Abstract

Shadow is an inseparable aspect of all natural scenes. When there are multiple light sources or multiple reflections several different shadows may overlap at the same location and create complicated patterns. Shadows are a potentially good source of information about a scene if the shadow regions can be properly identified and segmented. However, shadow region identification and segmentation is a difficult task and improperly identified shadows often interfere with machine vision tasks like object recognition and tracking. We propose here a new shadow separation and contrast enhancement method based on the polarization of light. Polarization information of the scene captured by our polarization-sensitive camera is shown to separate shadows from different light sources effectively. Such shadow separation is almost impossible to realize with conventional, polarization-insensitive imaging.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Nagao, T. Matsutyama, and Y. Ikeda, "Region extraction and shape analysis in aerial photographs," Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 10,195-223 (1979).
  2. R. Gershon, A. D. Jepson, and J. K. Tsotsos, "Ambient illumination and the determination of material changes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3,1700-1707 (1986).
  3. R. Irvin and D. Mckeown, "Methods for exploiting the relationship between buildings and their shadows in aerial imagery," IEEE Trans. on Syst. Man.Cybern. 19,1564-1575 (1989).
  4. J. M. Scanlan, D. M. Chabries, and R. W. Christiansen, "A Shadow Detection and Removal Algorithm for 2D Images," in Proc. of Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (1990) pp. 2057-2060.
  5. Y. Liow and T. Pavlidis, "Use of shadows for extracting buildings in aerial images," Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 49,242-277 (1991).
  6. C. Wang, L. Huang, and A. Rosenfeld, "Detecting clouds and cloud shadows on aerial photographs," Pattern. Recogn. Lett. 12,55-64 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Koller, K. Danilidis, and H.-H. Nagel, "Model-based object tracking in monocular image sequences of road traffic scenes," Int. J. Comput. Vis. 10,257-281 (1993).
  8. C. Jiang and M. O. Ward, "Shadow segmentation and classification in a constrained environment," CVGIP: Image Understanding 59,213-225 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Funka-Lea and R. Bajcsy, "Combining color and geometry for the active visual recognition of shadows," in Proc. Int. Conf. on Computer Vision (1995) pp. 203-209.
  10. J. Stauder, R. Melch, and J. Ostermann, "Detection of moving cast shadows for object segmentation," IEEE Trans. Multimedia 1,65-77 (1999).
  11. J. A. Marchant and C. M. Onyango, "Shadow-invariant classification for scenes illuminated by daylight," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17,1952-1961 (2000).
  12. G. Finlayson, S. Hordley, and M. S. Drew, "Removing shadows from images," in ECCV (2002) pp. 823-836.
  13. R. Cucchiara, C. Grana, M. Piccardi, and A. Prati, "Detecting moving objects, Ghosts, and shadows in video streams," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 25,1337-1342 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Gevers and H. Stokman, "Classifying color edges in video into shadow-geometry, highlight, or material transitions," IEEE Trans. Multimedia 5,237-243 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Prati, I. Mikic, M. M. Trivedi, and R. Cucchiara, "Detecting Moving Shadows: Algorithms and Evaluation," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 25,918-923 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. I. Sato, Y. Sato, and K. Ikeuchi, "Illumination from shadows," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 25,290-300 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Nadimi and B. Bhanu, "Physical models for moving shadow and object detection in video," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 26,1079-1087 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. Salvador, A. Cavallaro, and T. Ebrahimi, "Cast shadow segmentation using invariant color features," Comput. Vis. Image Understand. 95,238-259 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. M. Wang, Y. C. Chung, C. L. Chang, and S. W. Chen, "Shadow Detection and Removal for Traffic Images," in Proc. 2004 IEEE Int. Conf. on Networking, Sensing and Control (IEEE Syst. Man Cybern. Society, Taipei, Taiwan, 2004) pp. 649-654.
  20. K. Frisch, "Die polarisation des himmelslichtes als orientierender faktor bei den tanzen der bienen," Experientia 5,142-148 (1949).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. Wehner, "Polarized-light navigation by insects," Scientific American 235,106-114 (1976).
  22. R. Schwind, "Zonation of the optical environment and zonation in the rhabdom structure within the eye of the backswimmer, Notenecta glauca," Cell and Tissue Research 232,53-63 (1983).
  23. G. Horváth, "Reflection polarization patterns at flat water surfaces and their relevance for insect polarization vision," J. Theor. Biol. 175,27-37 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. P. Rowe, E. N. Jr. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Polarization-difference imaging: a biologically inspired technique for observation through scattering media," Opt. Lett. 20,608-610 (1995).
  25. J. S. Tyo, M. P. Rowe, E. N. Jr. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Target detection in optically scatter media by polarization-difference imaging," Appl. Opt. 35,1855-1870 (1996).
  26. S.-S. Lin, K. M. Yemelyanov, E. N. Jr. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Polarization Enhanced Visual Surveillance Techniques," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Networking, Sensing and Control (IEEE Syst. Man..Cybern.Society, Taipei, Taiwan, 2004),  1, pp. 216-221.
  27. S.-S. Lin, K. M. Yemelyanov, E. N. Jr. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Polarization- and specular-reflection-based, non-contact latent fingerprint imaging and lifting," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).
  28. K. M. Yemelyanov, S.-S. Lin, E. N. Jr. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Adaptive Algorithms for 2-channel polarization sensing under various polarization statistics with non-uniform distributions," Appl. Opt. (to be published).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. S. Tyo, E. N. Jr. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Colorimetric representation for use with polarization-difference imaging of objects in scattering media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15,367-374 (1998).
  30. K. M. Yemelyanov, M. A. Lo, E. N. Jr. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Display of polarization information by coherently moving dots," Opt. Express 11,1577-1584 (2003).
  31. W. G. Egan, "Dark-target retroreflection increase," in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing II, D. H. Goldstein and D. B. Chenault, eds., Proc. SPIE, 3754, 218-225 (1999).
  32. M. J. Duggin, "Imaging polarimetry in scene element discrimination," in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing II, D. H. Goldstein and D. B. Chenault, eds., Proc SPIE 3754, 108-117 (1999).
  33. D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and J. L. Pezzaniti, "Polarimetric characterization of Spectralon," in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing II, D. H. Goldstein and D. B. Chenault, eds., Proc. SPIE 3754, 126-136 (1999).
  34. E. Hecht, Optics (Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., Reading, MA, USA 1998).
  35. K. M. Yemelyanov, S.-S. Lin, W. Q. Luis, E. N. Jr. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Bio-inspired display of polarization information using selected visual cues," in Polarization Science and Remote Sensing, J. A. Shaw and J. S. Tyo eds.Proc. SPIE,  5158,71-84 (2003).
  36. A. P. Pentland, "Finding the illuminant direction," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72,448-455 (1982).
  37. Y. Zhang and Y. Yang, "Illuminant direction determination for multiple light sources," in Proc. CVPR (IEEE, 2000) pp. 269-276.
  38. J. Pinel and H. Nicolas, "Estimation 2d illuminant direction and shadow segmentation in natural video sequences," in Proc. VLBV (2001) pp. 197-202.
  39. M. W. Powell, S. Sarkar, and D. Goldgof, "A simple strategy for calibrating the geometry of light sources," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 23,1022-1027 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (3)

S. Nadimi and B. Bhanu, "Physical models for moving shadow and object detection in video," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 26,1079-1087 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Salvador, A. Cavallaro, and T. Ebrahimi, "Cast shadow segmentation using invariant color features," Comput. Vis. Image Understand. 95,238-259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S.-S. Lin, K. M. Yemelyanov, E. N. Jr. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Polarization Enhanced Visual Surveillance Techniques," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Networking, Sensing and Control (IEEE Syst. Man..Cybern.Society, Taipei, Taiwan, 2004),  1, pp. 216-221.

2003 (6)

K. M. Yemelyanov, S.-S. Lin, W. Q. Luis, E. N. Jr. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Bio-inspired display of polarization information using selected visual cues," in Polarization Science and Remote Sensing, J. A. Shaw and J. S. Tyo eds.Proc. SPIE,  5158,71-84 (2003).

K. M. Yemelyanov, M. A. Lo, E. N. Jr. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Display of polarization information by coherently moving dots," Opt. Express 11,1577-1584 (2003).

R. Cucchiara, C. Grana, M. Piccardi, and A. Prati, "Detecting moving objects, Ghosts, and shadows in video streams," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 25,1337-1342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Gevers and H. Stokman, "Classifying color edges in video into shadow-geometry, highlight, or material transitions," IEEE Trans. Multimedia 5,237-243 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Prati, I. Mikic, M. M. Trivedi, and R. Cucchiara, "Detecting Moving Shadows: Algorithms and Evaluation," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 25,918-923 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Sato, Y. Sato, and K. Ikeuchi, "Illumination from shadows," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 25,290-300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. W. Powell, S. Sarkar, and D. Goldgof, "A simple strategy for calibrating the geometry of light sources," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 23,1022-1027 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

J. Stauder, R. Melch, and J. Ostermann, "Detection of moving cast shadows for object segmentation," IEEE Trans. Multimedia 1,65-77 (1999).

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

M. P. Rowe, E. N. Jr. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Polarization-difference imaging: a biologically inspired technique for observation through scattering media," Opt. Lett. 20,608-610 (1995).

G. Horváth, "Reflection polarization patterns at flat water surfaces and their relevance for insect polarization vision," J. Theor. Biol. 175,27-37 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

C. Jiang and M. O. Ward, "Shadow segmentation and classification in a constrained environment," CVGIP: Image Understanding 59,213-225 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

D. Koller, K. Danilidis, and H.-H. Nagel, "Model-based object tracking in monocular image sequences of road traffic scenes," Int. J. Comput. Vis. 10,257-281 (1993).

1991 (2)

Y. Liow and T. Pavlidis, "Use of shadows for extracting buildings in aerial images," Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 49,242-277 (1991).

C. Wang, L. Huang, and A. Rosenfeld, "Detecting clouds and cloud shadows on aerial photographs," Pattern. Recogn. Lett. 12,55-64 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

R. Irvin and D. Mckeown, "Methods for exploiting the relationship between buildings and their shadows in aerial imagery," IEEE Trans. on Syst. Man.Cybern. 19,1564-1575 (1989).

1986 (1)

1983 (1)

R. Schwind, "Zonation of the optical environment and zonation in the rhabdom structure within the eye of the backswimmer, Notenecta glauca," Cell and Tissue Research 232,53-63 (1983).

1982 (1)

1979 (1)

M. Nagao, T. Matsutyama, and Y. Ikeda, "Region extraction and shape analysis in aerial photographs," Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 10,195-223 (1979).

1976 (1)

R. Wehner, "Polarized-light navigation by insects," Scientific American 235,106-114 (1976).

1949 (1)

K. Frisch, "Die polarisation des himmelslichtes als orientierender faktor bei den tanzen der bienen," Experientia 5,142-148 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Bhanu, B.

S. Nadimi and B. Bhanu, "Physical models for moving shadow and object detection in video," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 26,1079-1087 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cavallaro, A.

E. Salvador, A. Cavallaro, and T. Ebrahimi, "Cast shadow segmentation using invariant color features," Comput. Vis. Image Understand. 95,238-259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cucchiara, R.

R. Cucchiara, C. Grana, M. Piccardi, and A. Prati, "Detecting moving objects, Ghosts, and shadows in video streams," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 25,1337-1342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Prati, I. Mikic, M. M. Trivedi, and R. Cucchiara, "Detecting Moving Shadows: Algorithms and Evaluation," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 25,918-923 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Danilidis, K.

D. Koller, K. Danilidis, and H.-H. Nagel, "Model-based object tracking in monocular image sequences of road traffic scenes," Int. J. Comput. Vis. 10,257-281 (1993).

Ebrahimi, T.

E. Salvador, A. Cavallaro, and T. Ebrahimi, "Cast shadow segmentation using invariant color features," Comput. Vis. Image Understand. 95,238-259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Frisch, K.

K. Frisch, "Die polarisation des himmelslichtes als orientierender faktor bei den tanzen der bienen," Experientia 5,142-148 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Gershon, R.

Gevers, T.

T. Gevers and H. Stokman, "Classifying color edges in video into shadow-geometry, highlight, or material transitions," IEEE Trans. Multimedia 5,237-243 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goldgof, D.

M. W. Powell, S. Sarkar, and D. Goldgof, "A simple strategy for calibrating the geometry of light sources," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 23,1022-1027 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grana, C.

R. Cucchiara, C. Grana, M. Piccardi, and A. Prati, "Detecting moving objects, Ghosts, and shadows in video streams," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 25,1337-1342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Horváth, G.

G. Horváth, "Reflection polarization patterns at flat water surfaces and their relevance for insect polarization vision," J. Theor. Biol. 175,27-37 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L.

C. Wang, L. Huang, and A. Rosenfeld, "Detecting clouds and cloud shadows on aerial photographs," Pattern. Recogn. Lett. 12,55-64 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, Y.

M. Nagao, T. Matsutyama, and Y. Ikeda, "Region extraction and shape analysis in aerial photographs," Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 10,195-223 (1979).

Ikeuchi, K.

I. Sato, Y. Sato, and K. Ikeuchi, "Illumination from shadows," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 25,290-300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Irvin, R.

R. Irvin and D. Mckeown, "Methods for exploiting the relationship between buildings and their shadows in aerial imagery," IEEE Trans. on Syst. Man.Cybern. 19,1564-1575 (1989).

Jepson, A. D.

Jiang, C.

C. Jiang and M. O. Ward, "Shadow segmentation and classification in a constrained environment," CVGIP: Image Understanding 59,213-225 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jr, E. N.

S.-S. Lin, K. M. Yemelyanov, E. N. Jr. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Polarization Enhanced Visual Surveillance Techniques," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Networking, Sensing and Control (IEEE Syst. Man..Cybern.Society, Taipei, Taiwan, 2004),  1, pp. 216-221.

K. M. Yemelyanov, M. A. Lo, E. N. Jr. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Display of polarization information by coherently moving dots," Opt. Express 11,1577-1584 (2003).

K. M. Yemelyanov, S.-S. Lin, W. Q. Luis, E. N. Jr. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Bio-inspired display of polarization information using selected visual cues," in Polarization Science and Remote Sensing, J. A. Shaw and J. S. Tyo eds.Proc. SPIE,  5158,71-84 (2003).

J. S. Tyo, E. N. Jr. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Colorimetric representation for use with polarization-difference imaging of objects in scattering media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15,367-374 (1998).

J. S. Tyo, M. P. Rowe, E. N. Jr. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Target detection in optically scatter media by polarization-difference imaging," Appl. Opt. 35,1855-1870 (1996).

M. P. Rowe, E. N. Jr. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Polarization-difference imaging: a biologically inspired technique for observation through scattering media," Opt. Lett. 20,608-610 (1995).

K. M. Yemelyanov, S.-S. Lin, E. N. Jr. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Adaptive Algorithms for 2-channel polarization sensing under various polarization statistics with non-uniform distributions," Appl. Opt. (to be published).
[CrossRef]

S.-S. Lin, K. M. Yemelyanov, E. N. Jr. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Polarization- and specular-reflection-based, non-contact latent fingerprint imaging and lifting," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

Koller, D.

D. Koller, K. Danilidis, and H.-H. Nagel, "Model-based object tracking in monocular image sequences of road traffic scenes," Int. J. Comput. Vis. 10,257-281 (1993).

Lin, S.-S.

S.-S. Lin, K. M. Yemelyanov, E. N. Jr. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Polarization Enhanced Visual Surveillance Techniques," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Networking, Sensing and Control (IEEE Syst. Man..Cybern.Society, Taipei, Taiwan, 2004),  1, pp. 216-221.

K. M. Yemelyanov, S.-S. Lin, W. Q. Luis, E. N. Jr. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Bio-inspired display of polarization information using selected visual cues," in Polarization Science and Remote Sensing, J. A. Shaw and J. S. Tyo eds.Proc. SPIE,  5158,71-84 (2003).

S.-S. Lin, K. M. Yemelyanov, E. N. Jr. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Polarization- and specular-reflection-based, non-contact latent fingerprint imaging and lifting," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

K. M. Yemelyanov, S.-S. Lin, E. N. Jr. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Adaptive Algorithms for 2-channel polarization sensing under various polarization statistics with non-uniform distributions," Appl. Opt. (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Liow, Y.

Y. Liow and T. Pavlidis, "Use of shadows for extracting buildings in aerial images," Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 49,242-277 (1991).

Lo, M. A.

Luis, W. Q.

K. M. Yemelyanov, S.-S. Lin, W. Q. Luis, E. N. Jr. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Bio-inspired display of polarization information using selected visual cues," in Polarization Science and Remote Sensing, J. A. Shaw and J. S. Tyo eds.Proc. SPIE,  5158,71-84 (2003).

Marchant, J. A.

Matsutyama, T.

M. Nagao, T. Matsutyama, and Y. Ikeda, "Region extraction and shape analysis in aerial photographs," Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 10,195-223 (1979).

Mckeown, D.

R. Irvin and D. Mckeown, "Methods for exploiting the relationship between buildings and their shadows in aerial imagery," IEEE Trans. on Syst. Man.Cybern. 19,1564-1575 (1989).

Melch, R.

J. Stauder, R. Melch, and J. Ostermann, "Detection of moving cast shadows for object segmentation," IEEE Trans. Multimedia 1,65-77 (1999).

Mikic, I.

A. Prati, I. Mikic, M. M. Trivedi, and R. Cucchiara, "Detecting Moving Shadows: Algorithms and Evaluation," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 25,918-923 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nadimi, S.

S. Nadimi and B. Bhanu, "Physical models for moving shadow and object detection in video," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 26,1079-1087 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nagao, M.

M. Nagao, T. Matsutyama, and Y. Ikeda, "Region extraction and shape analysis in aerial photographs," Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 10,195-223 (1979).

Nagel, H.-H.

D. Koller, K. Danilidis, and H.-H. Nagel, "Model-based object tracking in monocular image sequences of road traffic scenes," Int. J. Comput. Vis. 10,257-281 (1993).

Onyango, C. M.

Ostermann, J.

J. Stauder, R. Melch, and J. Ostermann, "Detection of moving cast shadows for object segmentation," IEEE Trans. Multimedia 1,65-77 (1999).

Pavlidis, T.

Y. Liow and T. Pavlidis, "Use of shadows for extracting buildings in aerial images," Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 49,242-277 (1991).

Pentland, A. P.

Piccardi, M.

R. Cucchiara, C. Grana, M. Piccardi, and A. Prati, "Detecting moving objects, Ghosts, and shadows in video streams," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 25,1337-1342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Powell, M. W.

M. W. Powell, S. Sarkar, and D. Goldgof, "A simple strategy for calibrating the geometry of light sources," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 23,1022-1027 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Prati, A.

R. Cucchiara, C. Grana, M. Piccardi, and A. Prati, "Detecting moving objects, Ghosts, and shadows in video streams," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 25,1337-1342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Prati, I. Mikic, M. M. Trivedi, and R. Cucchiara, "Detecting Moving Shadows: Algorithms and Evaluation," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 25,918-923 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfeld, A.

C. Wang, L. Huang, and A. Rosenfeld, "Detecting clouds and cloud shadows on aerial photographs," Pattern. Recogn. Lett. 12,55-64 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rowe, M. P.

Salvador, E.

E. Salvador, A. Cavallaro, and T. Ebrahimi, "Cast shadow segmentation using invariant color features," Comput. Vis. Image Understand. 95,238-259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sarkar, S.

M. W. Powell, S. Sarkar, and D. Goldgof, "A simple strategy for calibrating the geometry of light sources," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 23,1022-1027 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sato, I.

I. Sato, Y. Sato, and K. Ikeuchi, "Illumination from shadows," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 25,290-300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sato, Y.

I. Sato, Y. Sato, and K. Ikeuchi, "Illumination from shadows," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 25,290-300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schwind, R.

R. Schwind, "Zonation of the optical environment and zonation in the rhabdom structure within the eye of the backswimmer, Notenecta glauca," Cell and Tissue Research 232,53-63 (1983).

Stauder, J.

J. Stauder, R. Melch, and J. Ostermann, "Detection of moving cast shadows for object segmentation," IEEE Trans. Multimedia 1,65-77 (1999).

Stokman, H.

T. Gevers and H. Stokman, "Classifying color edges in video into shadow-geometry, highlight, or material transitions," IEEE Trans. Multimedia 5,237-243 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Trivedi, M. M.

A. Prati, I. Mikic, M. M. Trivedi, and R. Cucchiara, "Detecting Moving Shadows: Algorithms and Evaluation," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 25,918-923 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsotsos, J. K.

Tyo, J. S.

Wang, C.

C. Wang, L. Huang, and A. Rosenfeld, "Detecting clouds and cloud shadows on aerial photographs," Pattern. Recogn. Lett. 12,55-64 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ward, M. O.

C. Jiang and M. O. Ward, "Shadow segmentation and classification in a constrained environment," CVGIP: Image Understanding 59,213-225 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wehner, R.

R. Wehner, "Polarized-light navigation by insects," Scientific American 235,106-114 (1976).

Yemelyanov, K. M.

S.-S. Lin, K. M. Yemelyanov, E. N. Jr. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Polarization Enhanced Visual Surveillance Techniques," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Networking, Sensing and Control (IEEE Syst. Man..Cybern.Society, Taipei, Taiwan, 2004),  1, pp. 216-221.

K. M. Yemelyanov, M. A. Lo, E. N. Jr. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Display of polarization information by coherently moving dots," Opt. Express 11,1577-1584 (2003).

K. M. Yemelyanov, S.-S. Lin, W. Q. Luis, E. N. Jr. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Bio-inspired display of polarization information using selected visual cues," in Polarization Science and Remote Sensing, J. A. Shaw and J. S. Tyo eds.Proc. SPIE,  5158,71-84 (2003).

S.-S. Lin, K. M. Yemelyanov, E. N. Jr. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Polarization- and specular-reflection-based, non-contact latent fingerprint imaging and lifting," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

K. M. Yemelyanov, S.-S. Lin, E. N. Jr. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Adaptive Algorithms for 2-channel polarization sensing under various polarization statistics with non-uniform distributions," Appl. Opt. (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

K. M. Yemelyanov, S.-S. Lin, E. N. Jr. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Adaptive Algorithms for 2-channel polarization sensing under various polarization statistics with non-uniform distributions," Appl. Opt. (to be published).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Tyo, M. P. Rowe, E. N. Jr. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Target detection in optically scatter media by polarization-difference imaging," Appl. Opt. 35,1855-1870 (1996).

Cell and Tissue Research (1)

R. Schwind, "Zonation of the optical environment and zonation in the rhabdom structure within the eye of the backswimmer, Notenecta glauca," Cell and Tissue Research 232,53-63 (1983).

Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. (2)

M. Nagao, T. Matsutyama, and Y. Ikeda, "Region extraction and shape analysis in aerial photographs," Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 10,195-223 (1979).

Y. Liow and T. Pavlidis, "Use of shadows for extracting buildings in aerial images," Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 49,242-277 (1991).

Comput. Vis. Image Understand. (1)

E. Salvador, A. Cavallaro, and T. Ebrahimi, "Cast shadow segmentation using invariant color features," Comput. Vis. Image Understand. 95,238-259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

CVGIP: Image Understanding (1)

C. Jiang and M. O. Ward, "Shadow segmentation and classification in a constrained environment," CVGIP: Image Understanding 59,213-225 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Experientia (1)

K. Frisch, "Die polarisation des himmelslichtes als orientierender faktor bei den tanzen der bienen," Experientia 5,142-148 (1949).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Multimedia (2)

J. Stauder, R. Melch, and J. Ostermann, "Detection of moving cast shadows for object segmentation," IEEE Trans. Multimedia 1,65-77 (1999).

T. Gevers and H. Stokman, "Classifying color edges in video into shadow-geometry, highlight, or material transitions," IEEE Trans. Multimedia 5,237-243 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. on Syst. Man.Cybern. (1)

R. Irvin and D. Mckeown, "Methods for exploiting the relationship between buildings and their shadows in aerial imagery," IEEE Trans. on Syst. Man.Cybern. 19,1564-1575 (1989).

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (5)

A. Prati, I. Mikic, M. M. Trivedi, and R. Cucchiara, "Detecting Moving Shadows: Algorithms and Evaluation," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 25,918-923 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Sato, Y. Sato, and K. Ikeuchi, "Illumination from shadows," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 25,290-300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Nadimi and B. Bhanu, "Physical models for moving shadow and object detection in video," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 26,1079-1087 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Cucchiara, C. Grana, M. Piccardi, and A. Prati, "Detecting moving objects, Ghosts, and shadows in video streams," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 25,1337-1342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Powell, S. Sarkar, and D. Goldgof, "A simple strategy for calibrating the geometry of light sources," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 23,1022-1027 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Comput. Vis. (1)

D. Koller, K. Danilidis, and H.-H. Nagel, "Model-based object tracking in monocular image sequences of road traffic scenes," Int. J. Comput. Vis. 10,257-281 (1993).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

J. Theor. Biol. (1)

G. Horváth, "Reflection polarization patterns at flat water surfaces and their relevance for insect polarization vision," J. Theor. Biol. 175,27-37 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Pattern. Recogn. Lett. (1)

C. Wang, L. Huang, and A. Rosenfeld, "Detecting clouds and cloud shadows on aerial photographs," Pattern. Recogn. Lett. 12,55-64 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

K. M. Yemelyanov, S.-S. Lin, W. Q. Luis, E. N. Jr. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Bio-inspired display of polarization information using selected visual cues," in Polarization Science and Remote Sensing, J. A. Shaw and J. S. Tyo eds.Proc. SPIE,  5158,71-84 (2003).

Scientific American (1)

R. Wehner, "Polarized-light navigation by insects," Scientific American 235,106-114 (1976).

Society, Taipei, Taiwan (1)

S.-S. Lin, K. M. Yemelyanov, E. N. Jr. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Polarization Enhanced Visual Surveillance Techniques," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Networking, Sensing and Control (IEEE Syst. Man..Cybern.Society, Taipei, Taiwan, 2004),  1, pp. 216-221.

Other (10)

W. G. Egan, "Dark-target retroreflection increase," in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing II, D. H. Goldstein and D. B. Chenault, eds., Proc. SPIE, 3754, 218-225 (1999).

M. J. Duggin, "Imaging polarimetry in scene element discrimination," in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing II, D. H. Goldstein and D. B. Chenault, eds., Proc SPIE 3754, 108-117 (1999).

D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and J. L. Pezzaniti, "Polarimetric characterization of Spectralon," in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing II, D. H. Goldstein and D. B. Chenault, eds., Proc. SPIE 3754, 126-136 (1999).

E. Hecht, Optics (Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., Reading, MA, USA 1998).

Y. Zhang and Y. Yang, "Illuminant direction determination for multiple light sources," in Proc. CVPR (IEEE, 2000) pp. 269-276.

J. Pinel and H. Nicolas, "Estimation 2d illuminant direction and shadow segmentation in natural video sequences," in Proc. VLBV (2001) pp. 197-202.

J. M. Scanlan, D. M. Chabries, and R. W. Christiansen, "A Shadow Detection and Removal Algorithm for 2D Images," in Proc. of Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (1990) pp. 2057-2060.

G. Finlayson, S. Hordley, and M. S. Drew, "Removing shadows from images," in ECCV (2002) pp. 823-836.

G. Funka-Lea and R. Bajcsy, "Combining color and geometry for the active visual recognition of shadows," in Proc. Int. Conf. on Computer Vision (1995) pp. 203-209.

J. M. Wang, Y. C. Chung, C. L. Chang, and S. W. Chen, "Shadow Detection and Removal for Traffic Images," in Proc. 2004 IEEE Int. Conf. on Networking, Sensing and Control (IEEE Syst. Man Cybern. Society, Taipei, Taiwan, 2004) pp. 649-654.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics