Abstract

Three-dimensional cell-based tissue models have been increasingly useful in the fields of tissue engineering, drug discovery, and cell biology. While techniques for building these tissue models have been advanced, there have been increasing demands for imaging techniques that are capable of assessing complex dynamic three-dimensional cell behavior in real-time and at larger depths in highly-scattering scaffolds. Understanding these cell behaviors requires advanced imaging tools to progress from characterizing two-dimensional cell cultures to complex, highly-scattering, thick three-dimensional tissue constructs. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging biomedical imaging technique that can perform cellular-resolution imaging in situ and in real-time. In this study, we demonstrate that it is possible to use OCT to evaluate dynamic cell behavior and function in a quantitative fashion in four dimensions (three-dimensional space plus time). We investigated and characterized in thick tissue models a variety of cell processes, such as chemotaxis migration, proliferation, de-adhesion, and cell-material interactions. This optical imaging technique was developed and utilized in order to gain new insights into how chemical and/or mechanical microenvironments influence cellular dynamics in multiple dimensions. With deep imaging penetration and increased spatial and temporal resolution in three-dimensional space, OCT will be a useful tool for improving our understanding of complex biological interactions at the cellular level.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. Langer and J. P. Vacanti, "Tissue engineering," Science 260, 920-926 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. J. Friedrich, "Studying cancer in three dimensions: 3-D models foster new insights into tumorigenesis," JAMA 290, 1977-1979 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. J. Stephens and V. J. Allan, "Light microscopy techniques for live cell imaging," Science 300, 82-86 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. G. M. Breuls, A. Mol, R. Petterson, C. W. J. Oomens, F. P. T. Baaijens, and C. V. C. Bouten, "Monitoring local cell viability in engineered tissues: A fast, quantitative, and nondestructive approach," Tissue Eng. 9, 269-281 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. S. Gareau, P. R. Bargo, W. A. Horton, and S. L. Jacques, "Confocal fluorescence spectroscopy of subcutaneous cartilage expressing green fluorescent protein versus cutaneous collagen autofluorescence," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 254-258 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. R. Masters, P. T. So, and E. Gratton, "Multiphoton excitation microscopy of in vivo human skin. Functional and morphological optical biopsy based on three-dimensional imaging, lifetime measurements and fluorescence spectroscopy," Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 838, 58-67 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. T. So, C. Y. Dong, B. R. Masters, and K. M. Berland, "Two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy," Ann. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2, 399-429 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. Constantinidis, C. L. Stabler, R. Long, and A. Sambanis, "Noninvasive monitoring of a retrievable bioartificial pancreas in vivo," Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 961, 298-301 (2002).
  9. A. S. P. Lin, T. H. Barrows, S. H. Cartmella, and R. E. Guldberg, "Microarchitectural and mechanical characterization of oriented porous polymer scaffolds," Biomaterials 24, 481-489 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, editors, Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography. Marcel Dekker, N.Y. (2001).
  12. J. M. Schmitt, "Optical coherence tomography (OCT): a review," IEEE J. Select. Topics.Quantum Electon. 5, 1205-1215 (1999).
  13. J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography for ultrahigh resolution in vivo imaging," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1361-1367 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging," Nat. Med. 4, 861-865 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. G. Podoleanu, J. A. Rogers, D. A. Jackson, and S. Dunne, "Three dimensional OCT images from retina and skin," Opt. Express 7, 292-298 (2000).
  16. S. A. Boppart, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Investigation of developing embryonic morphology using optical coherence tomography," Dev. Biol. 177, 54-63 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4256-4261 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. X. Xu, R. K. Wang, and A. El Haj, "Investigation of changes in optical attenuation of bone and neuronal cells in organ culture or three-dimensional constructs in vitro with optical coherence tomography: relevance to cytochrome oxidase monitoring," Eur. Biophys. J. 32, 355-362 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. Mason, J. F. Markusen, M. A. Town, P. Dunnill, and R. K. Wang, "The potential of optical coherence tomography in the engineering of living tissue," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1097-1115 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Michna, "Induced locomotion of human and murine macrophages: a comparative analysis by means of the modified Boyden-chamber system and the agarose migration assay," Cell Tissue Res. 255, 423-429 (1989).
  21. D. L. Marks, A. L. Oldenburg, J. J. Reynolds, and S. A. Boppart, "Study of an ultrahigh-numerical-aperture fiber continuum generation source for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 2010-2012 (2002).
  22. T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, "Inverse scattering for optical coherence tomography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1027-1037 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. Steller, "Mechanisms and genes of cellular suicide," Science 267, 1445-1449 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. A. DiMilla, J. A. Quinn, S. M. Albelda, and D. A. Lauffenburger, "Measurement of individual cell migration parameters for human tissue cells," Amer. Inst. Chem. Engr. J. 38, 1092-1104 (1992).
  25. E. Cukierman, R. Pankov, D. R. Stevens, and K. M. Yamada, "Taking cell-matrix adhesions to the third dimension," Science 294, 1708-1712 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  26. N. L’Heureux, S. Paquet, R. Labbe, L. Germain, and F. A. Auger. "A completely biological tissue-engineered human blood vessel," FASEB J. 12, 47-56 (1998).
  27. H. W. Ouyang, S. L. Toh, J. Goh, T. E. Tay, and K. Moe, "Assembly of bone marrow stromal cell sheets with knitted poly (L-Lactide) scaffold for engineering ligament analogs," J. Biomed. Mat. Res. 75, 264-271 (2005).
  28. W. Tan, A. Sendmir-Urkmez, L. J. Fahrner, R. Jamison, D. Leckband, and S. A. Boppart, "Structural and functional optical imaging of three-dimensional engineered tissue development," Tissue Eng. 10, 1747-1756 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2006

2005

H. W. Ouyang, S. L. Toh, J. Goh, T. E. Tay, and K. Moe, "Assembly of bone marrow stromal cell sheets with knitted poly (L-Lactide) scaffold for engineering ligament analogs," J. Biomed. Mat. Res. 75, 264-271 (2005).

2004

W. Tan, A. Sendmir-Urkmez, L. J. Fahrner, R. Jamison, D. Leckband, and S. A. Boppart, "Structural and functional optical imaging of three-dimensional engineered tissue development," Tissue Eng. 10, 1747-1756 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Gareau, P. R. Bargo, W. A. Horton, and S. L. Jacques, "Confocal fluorescence spectroscopy of subcutaneous cartilage expressing green fluorescent protein versus cutaneous collagen autofluorescence," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 254-258 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Mason, J. F. Markusen, M. A. Town, P. Dunnill, and R. K. Wang, "The potential of optical coherence tomography in the engineering of living tissue," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1097-1115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

X. Xu, R. K. Wang, and A. El Haj, "Investigation of changes in optical attenuation of bone and neuronal cells in organ culture or three-dimensional constructs in vitro with optical coherence tomography: relevance to cytochrome oxidase monitoring," Eur. Biophys. J. 32, 355-362 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography for ultrahigh resolution in vivo imaging," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1361-1367 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Friedrich, "Studying cancer in three dimensions: 3-D models foster new insights into tumorigenesis," JAMA 290, 1977-1979 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Stephens and V. J. Allan, "Light microscopy techniques for live cell imaging," Science 300, 82-86 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. G. M. Breuls, A. Mol, R. Petterson, C. W. J. Oomens, F. P. T. Baaijens, and C. V. C. Bouten, "Monitoring local cell viability in engineered tissues: A fast, quantitative, and nondestructive approach," Tissue Eng. 9, 269-281 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. S. P. Lin, T. H. Barrows, S. H. Cartmella, and R. E. Guldberg, "Microarchitectural and mechanical characterization of oriented porous polymer scaffolds," Biomaterials 24, 481-489 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

I. Constantinidis, C. L. Stabler, R. Long, and A. Sambanis, "Noninvasive monitoring of a retrievable bioartificial pancreas in vivo," Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 961, 298-301 (2002).

D. L. Marks, A. L. Oldenburg, J. J. Reynolds, and S. A. Boppart, "Study of an ultrahigh-numerical-aperture fiber continuum generation source for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 2010-2012 (2002).

2001

E. Cukierman, R. Pankov, D. R. Stevens, and K. M. Yamada, "Taking cell-matrix adhesions to the third dimension," Science 294, 1708-1712 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. G. Podoleanu, J. A. Rogers, D. A. Jackson, and S. Dunne, "Three dimensional OCT images from retina and skin," Opt. Express 7, 292-298 (2000).

P. T. So, C. Y. Dong, B. R. Masters, and K. M. Berland, "Two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy," Ann. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2, 399-429 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. M. Schmitt, "Optical coherence tomography (OCT): a review," IEEE J. Select. Topics.Quantum Electon. 5, 1205-1215 (1999).

1998

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging," Nat. Med. 4, 861-865 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Masters, P. T. So, and E. Gratton, "Multiphoton excitation microscopy of in vivo human skin. Functional and morphological optical biopsy based on three-dimensional imaging, lifetime measurements and fluorescence spectroscopy," Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 838, 58-67 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. L’Heureux, S. Paquet, R. Labbe, L. Germain, and F. A. Auger. "A completely biological tissue-engineered human blood vessel," FASEB J. 12, 47-56 (1998).

1997

S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4256-4261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

S. A. Boppart, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Investigation of developing embryonic morphology using optical coherence tomography," Dev. Biol. 177, 54-63 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

H. Steller, "Mechanisms and genes of cellular suicide," Science 267, 1445-1449 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

R. Langer and J. P. Vacanti, "Tissue engineering," Science 260, 920-926 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

P. A. DiMilla, J. A. Quinn, S. M. Albelda, and D. A. Lauffenburger, "Measurement of individual cell migration parameters for human tissue cells," Amer. Inst. Chem. Engr. J. 38, 1092-1104 (1992).

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

H. Michna, "Induced locomotion of human and murine macrophages: a comparative analysis by means of the modified Boyden-chamber system and the agarose migration assay," Cell Tissue Res. 255, 423-429 (1989).

Albelda, S. M.

P. A. DiMilla, J. A. Quinn, S. M. Albelda, and D. A. Lauffenburger, "Measurement of individual cell migration parameters for human tissue cells," Amer. Inst. Chem. Engr. J. 38, 1092-1104 (1992).

Allan, V. J.

D. J. Stephens and V. J. Allan, "Light microscopy techniques for live cell imaging," Science 300, 82-86 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Auger, F. A.

N. L’Heureux, S. Paquet, R. Labbe, L. Germain, and F. A. Auger. "A completely biological tissue-engineered human blood vessel," FASEB J. 12, 47-56 (1998).

Baaijens, F. P. T.

R. G. M. Breuls, A. Mol, R. Petterson, C. W. J. Oomens, F. P. T. Baaijens, and C. V. C. Bouten, "Monitoring local cell viability in engineered tissues: A fast, quantitative, and nondestructive approach," Tissue Eng. 9, 269-281 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bargo, P. R.

D. S. Gareau, P. R. Bargo, W. A. Horton, and S. L. Jacques, "Confocal fluorescence spectroscopy of subcutaneous cartilage expressing green fluorescent protein versus cutaneous collagen autofluorescence," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 254-258 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barrows, T. H.

A. S. P. Lin, T. H. Barrows, S. H. Cartmella, and R. E. Guldberg, "Microarchitectural and mechanical characterization of oriented porous polymer scaffolds," Biomaterials 24, 481-489 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Berland, K. M.

P. T. So, C. Y. Dong, B. R. Masters, and K. M. Berland, "Two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy," Ann. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2, 399-429 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, "Inverse scattering for optical coherence tomography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1027-1037 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Tan, A. Sendmir-Urkmez, L. J. Fahrner, R. Jamison, D. Leckband, and S. A. Boppart, "Structural and functional optical imaging of three-dimensional engineered tissue development," Tissue Eng. 10, 1747-1756 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Marks, A. L. Oldenburg, J. J. Reynolds, and S. A. Boppart, "Study of an ultrahigh-numerical-aperture fiber continuum generation source for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 2010-2012 (2002).

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging," Nat. Med. 4, 861-865 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4256-4261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boppart, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Investigation of developing embryonic morphology using optical coherence tomography," Dev. Biol. 177, 54-63 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, B. E.

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging," Nat. Med. 4, 861-865 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4256-4261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boppart, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Investigation of developing embryonic morphology using optical coherence tomography," Dev. Biol. 177, 54-63 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bouten, C. V. C.

R. G. M. Breuls, A. Mol, R. Petterson, C. W. J. Oomens, F. P. T. Baaijens, and C. V. C. Bouten, "Monitoring local cell viability in engineered tissues: A fast, quantitative, and nondestructive approach," Tissue Eng. 9, 269-281 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Breuls, R. G. M.

R. G. M. Breuls, A. Mol, R. Petterson, C. W. J. Oomens, F. P. T. Baaijens, and C. V. C. Bouten, "Monitoring local cell viability in engineered tissues: A fast, quantitative, and nondestructive approach," Tissue Eng. 9, 269-281 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brezinski, M. E.

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging," Nat. Med. 4, 861-865 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4256-4261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boppart, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Investigation of developing embryonic morphology using optical coherence tomography," Dev. Biol. 177, 54-63 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Carney, P. S.

Cartmella, S. H.

A. S. P. Lin, T. H. Barrows, S. H. Cartmella, and R. E. Guldberg, "Microarchitectural and mechanical characterization of oriented porous polymer scaffolds," Biomaterials 24, 481-489 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Constantinidis, I.

I. Constantinidis, C. L. Stabler, R. Long, and A. Sambanis, "Noninvasive monitoring of a retrievable bioartificial pancreas in vivo," Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 961, 298-301 (2002).

Cukierman, E.

E. Cukierman, R. Pankov, D. R. Stevens, and K. M. Yamada, "Taking cell-matrix adhesions to the third dimension," Science 294, 1708-1712 (2001).
[CrossRef]

DiMilla, P. A.

P. A. DiMilla, J. A. Quinn, S. M. Albelda, and D. A. Lauffenburger, "Measurement of individual cell migration parameters for human tissue cells," Amer. Inst. Chem. Engr. J. 38, 1092-1104 (1992).

Dong, C. Y.

P. T. So, C. Y. Dong, B. R. Masters, and K. M. Berland, "Two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy," Ann. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2, 399-429 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dunne, S.

Dunnill, P.

C. Mason, J. F. Markusen, M. A. Town, P. Dunnill, and R. K. Wang, "The potential of optical coherence tomography in the engineering of living tissue," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1097-1115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

El Haj, A.

X. Xu, R. K. Wang, and A. El Haj, "Investigation of changes in optical attenuation of bone and neuronal cells in organ culture or three-dimensional constructs in vitro with optical coherence tomography: relevance to cytochrome oxidase monitoring," Eur. Biophys. J. 32, 355-362 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fahrner, L. J.

W. Tan, A. Sendmir-Urkmez, L. J. Fahrner, R. Jamison, D. Leckband, and S. A. Boppart, "Structural and functional optical imaging of three-dimensional engineered tissue development," Tissue Eng. 10, 1747-1756 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Friedrich, M. J.

M. J. Friedrich, "Studying cancer in three dimensions: 3-D models foster new insights into tumorigenesis," JAMA 290, 1977-1979 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography for ultrahigh resolution in vivo imaging," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1361-1367 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging," Nat. Med. 4, 861-865 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4256-4261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boppart, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Investigation of developing embryonic morphology using optical coherence tomography," Dev. Biol. 177, 54-63 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gareau, D. S.

D. S. Gareau, P. R. Bargo, W. A. Horton, and S. L. Jacques, "Confocal fluorescence spectroscopy of subcutaneous cartilage expressing green fluorescent protein versus cutaneous collagen autofluorescence," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 254-258 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Germain, L.

N. L’Heureux, S. Paquet, R. Labbe, L. Germain, and F. A. Auger. "A completely biological tissue-engineered human blood vessel," FASEB J. 12, 47-56 (1998).

Goh, J.

H. W. Ouyang, S. L. Toh, J. Goh, T. E. Tay, and K. Moe, "Assembly of bone marrow stromal cell sheets with knitted poly (L-Lactide) scaffold for engineering ligament analogs," J. Biomed. Mat. Res. 75, 264-271 (2005).

Gratton, E.

B. R. Masters, P. T. So, and E. Gratton, "Multiphoton excitation microscopy of in vivo human skin. Functional and morphological optical biopsy based on three-dimensional imaging, lifetime measurements and fluorescence spectroscopy," Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 838, 58-67 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Guldberg, R. E.

A. S. P. Lin, T. H. Barrows, S. H. Cartmella, and R. E. Guldberg, "Microarchitectural and mechanical characterization of oriented porous polymer scaffolds," Biomaterials 24, 481-489 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Horton, W. A.

D. S. Gareau, P. R. Bargo, W. A. Horton, and S. L. Jacques, "Confocal fluorescence spectroscopy of subcutaneous cartilage expressing green fluorescent protein versus cutaneous collagen autofluorescence," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 254-258 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, D. A.

Jacques, S. L.

D. S. Gareau, P. R. Bargo, W. A. Horton, and S. L. Jacques, "Confocal fluorescence spectroscopy of subcutaneous cartilage expressing green fluorescent protein versus cutaneous collagen autofluorescence," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 254-258 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jamison, R.

W. Tan, A. Sendmir-Urkmez, L. J. Fahrner, R. Jamison, D. Leckband, and S. A. Boppart, "Structural and functional optical imaging of three-dimensional engineered tissue development," Tissue Eng. 10, 1747-1756 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L’Heureux, N.

N. L’Heureux, S. Paquet, R. Labbe, L. Germain, and F. A. Auger. "A completely biological tissue-engineered human blood vessel," FASEB J. 12, 47-56 (1998).

Labbe, R.

N. L’Heureux, S. Paquet, R. Labbe, L. Germain, and F. A. Auger. "A completely biological tissue-engineered human blood vessel," FASEB J. 12, 47-56 (1998).

Langer, R.

R. Langer and J. P. Vacanti, "Tissue engineering," Science 260, 920-926 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lauffenburger, D. A.

P. A. DiMilla, J. A. Quinn, S. M. Albelda, and D. A. Lauffenburger, "Measurement of individual cell migration parameters for human tissue cells," Amer. Inst. Chem. Engr. J. 38, 1092-1104 (1992).

Leckband, D.

W. Tan, A. Sendmir-Urkmez, L. J. Fahrner, R. Jamison, D. Leckband, and S. A. Boppart, "Structural and functional optical imaging of three-dimensional engineered tissue development," Tissue Eng. 10, 1747-1756 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, A. S. P.

A. S. P. Lin, T. H. Barrows, S. H. Cartmella, and R. E. Guldberg, "Microarchitectural and mechanical characterization of oriented porous polymer scaffolds," Biomaterials 24, 481-489 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Long, R.

I. Constantinidis, C. L. Stabler, R. Long, and A. Sambanis, "Noninvasive monitoring of a retrievable bioartificial pancreas in vivo," Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 961, 298-301 (2002).

Marks, D. L.

Markusen, J. F.

C. Mason, J. F. Markusen, M. A. Town, P. Dunnill, and R. K. Wang, "The potential of optical coherence tomography in the engineering of living tissue," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1097-1115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mason, C.

C. Mason, J. F. Markusen, M. A. Town, P. Dunnill, and R. K. Wang, "The potential of optical coherence tomography in the engineering of living tissue," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1097-1115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Masters, B. R.

P. T. So, C. Y. Dong, B. R. Masters, and K. M. Berland, "Two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy," Ann. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2, 399-429 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Masters, P. T. So, and E. Gratton, "Multiphoton excitation microscopy of in vivo human skin. Functional and morphological optical biopsy based on three-dimensional imaging, lifetime measurements and fluorescence spectroscopy," Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 838, 58-67 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Michna, H.

H. Michna, "Induced locomotion of human and murine macrophages: a comparative analysis by means of the modified Boyden-chamber system and the agarose migration assay," Cell Tissue Res. 255, 423-429 (1989).

Moe, K.

H. W. Ouyang, S. L. Toh, J. Goh, T. E. Tay, and K. Moe, "Assembly of bone marrow stromal cell sheets with knitted poly (L-Lactide) scaffold for engineering ligament analogs," J. Biomed. Mat. Res. 75, 264-271 (2005).

Mol, A.

R. G. M. Breuls, A. Mol, R. Petterson, C. W. J. Oomens, F. P. T. Baaijens, and C. V. C. Bouten, "Monitoring local cell viability in engineered tissues: A fast, quantitative, and nondestructive approach," Tissue Eng. 9, 269-281 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oldenburg, A. L.

Oomens, C. W. J.

R. G. M. Breuls, A. Mol, R. Petterson, C. W. J. Oomens, F. P. T. Baaijens, and C. V. C. Bouten, "Monitoring local cell viability in engineered tissues: A fast, quantitative, and nondestructive approach," Tissue Eng. 9, 269-281 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ouyang, H. W.

H. W. Ouyang, S. L. Toh, J. Goh, T. E. Tay, and K. Moe, "Assembly of bone marrow stromal cell sheets with knitted poly (L-Lactide) scaffold for engineering ligament analogs," J. Biomed. Mat. Res. 75, 264-271 (2005).

Pankov, R.

E. Cukierman, R. Pankov, D. R. Stevens, and K. M. Yamada, "Taking cell-matrix adhesions to the third dimension," Science 294, 1708-1712 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Paquet, S.

N. L’Heureux, S. Paquet, R. Labbe, L. Germain, and F. A. Auger. "A completely biological tissue-engineered human blood vessel," FASEB J. 12, 47-56 (1998).

Petterson, R.

R. G. M. Breuls, A. Mol, R. Petterson, C. W. J. Oomens, F. P. T. Baaijens, and C. V. C. Bouten, "Monitoring local cell viability in engineered tissues: A fast, quantitative, and nondestructive approach," Tissue Eng. 9, 269-281 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pitris, C.

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging," Nat. Med. 4, 861-865 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Podoleanu, A. G.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Quinn, J. A.

P. A. DiMilla, J. A. Quinn, S. M. Albelda, and D. A. Lauffenburger, "Measurement of individual cell migration parameters for human tissue cells," Amer. Inst. Chem. Engr. J. 38, 1092-1104 (1992).

Ralston, T. S.

Reynolds, J. J.

Rogers, J. A.

Sambanis, A.

I. Constantinidis, C. L. Stabler, R. Long, and A. Sambanis, "Noninvasive monitoring of a retrievable bioartificial pancreas in vivo," Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 961, 298-301 (2002).

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, "Optical coherence tomography (OCT): a review," IEEE J. Select. Topics.Quantum Electon. 5, 1205-1215 (1999).

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sendmir-Urkmez, A.

W. Tan, A. Sendmir-Urkmez, L. J. Fahrner, R. Jamison, D. Leckband, and S. A. Boppart, "Structural and functional optical imaging of three-dimensional engineered tissue development," Tissue Eng. 10, 1747-1756 (2004).
[CrossRef]

So, P. T.

P. T. So, C. Y. Dong, B. R. Masters, and K. M. Berland, "Two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy," Ann. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2, 399-429 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Masters, P. T. So, and E. Gratton, "Multiphoton excitation microscopy of in vivo human skin. Functional and morphological optical biopsy based on three-dimensional imaging, lifetime measurements and fluorescence spectroscopy," Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 838, 58-67 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Southern, J. F.

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging," Nat. Med. 4, 861-865 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4256-4261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stabler, C. L.

I. Constantinidis, C. L. Stabler, R. Long, and A. Sambanis, "Noninvasive monitoring of a retrievable bioartificial pancreas in vivo," Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 961, 298-301 (2002).

Steller, H.

H. Steller, "Mechanisms and genes of cellular suicide," Science 267, 1445-1449 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stephens, D. J.

D. J. Stephens and V. J. Allan, "Light microscopy techniques for live cell imaging," Science 300, 82-86 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, D. R.

E. Cukierman, R. Pankov, D. R. Stevens, and K. M. Yamada, "Taking cell-matrix adhesions to the third dimension," Science 294, 1708-1712 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tan, W.

W. Tan, A. Sendmir-Urkmez, L. J. Fahrner, R. Jamison, D. Leckband, and S. A. Boppart, "Structural and functional optical imaging of three-dimensional engineered tissue development," Tissue Eng. 10, 1747-1756 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tay, T. E.

H. W. Ouyang, S. L. Toh, J. Goh, T. E. Tay, and K. Moe, "Assembly of bone marrow stromal cell sheets with knitted poly (L-Lactide) scaffold for engineering ligament analogs," J. Biomed. Mat. Res. 75, 264-271 (2005).

Tearney, G. J.

S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4256-4261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boppart, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Investigation of developing embryonic morphology using optical coherence tomography," Dev. Biol. 177, 54-63 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Toh, S. L.

H. W. Ouyang, S. L. Toh, J. Goh, T. E. Tay, and K. Moe, "Assembly of bone marrow stromal cell sheets with knitted poly (L-Lactide) scaffold for engineering ligament analogs," J. Biomed. Mat. Res. 75, 264-271 (2005).

Town, M. A.

C. Mason, J. F. Markusen, M. A. Town, P. Dunnill, and R. K. Wang, "The potential of optical coherence tomography in the engineering of living tissue," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1097-1115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vacanti, J. P.

R. Langer and J. P. Vacanti, "Tissue engineering," Science 260, 920-926 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R. K.

C. Mason, J. F. Markusen, M. A. Town, P. Dunnill, and R. K. Wang, "The potential of optical coherence tomography in the engineering of living tissue," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1097-1115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, R. K. Wang, and A. El Haj, "Investigation of changes in optical attenuation of bone and neuronal cells in organ culture or three-dimensional constructs in vitro with optical coherence tomography: relevance to cytochrome oxidase monitoring," Eur. Biophys. J. 32, 355-362 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

X. Xu, R. K. Wang, and A. El Haj, "Investigation of changes in optical attenuation of bone and neuronal cells in organ culture or three-dimensional constructs in vitro with optical coherence tomography: relevance to cytochrome oxidase monitoring," Eur. Biophys. J. 32, 355-362 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K. M.

E. Cukierman, R. Pankov, D. R. Stevens, and K. M. Yamada, "Taking cell-matrix adhesions to the third dimension," Science 294, 1708-1712 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Amer. Inst. Chem. Engr. J.

P. A. DiMilla, J. A. Quinn, S. M. Albelda, and D. A. Lauffenburger, "Measurement of individual cell migration parameters for human tissue cells," Amer. Inst. Chem. Engr. J. 38, 1092-1104 (1992).

Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.

I. Constantinidis, C. L. Stabler, R. Long, and A. Sambanis, "Noninvasive monitoring of a retrievable bioartificial pancreas in vivo," Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 961, 298-301 (2002).

B. R. Masters, P. T. So, and E. Gratton, "Multiphoton excitation microscopy of in vivo human skin. Functional and morphological optical biopsy based on three-dimensional imaging, lifetime measurements and fluorescence spectroscopy," Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 838, 58-67 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Rev. Biomed. Eng.

P. T. So, C. Y. Dong, B. R. Masters, and K. M. Berland, "Two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy," Ann. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 2, 399-429 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Biomaterials

A. S. P. Lin, T. H. Barrows, S. H. Cartmella, and R. E. Guldberg, "Microarchitectural and mechanical characterization of oriented porous polymer scaffolds," Biomaterials 24, 481-489 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cell Tissue Res.

H. Michna, "Induced locomotion of human and murine macrophages: a comparative analysis by means of the modified Boyden-chamber system and the agarose migration assay," Cell Tissue Res. 255, 423-429 (1989).

Dev. Biol.

S. A. Boppart, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Investigation of developing embryonic morphology using optical coherence tomography," Dev. Biol. 177, 54-63 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Biophys. J.

X. Xu, R. K. Wang, and A. El Haj, "Investigation of changes in optical attenuation of bone and neuronal cells in organ culture or three-dimensional constructs in vitro with optical coherence tomography: relevance to cytochrome oxidase monitoring," Eur. Biophys. J. 32, 355-362 (2003).
[CrossRef]

FASEB J.

N. L’Heureux, S. Paquet, R. Labbe, L. Germain, and F. A. Auger. "A completely biological tissue-engineered human blood vessel," FASEB J. 12, 47-56 (1998).

J. Biomed. Mat. Res.

H. W. Ouyang, S. L. Toh, J. Goh, T. E. Tay, and K. Moe, "Assembly of bone marrow stromal cell sheets with knitted poly (L-Lactide) scaffold for engineering ligament analogs," J. Biomed. Mat. Res. 75, 264-271 (2005).

J. Biomed. Opt.

D. S. Gareau, P. R. Bargo, W. A. Horton, and S. L. Jacques, "Confocal fluorescence spectroscopy of subcutaneous cartilage expressing green fluorescent protein versus cutaneous collagen autofluorescence," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 254-258 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

JAMA

M. J. Friedrich, "Studying cancer in three dimensions: 3-D models foster new insights into tumorigenesis," JAMA 290, 1977-1979 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotechnol.

J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography for ultrahigh resolution in vivo imaging," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1361-1367 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Med.

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging," Nat. Med. 4, 861-865 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Med. Biol.

C. Mason, J. F. Markusen, M. A. Town, P. Dunnill, and R. K. Wang, "The potential of optical coherence tomography in the engineering of living tissue," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1097-1115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4256-4261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electon.

J. M. Schmitt, "Optical coherence tomography (OCT): a review," IEEE J. Select. Topics.Quantum Electon. 5, 1205-1215 (1999).

Science

H. Steller, "Mechanisms and genes of cellular suicide," Science 267, 1445-1449 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Cukierman, R. Pankov, D. R. Stevens, and K. M. Yamada, "Taking cell-matrix adhesions to the third dimension," Science 294, 1708-1712 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Stephens and V. J. Allan, "Light microscopy techniques for live cell imaging," Science 300, 82-86 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Langer and J. P. Vacanti, "Tissue engineering," Science 260, 920-926 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tissue Eng.

R. G. M. Breuls, A. Mol, R. Petterson, C. W. J. Oomens, F. P. T. Baaijens, and C. V. C. Bouten, "Monitoring local cell viability in engineered tissues: A fast, quantitative, and nondestructive approach," Tissue Eng. 9, 269-281 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Tan, A. Sendmir-Urkmez, L. J. Fahrner, R. Jamison, D. Leckband, and S. A. Boppart, "Structural and functional optical imaging of three-dimensional engineered tissue development," Tissue Eng. 10, 1747-1756 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, editors, Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography. Marcel Dekker, N.Y. (2001).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics