca/en/products/INOPaper040129.pdf.

B. Murphy, Fundamentals of light microscopy and electronic imaging (Wiley-Liss, 2001).

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1992), Chap. 10.

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