Abstract

The ability to resolve single cells noninvasively in the living retina has important applications for the study of normal retina, diseased retina, and the efficacy of therapies for retinal disease. We describe a new instrument for high-resolution, in vivo imaging of the mammalian retina that combines the benefits of confocal detection, adaptive optics, multispectral, and fluorescence imaging. The instrument is capable of imaging single ganglion cells and their axons through retrograde transport in ganglion cells of fluorescent dyes injected into the monkey lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). In addition, we demonstrate a method involving simultaneous imaging in two spectral bands that allows the integration of very weak signals across many frames despite inter-frame movement of the eye. With this method, we are also able to resolve the smallest retinal capillaries in fluorescein angiography and the mosaic of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells with lipofuscin autofluorescence.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2006 (4)

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz and D. R. Williams, "Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic," J. Neurosci. 26, 722-722 (2006).

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia and T. E. Ustun, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope for stabilized retinal imaging," Opt. Express 14, 3354-3367 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Merino, C. Dainty, A. Bradu and A. G. Podoleanu, "Adaptive optics enhanced simultaneous en-face optical coherence tomography and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 14, 3345-3353 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Wolfing, M. Chung, J. Carroll, A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "High-resolution retinal imaging of cone-rod dystrophy," Ophthalmology 113, 1014-1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (6)

Y. Zhang, J. T. Rha, R. S. Jonnal and D. T. Miller, "Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina," Opt. Express 13, 4792-4811 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernandez, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. T. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut and J. S. Werner, "Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging," Opt. Express 13, 8532-8546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll and D. R. Williams, "The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic," J. Vis. 5, 632-639 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Strauss, "The retinal pigment epithelium in visual function," Physiol. Rev. 85, 845-881 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Burke and L. M. Hjelmeland, "Mosaicism of the retinal pigment epithelium: seeing the small picture," Mol. Interv. 5, 241-249 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (10)

N. Lois, A. S. Halfyard, A. C. Bird, G. E. Holder and F. W. Fitzke, "Fundus autofluorescence in Stargardt macular dystrophy-fundus flavimaculatus," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 138, 55-63 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bindewald, J. J. Jorzik, A. Loesch, F. Schutt and F. G. Holz, "Visualization of retinal pigment epithelial cells in vivo using digital high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Am. J. Opthalmol. 137, 556-558 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Cordeiro, L. Guo, V. Luong, G. Harding, W. Wang, H. E. Jones, S. E. Moss, A. M. Sillito and F. W. Fitzke, "Real-time imaging of single nerve cell apoptosis in retinal neurodegeneration," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 13352-13356 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Imanishi, D. W. Piston, W. Baehr, and K. Palczewski, "Noninvasive two-photon imaging reveals retinyl ester storage structures in the eye," J. Cell. Biol. 164, 373-383 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernandez, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto and P. Artal, "Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. a. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl and A. F. Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156-2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense and N. A. Nassif, "Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2435-2447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz and D. R. Williams, "Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: An alternate cause of color blindness," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 8461-8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J. F. Le Gargasson and P. Lena, "Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams and H. Hofer, "The Reflectance of Single Cones in the Living Human Eye," Invest. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 4580-4492 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Dacey, B. B. Peterson, F. R. Robinson, P. D. Gamlin, "Fireworks in the primate retina: In vitro photodynamics reveals diverse LGN-projecting ganglion cell types," Neuron 37, 15-27 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cushion, F. N. Reinholz and B. A. Patterson, "General purpose control system for scanning laser ophthalmoscopes," Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 31, 241-245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

D. M. Snodderly, M. M. Sandstrom, I. Y. F. Leung, C. I. Zucker and M. Neuringer, "Retinal pigment epithelial cell distribution in central retina of rhesus monkeys," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 2815-2818 (2002).

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "Optical fiber properties of individual human cones," J. Vis. 2, 404-412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert and M. C. W. Campbell, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 405-412 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (7)

G. Yoon, H. Hofer, L. Chen, B. Singer, J. Porter, Y. Yamauchi, N. Doble and D. R. Williams, "Dynamic correction of the eye's aberration with the Rochester 2nd generation adaptive optics system.," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, S99-S99 (2001).

H. Hofer, L. Chen, G. Y. Yoon, B. Singer, Y. Yamauchi and D. R. Williams, "Improvement in retinal image quality with dynamic correction of the eye's aberrations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 631-643 (2001).

A. Roorda, A. B. Metha, P. Lennie and D. R. Williams, "Packing arrangement of the three cone classes in primate retina," Vision Res. 41, 1291-1306 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kartner, J. S. Schuman and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Holz, C. Bellman, S. Staudt, F. Schutt and H. E. Volcker, "Fundus autofluorescence and development of geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1051-1056 (2001).

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger and C. K. Dorey, "Age-related accumulation and spatial distribution of lipofuscin in RPE of normal subjects," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1855-1866 (2001).

H. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J. L. Aragon and D. R. Williams, "Dynamics of the eye's wave aberration," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 497-506 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

N. Lois, A. S. Halfyard, A. C. Bird and F. W. Fitzke, "Quantitative evaluation of fundus autofluorescence imaged "in vivo" in eyes with retinal disease," Br. J. Ophthalmol. 84, 741-745 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

F. Reinholz, R. A. Ashman and R. H. Eikelboom, "Simultaneous three wavelength imaging with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Cytometry 37, 165-170 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye," Nature 397, 520-522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

1995 (5)

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris and J. Liang, "Images of Cone Photoreceptors in the Living Human Eye," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 36, S188-S188 (1995).

P. M. Bischoff, H. J. Niederberger, B. Torok and P. Speiser, "Simultaneous Indocyanine Green and Fluorescein Angiography," Retina 15, 91-99 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Delori, C. K. Dorey, G. Staurenghi, O. Arend, D. G. Goger and J. J. Weiter, "In vivo fluorescence of the ocular fundus exhibits retinal pigment epithelium lipofuscin characteristics," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 36, 718-729 (1995).

A. von Ruckmann, F. W. Fitzke and A. C. Bird, "Distribution of fundus autofluorescence with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Br. J. Ophthalmol. 79, 407-412 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Weinhaus, J. M. Burke, F. C. Delori and D. M. Snodderly, "Comparison of Fluorescein Angiography with Microvascular Anatomy of Macaque Retinas," Exp. Eye Res. 61, 1-16 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1990 (1)

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human Photoreceptor Topography," J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

O. Packer, a. E. Hendrickson and C. a. Curcio, "Photoreceptor Topography of the Retina in the Adult Pigtail Macaque (Macaca-Nemestrina)," J. Comp. Neurol. 288, 165-183 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Artal and R. Navarro, "High-resolution imaging of the living human fovea: measurement of the intercenter cone distance by speckle interferometry," Opt. Lett. 14, 1098-1100 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

N. J. Coletta and D. R. Williams, "Psychophysical Estimate of Parafoveal Cone Spacing," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A Opt. Image Sci. Vis. 3, P92-P93 (1986).

1984 (1)

L. Feeney-Burns, E. S. Hilderbrand and S. Eldridge, "Aging Human Rpe - Morphometric Analysis of Macular, Equatorial, and Peripheral Cells," Invest. Ophthl. Vis. Sci. 25, 195-200 (1984).

1966 (1)

A. F. Fuchs and R. A. Robinson, "A method for measuring horizontal and vertical eye movement chronically in the monkey," J. Appl. Physiol. 21, 1068-1070 (1966).
[PubMed]

Ahnelt, P.

E. J. Fernandez, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aragon, J. L.

Arend, O.

F. C. Delori, C. K. Dorey, G. Staurenghi, O. Arend, D. G. Goger and J. J. Weiter, "In vivo fluorescence of the ocular fundus exhibits retinal pigment epithelium lipofuscin characteristics," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 36, 718-729 (1995).

Artal, P.

Ashman, R. A.

F. Reinholz, R. A. Ashman and R. H. Eikelboom, "Simultaneous three wavelength imaging with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Cytometry 37, 165-170 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baehr, W.

Y. Imanishi, D. W. Piston, W. Baehr, and K. Palczewski, "Noninvasive two-photon imaging reveals retinyl ester storage structures in the eye," J. Cell. Biol. 164, 373-383 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bellman, C.

F. G. Holz, C. Bellman, S. Staudt, F. Schutt and H. E. Volcker, "Fundus autofluorescence and development of geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1051-1056 (2001).

Bigelow, C. E.

Bindewald, A.

A. Bindewald, J. J. Jorzik, A. Loesch, F. Schutt and F. G. Holz, "Visualization of retinal pigment epithelial cells in vivo using digital high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Am. J. Opthalmol. 137, 556-558 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bird, A. C.

N. Lois, A. S. Halfyard, A. C. Bird, G. E. Holder and F. W. Fitzke, "Fundus autofluorescence in Stargardt macular dystrophy-fundus flavimaculatus," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 138, 55-63 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Lois, A. S. Halfyard, A. C. Bird and F. W. Fitzke, "Quantitative evaluation of fundus autofluorescence imaged "in vivo" in eyes with retinal disease," Br. J. Ophthalmol. 84, 741-745 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. von Ruckmann, F. W. Fitzke and A. C. Bird, "Distribution of fundus autofluorescence with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Br. J. Ophthalmol. 79, 407-412 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bischoff, P. M.

P. M. Bischoff, H. J. Niederberger, B. Torok and P. Speiser, "Simultaneous Indocyanine Green and Fluorescein Angiography," Retina 15, 91-99 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bower, B. A.

Bradu, A.

Burke, J. M.

J. M. Burke and L. M. Hjelmeland, "Mosaicism of the retinal pigment epithelium: seeing the small picture," Mol. Interv. 5, 241-249 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Weinhaus, J. M. Burke, F. C. Delori and D. M. Snodderly, "Comparison of Fluorescein Angiography with Microvascular Anatomy of Macaque Retinas," Exp. Eye Res. 61, 1-16 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, M. C. W.

Carroll, J.

J. I. Wolfing, M. Chung, J. Carroll, A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "High-resolution retinal imaging of cone-rod dystrophy," Ophthalmology 113, 1014-1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz and D. R. Williams, "Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic," J. Neurosci. 26, 722-722 (2006).

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll and D. R. Williams, "The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic," J. Vis. 5, 632-639 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz and D. R. Williams, "Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: An alternate cause of color blindness," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 8461-8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

Chen, L.

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll and D. R. Williams, "The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic," J. Vis. 5, 632-639 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yoon, H. Hofer, L. Chen, B. Singer, J. Porter, Y. Yamauchi, N. Doble and D. R. Williams, "Dynamic correction of the eye's aberration with the Rochester 2nd generation adaptive optics system.," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, S99-S99 (2001).

H. Hofer, L. Chen, G. Y. Yoon, B. Singer, Y. Yamauchi and D. R. Williams, "Improvement in retinal image quality with dynamic correction of the eye's aberrations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 631-643 (2001).

Choi, S.

Chung, M.

J. I. Wolfing, M. Chung, J. Carroll, A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "High-resolution retinal imaging of cone-rod dystrophy," Ophthalmology 113, 1014-1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Coletta, N. J.

N. J. Coletta and D. R. Williams, "Psychophysical Estimate of Parafoveal Cone Spacing," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A Opt. Image Sci. Vis. 3, P92-P93 (1986).

Cordeiro, M. F.

M. F. Cordeiro, L. Guo, V. Luong, G. Harding, W. Wang, H. E. Jones, S. E. Moss, A. M. Sillito and F. W. Fitzke, "Real-time imaging of single nerve cell apoptosis in retinal neurodegeneration," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 13352-13356 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human Photoreceptor Topography," J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cushion, J.

J. Cushion, F. N. Reinholz and B. A. Patterson, "General purpose control system for scanning laser ophthalmoscopes," Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 31, 241-245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dacey, D. M.

D. M. Dacey, B. B. Peterson, F. R. Robinson, P. D. Gamlin, "Fireworks in the primate retina: In vitro photodynamics reveals diverse LGN-projecting ganglion cell types," Neuron 37, 15-27 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dainty, C.

Delori, F. C.

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger and C. K. Dorey, "Age-related accumulation and spatial distribution of lipofuscin in RPE of normal subjects," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1855-1866 (2001).

R. S. Weinhaus, J. M. Burke, F. C. Delori and D. M. Snodderly, "Comparison of Fluorescein Angiography with Microvascular Anatomy of Macaque Retinas," Exp. Eye Res. 61, 1-16 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Delori, C. K. Dorey, G. Staurenghi, O. Arend, D. G. Goger and J. J. Weiter, "In vivo fluorescence of the ocular fundus exhibits retinal pigment epithelium lipofuscin characteristics," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 36, 718-729 (1995).

F. C. Delori, "Spectrophotometer for noninvasive measurement of intrinsic fluorescence and reflectance of the ocular fundus.," Appl. Opt. 33, 7439-7452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doble, N.

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll and D. R. Williams, "The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic," J. Vis. 5, 632-639 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yoon, H. Hofer, L. Chen, B. Singer, J. Porter, Y. Yamauchi, N. Doble and D. R. Williams, "Dynamic correction of the eye's aberration with the Rochester 2nd generation adaptive optics system.," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, S99-S99 (2001).

Donnelly, W. J.

Dorey, C. K.

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger and C. K. Dorey, "Age-related accumulation and spatial distribution of lipofuscin in RPE of normal subjects," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1855-1866 (2001).

F. C. Delori, C. K. Dorey, G. Staurenghi, O. Arend, D. G. Goger and J. J. Weiter, "In vivo fluorescence of the ocular fundus exhibits retinal pigment epithelium lipofuscin characteristics," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 36, 718-729 (1995).

Drexler, W.

E. J. Fernandez, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernandez, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto and P. Artal, "Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kartner, J. S. Schuman and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duker, J. S.

Eikelboom, R. H.

F. Reinholz, R. A. Ashman and R. H. Eikelboom, "Simultaneous three wavelength imaging with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Cytometry 37, 165-170 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eldridge, S.

L. Feeney-Burns, E. S. Hilderbrand and S. Eldridge, "Aging Human Rpe - Morphometric Analysis of Macular, Equatorial, and Peripheral Cells," Invest. Ophthl. Vis. Sci. 25, 195-200 (1984).

Feeney-Burns, L.

L. Feeney-Burns, E. S. Hilderbrand and S. Eldridge, "Aging Human Rpe - Morphometric Analysis of Macular, Equatorial, and Peripheral Cells," Invest. Ophthl. Vis. Sci. 25, 195-200 (1984).

Fercher, A. F.

Ferguson, R. D.

Fernandez, E. J.

E. J. Fernandez, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernandez, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto and P. Artal, "Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzke, F. W.

M. F. Cordeiro, L. Guo, V. Luong, G. Harding, W. Wang, H. E. Jones, S. E. Moss, A. M. Sillito and F. W. Fitzke, "Real-time imaging of single nerve cell apoptosis in retinal neurodegeneration," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 13352-13356 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Lois, A. S. Halfyard, A. C. Bird, G. E. Holder and F. W. Fitzke, "Fundus autofluorescence in Stargardt macular dystrophy-fundus flavimaculatus," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 138, 55-63 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Lois, A. S. Halfyard, A. C. Bird and F. W. Fitzke, "Quantitative evaluation of fundus autofluorescence imaged "in vivo" in eyes with retinal disease," Br. J. Ophthalmol. 84, 741-745 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. von Ruckmann, F. W. Fitzke and A. C. Bird, "Distribution of fundus autofluorescence with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Br. J. Ophthalmol. 79, 407-412 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuchs, A. F.

A. F. Fuchs and R. A. Robinson, "A method for measuring horizontal and vertical eye movement chronically in the monkey," J. Appl. Physiol. 21, 1068-1070 (1966).
[PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gamlin, P. D.

D. M. Dacey, B. B. Peterson, F. R. Robinson, P. D. Gamlin, "Fireworks in the primate retina: In vitro photodynamics reveals diverse LGN-projecting ganglion cell types," Neuron 37, 15-27 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gendron, E.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J. F. Le Gargasson and P. Lena, "Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ghanta, R. K.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kartner, J. S. Schuman and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glanc, M.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J. F. Le Gargasson and P. Lena, "Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goger, D. G.

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger and C. K. Dorey, "Age-related accumulation and spatial distribution of lipofuscin in RPE of normal subjects," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1855-1866 (2001).

F. C. Delori, C. K. Dorey, G. Staurenghi, O. Arend, D. G. Goger and J. J. Weiter, "In vivo fluorescence of the ocular fundus exhibits retinal pigment epithelium lipofuscin characteristics," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 36, 718-729 (1995).

Guo, L.

M. F. Cordeiro, L. Guo, V. Luong, G. Harding, W. Wang, H. E. Jones, S. E. Moss, A. M. Sillito and F. W. Fitzke, "Real-time imaging of single nerve cell apoptosis in retinal neurodegeneration," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 13352-13356 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halfyard, A. S.

N. Lois, A. S. Halfyard, A. C. Bird, G. E. Holder and F. W. Fitzke, "Fundus autofluorescence in Stargardt macular dystrophy-fundus flavimaculatus," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 138, 55-63 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Lois, A. S. Halfyard, A. C. Bird and F. W. Fitzke, "Quantitative evaluation of fundus autofluorescence imaged "in vivo" in eyes with retinal disease," Br. J. Ophthalmol. 84, 741-745 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hammer, D. X.

Harding, G.

M. F. Cordeiro, L. Guo, V. Luong, G. Harding, W. Wang, H. E. Jones, S. E. Moss, A. M. Sillito and F. W. Fitzke, "Real-time imaging of single nerve cell apoptosis in retinal neurodegeneration," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 13352-13356 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hebert, T. J.

Hendrickson, A. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human Photoreceptor Topography," J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

E. J. Fernandez, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernandez, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto and P. Artal, "Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hilderbrand, E. S.

L. Feeney-Burns, E. S. Hilderbrand and S. Eldridge, "Aging Human Rpe - Morphometric Analysis of Macular, Equatorial, and Peripheral Cells," Invest. Ophthl. Vis. Sci. 25, 195-200 (1984).

Hjelmeland, L. M.

J. M. Burke and L. M. Hjelmeland, "Mosaicism of the retinal pigment epithelium: seeing the small picture," Mol. Interv. 5, 241-249 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofer, H.

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz and D. R. Williams, "Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic," J. Neurosci. 26, 722-722 (2006).

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz and D. R. Williams, "Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: An alternate cause of color blindness," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 8461-8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams and H. Hofer, "The Reflectance of Single Cones in the Living Human Eye," Invest. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 4580-4492 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Hofer, L. Chen, G. Y. Yoon, B. Singer, Y. Yamauchi and D. R. Williams, "Improvement in retinal image quality with dynamic correction of the eye's aberrations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 631-643 (2001).

G. Yoon, H. Hofer, L. Chen, B. Singer, J. Porter, Y. Yamauchi, N. Doble and D. R. Williams, "Dynamic correction of the eye's aberration with the Rochester 2nd generation adaptive optics system.," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, S99-S99 (2001).

H. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J. L. Aragon and D. R. Williams, "Dynamics of the eye's wave aberration," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 497-506 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hofer, H. J.

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll and D. R. Williams, "The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic," J. Vis. 5, 632-639 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holder, G. E.

N. Lois, A. S. Halfyard, A. C. Bird, G. E. Holder and F. W. Fitzke, "Fundus autofluorescence in Stargardt macular dystrophy-fundus flavimaculatus," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 138, 55-63 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holz, F. G.

A. Bindewald, J. J. Jorzik, A. Loesch, F. Schutt and F. G. Holz, "Visualization of retinal pigment epithelial cells in vivo using digital high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Am. J. Opthalmol. 137, 556-558 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Holz, C. Bellman, S. Staudt, F. Schutt and H. E. Volcker, "Fundus autofluorescence and development of geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1051-1056 (2001).

Iftimia, N. V.

Imanishi, Y.

Y. Imanishi, D. W. Piston, W. Baehr, and K. Palczewski, "Noninvasive two-photon imaging reveals retinyl ester storage structures in the eye," J. Cell. Biol. 164, 373-383 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Jones, H. E.

M. F. Cordeiro, L. Guo, V. Luong, G. Harding, W. Wang, H. E. Jones, S. E. Moss, A. M. Sillito and F. W. Fitzke, "Real-time imaging of single nerve cell apoptosis in retinal neurodegeneration," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 13352-13356 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, S. M.

Jonnal, R. S.

Jorzik, J. J.

A. Bindewald, J. J. Jorzik, A. Loesch, F. Schutt and F. G. Holz, "Visualization of retinal pigment epithelial cells in vivo using digital high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Am. J. Opthalmol. 137, 556-558 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kalina, R. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human Photoreceptor Topography," J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kartner, F. X.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kartner, J. S. Schuman and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, T. H.

Kowalczyk, A.

Lacombe, F.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J. F. Le Gargasson and P. Lena, "Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lafaille, D.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J. F. Le Gargasson and P. Lena, "Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laut, S.

Le Gargasson, J. F.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J. F. Le Gargasson and P. Lena, "Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R.

E. J. Fernandez, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lena, P.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J. F. Le Gargasson and P. Lena, "Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lennie, P.

A. Roorda, A. B. Metha, P. Lennie and D. R. Williams, "Packing arrangement of the three cone classes in primate retina," Vision Res. 41, 1291-1306 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leung, I. Y. F.

D. M. Snodderly, M. M. Sandstrom, I. Y. F. Leung, C. I. Zucker and M. Neuringer, "Retinal pigment epithelial cell distribution in central retina of rhesus monkeys," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 2815-2818 (2002).

Liang, J.

Loesch, A.

A. Bindewald, J. J. Jorzik, A. Loesch, F. Schutt and F. G. Holz, "Visualization of retinal pigment epithelial cells in vivo using digital high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Am. J. Opthalmol. 137, 556-558 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lois, N.

N. Lois, A. S. Halfyard, A. C. Bird, G. E. Holder and F. W. Fitzke, "Fundus autofluorescence in Stargardt macular dystrophy-fundus flavimaculatus," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 138, 55-63 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Lois, A. S. Halfyard, A. C. Bird and F. W. Fitzke, "Quantitative evaluation of fundus autofluorescence imaged "in vivo" in eyes with retinal disease," Br. J. Ophthalmol. 84, 741-745 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luong, V.

M. F. Cordeiro, L. Guo, V. Luong, G. Harding, W. Wang, H. E. Jones, S. E. Moss, A. M. Sillito and F. W. Fitzke, "Real-time imaging of single nerve cell apoptosis in retinal neurodegeneration," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 13352-13356 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merino, D.

Metha, A. B.

A. Roorda, A. B. Metha, P. Lennie and D. R. Williams, "Packing arrangement of the three cone classes in primate retina," Vision Res. 41, 1291-1306 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, D.

Miller, D. T.

Y. Zhang, J. T. Rha, R. S. Jonnal and D. T. Miller, "Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina," Opt. Express 13, 4792-4811 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris and J. Liang, "Images of Cone Photoreceptors in the Living Human Eye," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 36, S188-S188 (1995).

Morgner, U.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kartner, J. S. Schuman and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morris, G. M.

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris and J. Liang, "Images of Cone Photoreceptors in the Living Human Eye," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 36, S188-S188 (1995).

Moss, S. E.

M. F. Cordeiro, L. Guo, V. Luong, G. Harding, W. Wang, H. E. Jones, S. E. Moss, A. M. Sillito and F. W. Fitzke, "Real-time imaging of single nerve cell apoptosis in retinal neurodegeneration," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 13352-13356 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nassif, N. A.

Navarro, R.

Neitz, J.

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz and D. R. Williams, "Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic," J. Neurosci. 26, 722-722 (2006).

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz and D. R. Williams, "Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: An alternate cause of color blindness," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 8461-8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neitz, M.

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz and D. R. Williams, "Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic," J. Neurosci. 26, 722-722 (2006).

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz and D. R. Williams, "Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: An alternate cause of color blindness," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 8461-8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuringer, M.

D. M. Snodderly, M. M. Sandstrom, I. Y. F. Leung, C. I. Zucker and M. Neuringer, "Retinal pigment epithelial cell distribution in central retina of rhesus monkeys," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 2815-2818 (2002).

Niederberger, H. J.

P. M. Bischoff, H. J. Niederberger, B. Torok and P. Speiser, "Simultaneous Indocyanine Green and Fluorescein Angiography," Retina 15, 91-99 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olivier, S. S.

Packer, O.

O. Packer, a. E. Hendrickson and C. a. Curcio, "Photoreceptor Topography of the Retina in the Adult Pigtail Macaque (Macaca-Nemestrina)," J. Comp. Neurol. 288, 165-183 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palczewski, K.

Y. Imanishi, D. W. Piston, W. Baehr, and K. Palczewski, "Noninvasive two-photon imaging reveals retinyl ester storage structures in the eye," J. Cell. Biol. 164, 373-383 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pallikaris, A.

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams and H. Hofer, "The Reflectance of Single Cones in the Living Human Eye," Invest. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 4580-4492 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, B. A.

J. Cushion, F. N. Reinholz and B. A. Patterson, "General purpose control system for scanning laser ophthalmoscopes," Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 31, 241-245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peterson, B. B.

D. M. Dacey, B. B. Peterson, F. R. Robinson, P. D. Gamlin, "Fireworks in the primate retina: In vitro photodynamics reveals diverse LGN-projecting ganglion cell types," Neuron 37, 15-27 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piston, D. W.

Y. Imanishi, D. W. Piston, W. Baehr, and K. Palczewski, "Noninvasive two-photon imaging reveals retinyl ester storage structures in the eye," J. Cell. Biol. 164, 373-383 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podoleanu, A. G.

Porter, J.

G. Yoon, H. Hofer, L. Chen, B. Singer, J. Porter, Y. Yamauchi, N. Doble and D. R. Williams, "Dynamic correction of the eye's aberration with the Rochester 2nd generation adaptive optics system.," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, S99-S99 (2001).

Povazay, B.

E. J. Fernandez, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prieto, P. M.

Putnam, N. M.

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll and D. R. Williams, "The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic," J. Vis. 5, 632-639 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Queener, H.

Reinholz, F.

F. Reinholz, R. A. Ashman and R. H. Eikelboom, "Simultaneous three wavelength imaging with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Cytometry 37, 165-170 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reinholz, F. N.

J. Cushion, F. N. Reinholz and B. A. Patterson, "General purpose control system for scanning laser ophthalmoscopes," Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 31, 241-245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rha, J. T.

Robinson, F. R.

D. M. Dacey, B. B. Peterson, F. R. Robinson, P. D. Gamlin, "Fireworks in the primate retina: In vitro photodynamics reveals diverse LGN-projecting ganglion cell types," Neuron 37, 15-27 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, R. A.

A. F. Fuchs and R. A. Robinson, "A method for measuring horizontal and vertical eye movement chronically in the monkey," J. Appl. Physiol. 21, 1068-1070 (1966).
[PubMed]

Romero-Borja, F.

Roorda, A.

J. I. Wolfing, M. Chung, J. Carroll, A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "High-resolution retinal imaging of cone-rod dystrophy," Ophthalmology 113, 1014-1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert and M. C. W. Campbell, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 405-412 (2002).
[PubMed]

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "Optical fiber properties of individual human cones," J. Vis. 2, 404-412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Roorda, A. B. Metha, P. Lennie and D. R. Williams, "Packing arrangement of the three cone classes in primate retina," Vision Res. 41, 1291-1306 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye," Nature 397, 520-522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandstrom, M. M.

D. M. Snodderly, M. M. Sandstrom, I. Y. F. Leung, C. I. Zucker and M. Neuringer, "Retinal pigment epithelial cell distribution in central retina of rhesus monkeys," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 2815-2818 (2002).

Sattmann, H.

E. J. Fernandez, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernandez, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto and P. Artal, "Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kartner, J. S. Schuman and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schutt, F.

A. Bindewald, J. J. Jorzik, A. Loesch, F. Schutt and F. G. Holz, "Visualization of retinal pigment epithelial cells in vivo using digital high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Am. J. Opthalmol. 137, 556-558 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Holz, C. Bellman, S. Staudt, F. Schutt and H. E. Volcker, "Fundus autofluorescence and development of geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1051-1056 (2001).

Sillito, A. M.

M. F. Cordeiro, L. Guo, V. Luong, G. Harding, W. Wang, H. E. Jones, S. E. Moss, A. M. Sillito and F. W. Fitzke, "Real-time imaging of single nerve cell apoptosis in retinal neurodegeneration," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 13352-13356 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singer, B.

G. Yoon, H. Hofer, L. Chen, B. Singer, J. Porter, Y. Yamauchi, N. Doble and D. R. Williams, "Dynamic correction of the eye's aberration with the Rochester 2nd generation adaptive optics system.," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, S99-S99 (2001).

H. Hofer, L. Chen, G. Y. Yoon, B. Singer, Y. Yamauchi and D. R. Williams, "Improvement in retinal image quality with dynamic correction of the eye's aberrations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 631-643 (2001).

H. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J. L. Aragon and D. R. Williams, "Dynamics of the eye's wave aberration," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 497-506 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sloan, K. R.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human Photoreceptor Topography," J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snodderly, D. M.

D. M. Snodderly, M. M. Sandstrom, I. Y. F. Leung, C. I. Zucker and M. Neuringer, "Retinal pigment epithelial cell distribution in central retina of rhesus monkeys," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 2815-2818 (2002).

R. S. Weinhaus, J. M. Burke, F. C. Delori and D. M. Snodderly, "Comparison of Fluorescein Angiography with Microvascular Anatomy of Macaque Retinas," Exp. Eye Res. 61, 1-16 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Speiser, P.

P. M. Bischoff, H. J. Niederberger, B. Torok and P. Speiser, "Simultaneous Indocyanine Green and Fluorescein Angiography," Retina 15, 91-99 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V. J.

Staudt, S.

F. G. Holz, C. Bellman, S. Staudt, F. Schutt and H. E. Volcker, "Fundus autofluorescence and development of geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1051-1056 (2001).

Staurenghi, G.

F. C. Delori, C. K. Dorey, G. Staurenghi, O. Arend, D. G. Goger and J. J. Weiter, "In vivo fluorescence of the ocular fundus exhibits retinal pigment epithelium lipofuscin characteristics," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 36, 718-729 (1995).

Strauss, O.

O. Strauss, "The retinal pigment epithelium in visual function," Physiol. Rev. 85, 845-881 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torok, B.

P. M. Bischoff, H. J. Niederberger, B. Torok and P. Speiser, "Simultaneous Indocyanine Green and Fluorescein Angiography," Retina 15, 91-99 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unterhuber, A.

E. J. Fernandez, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernandez, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto and P. Artal, "Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ustun, T. E.

Vargas-Martin, F.

Volcker, H. E.

F. G. Holz, C. Bellman, S. Staudt, F. Schutt and H. E. Volcker, "Fundus autofluorescence and development of geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1051-1056 (2001).

von Ruckmann, A.

A. von Ruckmann, F. W. Fitzke and A. C. Bird, "Distribution of fundus autofluorescence with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Br. J. Ophthalmol. 79, 407-412 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, W.

M. F. Cordeiro, L. Guo, V. Luong, G. Harding, W. Wang, H. E. Jones, S. E. Moss, A. M. Sillito and F. W. Fitzke, "Real-time imaging of single nerve cell apoptosis in retinal neurodegeneration," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 13352-13356 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinhaus, R. S.

R. S. Weinhaus, J. M. Burke, F. C. Delori and D. M. Snodderly, "Comparison of Fluorescein Angiography with Microvascular Anatomy of Macaque Retinas," Exp. Eye Res. 61, 1-16 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiter, J. J.

F. C. Delori, C. K. Dorey, G. Staurenghi, O. Arend, D. G. Goger and J. J. Weiter, "In vivo fluorescence of the ocular fundus exhibits retinal pigment epithelium lipofuscin characteristics," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 36, 718-729 (1995).

Werner, J. S.

Williams, D. R.

J. I. Wolfing, M. Chung, J. Carroll, A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "High-resolution retinal imaging of cone-rod dystrophy," Ophthalmology 113, 1014-1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz and D. R. Williams, "Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic," J. Neurosci. 26, 722-722 (2006).

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll and D. R. Williams, "The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic," J. Vis. 5, 632-639 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz and D. R. Williams, "Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: An alternate cause of color blindness," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 8461-8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams and H. Hofer, "The Reflectance of Single Cones in the Living Human Eye," Invest. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 4580-4492 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "Optical fiber properties of individual human cones," J. Vis. 2, 404-412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Roorda, A. B. Metha, P. Lennie and D. R. Williams, "Packing arrangement of the three cone classes in primate retina," Vision Res. 41, 1291-1306 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hofer, L. Chen, G. Y. Yoon, B. Singer, Y. Yamauchi and D. R. Williams, "Improvement in retinal image quality with dynamic correction of the eye's aberrations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 631-643 (2001).

G. Yoon, H. Hofer, L. Chen, B. Singer, J. Porter, Y. Yamauchi, N. Doble and D. R. Williams, "Dynamic correction of the eye's aberration with the Rochester 2nd generation adaptive optics system.," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, S99-S99 (2001).

H. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J. L. Aragon and D. R. Williams, "Dynamics of the eye's wave aberration," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 497-506 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye," Nature 397, 520-522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liang, D. R. Williams and D. Miller, "Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884-2892 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Liang and D. R. Williams, "Aberrations and retinal image quality of the normal human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2873-2883 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris and J. Liang, "Images of Cone Photoreceptors in the Living Human Eye," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 36, S188-S188 (1995).

N. J. Coletta and D. R. Williams, "Psychophysical Estimate of Parafoveal Cone Spacing," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A Opt. Image Sci. Vis. 3, P92-P93 (1986).

Wojtkowski, M.

Wolfing, J. I.

J. I. Wolfing, M. Chung, J. Carroll, A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "High-resolution retinal imaging of cone-rod dystrophy," Ophthalmology 113, 1014-1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamauchi, Y.

G. Yoon, H. Hofer, L. Chen, B. Singer, J. Porter, Y. Yamauchi, N. Doble and D. R. Williams, "Dynamic correction of the eye's aberration with the Rochester 2nd generation adaptive optics system.," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, S99-S99 (2001).

H. Hofer, L. Chen, G. Y. Yoon, B. Singer, Y. Yamauchi and D. R. Williams, "Improvement in retinal image quality with dynamic correction of the eye's aberrations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 631-643 (2001).

Yoon, G.

G. Yoon, H. Hofer, L. Chen, B. Singer, J. Porter, Y. Yamauchi, N. Doble and D. R. Williams, "Dynamic correction of the eye's aberration with the Rochester 2nd generation adaptive optics system.," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, S99-S99 (2001).

Yoon, G. Y.

H. Hofer, L. Chen, G. Y. Yoon, B. Singer, Y. Yamauchi and D. R. Williams, "Improvement in retinal image quality with dynamic correction of the eye's aberrations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 631-643 (2001).

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, M. T.

Zucker, C. I.

D. M. Snodderly, M. M. Sandstrom, I. Y. F. Leung, C. I. Zucker and M. Neuringer, "Retinal pigment epithelial cell distribution in central retina of rhesus monkeys," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 2815-2818 (2002).

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

N. Lois, A. S. Halfyard, A. C. Bird, G. E. Holder and F. W. Fitzke, "Fundus autofluorescence in Stargardt macular dystrophy-fundus flavimaculatus," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 138, 55-63 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Opthalmol. (1)

A. Bindewald, J. J. Jorzik, A. Loesch, F. Schutt and F. G. Holz, "Visualization of retinal pigment epithelial cells in vivo using digital high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Am. J. Opthalmol. 137, 556-558 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (2)

A. von Ruckmann, F. W. Fitzke and A. C. Bird, "Distribution of fundus autofluorescence with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Br. J. Ophthalmol. 79, 407-412 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Lois, A. S. Halfyard, A. C. Bird and F. W. Fitzke, "Quantitative evaluation of fundus autofluorescence imaged "in vivo" in eyes with retinal disease," Br. J. Ophthalmol. 84, 741-745 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin Experiment Ophthalmol (1)

J. Cushion, F. N. Reinholz and B. A. Patterson, "General purpose control system for scanning laser ophthalmoscopes," Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 31, 241-245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cytometry (1)

F. Reinholz, R. A. Ashman and R. H. Eikelboom, "Simultaneous three wavelength imaging with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Cytometry 37, 165-170 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Exp. Eye Res. (1)

R. S. Weinhaus, J. M. Burke, F. C. Delori and D. M. Snodderly, "Comparison of Fluorescein Angiography with Microvascular Anatomy of Macaque Retinas," Exp. Eye Res. 61, 1-16 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (6)

F. G. Holz, C. Bellman, S. Staudt, F. Schutt and H. E. Volcker, "Fundus autofluorescence and development of geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1051-1056 (2001).

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger and C. K. Dorey, "Age-related accumulation and spatial distribution of lipofuscin in RPE of normal subjects," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1855-1866 (2001).

F. C. Delori, C. K. Dorey, G. Staurenghi, O. Arend, D. G. Goger and J. J. Weiter, "In vivo fluorescence of the ocular fundus exhibits retinal pigment epithelium lipofuscin characteristics," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 36, 718-729 (1995).

D. M. Snodderly, M. M. Sandstrom, I. Y. F. Leung, C. I. Zucker and M. Neuringer, "Retinal pigment epithelial cell distribution in central retina of rhesus monkeys," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 2815-2818 (2002).

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris and J. Liang, "Images of Cone Photoreceptors in the Living Human Eye," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 36, S188-S188 (1995).

G. Yoon, H. Hofer, L. Chen, B. Singer, J. Porter, Y. Yamauchi, N. Doble and D. R. Williams, "Dynamic correction of the eye's aberration with the Rochester 2nd generation adaptive optics system.," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, S99-S99 (2001).

Invest. Ophthl. Vis. Sci. (1)

L. Feeney-Burns, E. S. Hilderbrand and S. Eldridge, "Aging Human Rpe - Morphometric Analysis of Macular, Equatorial, and Peripheral Cells," Invest. Ophthl. Vis. Sci. 25, 195-200 (1984).

Invest. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams and H. Hofer, "The Reflectance of Single Cones in the Living Human Eye," Invest. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 4580-4492 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Physiol. (1)

A. F. Fuchs and R. A. Robinson, "A method for measuring horizontal and vertical eye movement chronically in the monkey," J. Appl. Physiol. 21, 1068-1070 (1966).
[PubMed]

J. Cell. Biol. (1)

Y. Imanishi, D. W. Piston, W. Baehr, and K. Palczewski, "Noninvasive two-photon imaging reveals retinyl ester storage structures in the eye," J. Cell. Biol. 164, 373-383 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Comp. Neurol. (2)

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human Photoreceptor Topography," J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Packer, a. E. Hendrickson and C. a. Curcio, "Photoreceptor Topography of the Retina in the Adult Pigtail Macaque (Macaca-Nemestrina)," J. Comp. Neurol. 288, 165-183 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci. (1)

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz and D. R. Williams, "Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic," J. Neurosci. 26, 722-722 (2006).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (5)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A Opt. Image Sci. Vis. (1)

N. J. Coletta and D. R. Williams, "Psychophysical Estimate of Parafoveal Cone Spacing," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A Opt. Image Sci. Vis. 3, P92-P93 (1986).

J. Vis. (2)

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "Optical fiber properties of individual human cones," J. Vis. 2, 404-412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll and D. R. Williams, "The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic," J. Vis. 5, 632-639 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mol. Interv. (1)

J. M. Burke and L. M. Hjelmeland, "Mosaicism of the retinal pigment epithelium: seeing the small picture," Mol. Interv. 5, 241-249 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Med (1)

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kartner, J. S. Schuman and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye," Nature 397, 520-522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuron (1)

D. M. Dacey, B. B. Peterson, F. R. Robinson, P. D. Gamlin, "Fireworks in the primate retina: In vitro photodynamics reveals diverse LGN-projecting ganglion cell types," Neuron 37, 15-27 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology (1)

J. I. Wolfing, M. Chung, J. Carroll, A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "High-resolution retinal imaging of cone-rod dystrophy," Ophthalmology 113, 1014-1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J. F. Le Gargasson and P. Lena, "Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (8)

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia and T. E. Ustun, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope for stabilized retinal imaging," Opt. Express 14, 3354-3367 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Merino, C. Dainty, A. Bradu and A. G. Podoleanu, "Adaptive optics enhanced simultaneous en-face optical coherence tomography and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 14, 3345-3353 (2006).
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Y. Zhang, J. T. Rha, R. S. Jonnal and D. T. Miller, "Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina," Opt. Express 13, 4792-4811 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. T. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut and J. S. Werner, "Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging," Opt. Express 13, 8532-8546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. a. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl and A. F. Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156-2165 (2004).
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B. Cense and N. A. Nassif, "Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2435-2447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
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A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert and M. C. W. Campbell, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 405-412 (2002).
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Physiol. Rev. (1)

O. Strauss, "The retinal pigment epithelium in visual function," Physiol. Rev. 85, 845-881 (2005).
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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2)

M. F. Cordeiro, L. Guo, V. Luong, G. Harding, W. Wang, H. E. Jones, S. E. Moss, A. M. Sillito and F. W. Fitzke, "Real-time imaging of single nerve cell apoptosis in retinal neurodegeneration," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 13352-13356 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz and D. R. Williams, "Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: An alternate cause of color blindness," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 8461-8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Retina (1)

P. M. Bischoff, H. J. Niederberger, B. Torok and P. Speiser, "Simultaneous Indocyanine Green and Fluorescein Angiography," Retina 15, 91-99 (1995).
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A. Roorda, A. B. Metha, P. Lennie and D. R. Williams, "Packing arrangement of the three cone classes in primate retina," Vision Res. 41, 1291-1306 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. Jiang, N. Ling, Y. Zhang, Y. Zeping, R. Xuejun, C. Gaun, C. Wang, L. Xue and E. Li, "Medical and Industrial Application of Adaptive Optics in Institute of Optics and Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences," in 5th International Workshop on Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine, (2005)

ANSI, American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers ANSI Z136.1-2000, (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, FL 2000).

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulas (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1982), Chap. 2.

Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The fluorescence Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope. L: lenses, M: spherical mirrors, FM: fold mirrors, CM: cold mirrors, FC: fiber collimators, DBS: dichroic beam splitters, CP: confocal pinholes, LD: 830-nm fiber coupled laser diode, LDB: laser diode beacon, BS 1: 90/10 parallel plate AR coated beam splitter, DM: MEMS deformable mirror, TL: ophthalmic trial lens, PBS: pellicle beam splitter, VS: vertical scanner (26 Hz), HS: horizontal scanner (15.1 kHz), F: band pass fluorescence filter, PMT: photomultiplier tube, APD: avalanche photodiode, LEI Box: scanner control electronics.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Ganglion cell bodies and axons labeled with rhodamine dextran dye. The image was taken at an eccentricity of approximately 17 degrees nasal and 5 degrees inferior, with the optic disk to the upper right of the image. (b) Ganglion cells labeled with rhodamine dextran dye at an eccentricity of approximately 10 degrees inferior along the vertical meridian. (c) Ganglion cells labeled with alexa 594 dye at an eccentricity of approximately 10 degrees infero-nasal, 37 days after labeling. (d) From the same location, taken 77 days after image (c) showing at least four ganglion cells that remained labeled. (a, b, c) taken without AO correction, (d) with closed loop AO correction, (a, b) taken without dual registration and (c, d) taken with dual registration. The images were constructed from (a) 500 frames, (b) 200 frames, (c) 512 frames, (d) 1000 frames. Scale bars: (a, b) 100 μm, (c, d) 50 μm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Located at an eccentricity of approximately 19 degrees nasal and 7 degrees inferior, ganglion cells labeled with rhodamine dextran dye. The image was taken before exposure to intense light, and cells were excited at 530 nm. The green box shows the approximate size of the exposed region (b). Increased intensity of cell fluorescence due to a 20-minute exposure of a 1-degree square area with 530-nm excitation. Both images were taken without adaptive optics or dual registration. 300 frames were used to create both images. Scale bars are 100 μm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

RPE cells imaged at two retinal locations: (a) At an eccentricity of approximately 10 degrees infero-nasal at the same location as ganglion cells in Fig. 2 (c) and (d). (b) Centered at the fovea. Both images taken with the use of adaptive optics, dual registration, and were created with 1000 frames. Scale bars are 75 μm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Two-dimensional power spectrum corresponding to the RPE mosaic in Fig. 4 (a). (b) Two-dimensional power spectrum corresponding to the RPE mosaic in Fig. 4 (b).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Intravenous injection of sodium fluorescein dye centered at the fovea with a 3.5-degree field of view. The image was taken without adaptive optics, and 1918 fluorescence frames were dual registered. See linked (2 MB) movie file for real time filling of the vasculature. Scale bar is 150 μm. [Media 1]

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