Abstract

We propose a novel configuration for a highly integrated and highly sensitive optical biosensor. The basic element of the sensor is a surface plasmon interferometer consisting of a thin layer of gold embedded in a silicon membrane. We investigate the performance of the sensor by simulation using eigenmode expansion. We calculate that refractive index changes in the order of 10-6 RIU should be easily detectable for a component of length 10 μm. Moreover, we illustrate that the operation wavelength of the sensor can be easily tuned to a desired wavelength for a wide range of environmental refractive indices, making our device suitable for chemo- and biosensing.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Homola, "Present and Future of Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensors," Anal. Bioanan. Chem.,  377, 528 - 539 (2003)
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Čtyrocký, J. Homola, P. V. Lambeck, S. Musa, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, B. Usievich, N. M. Lyndin, "Theory and Modelling of Optical Waveguide Sensors Utilising Surface Plasmon Resonance," Sens. Actuators B, 54, 66 - 73 (1999)
    [CrossRef]
  3. Harris Rd , Wilkinson J. S.,"Waveguide Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors," Sens. Actuators B, 29, 261 - 267 (1995)
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Homola,J. Čtyrocký, M. Skalský, J. Hradilová  and P. Kolárová, "A Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Integrated Optical Sensor," Sens. Actuators B, 38-39, 286 - 290 (1997)
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Dostálek, J. Čtyrocký, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalský, P. Nekvindová, J. Spiriková, J. Skvor and U. Schröfe, "Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor based on Integrated Optical Waveguide," Sens. Actuators B,  76, 8 - 12 (2001)
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout,"Nanophotonic Waveguides in Silicon-on-Insulator Fabricated with CMOS Technology," J. Lightwave Technol.,  23(1), 401-412 (2005)
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Luff, J. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, U. Hollenbach, J. Ingenhoff  and N. Fabricius , " Integrated Optical Mach-Zehnder Biosensor," J. Lightwave Technol.,  16, 583-592 (1998)
    [CrossRef]
  8. Prieto F. Sepülveda, Calle A . Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya and M. Lechuga, "An Integrated Optical Interferometric Nanodevice based on Silicon Technology for Biosensor Applications," Nanotechnology,  14, 907-912 (2003)
    [CrossRef]
  9. Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, edited by E. Palik, Academic Press New York (1985)
  10. T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov and S. Bozhevolnyi, "Polymer-based Surface-Plasmon-Polariton Stripe Waveguides at Telecommunication Wavelengths," Applied Physics Letters,  82, 668-670 (2003)
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, C. Walker,  and A. Scherer, "Integrated Plasmon and Dielectric Waveguides," Opt. Express,  125481-5486 (2002)
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Homola, S. Sinclair and G. Gauglitz, "Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors: Review," Sens. Actuators B,  54, 3-15 (1999)
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. J. Bueno, O. Esteban, N. Dıaz-Herrara, M. C. Navarrete and A. Gonzalez-Cano, "Sensing Properties of Asymmetric Double-Layer-Covered Tapered Fibers," Applied Optics,  43, 1615-1620 (2004)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. CAMFR, http://sourceforge.org/projects/CAMFR
  15. P. Bienstman and R. Baets,"Optical Modelling of Photonic Crystals and VCSELs using Eigenmode Expansion and Perfectly Matched Layers," Opt. Quantum Electron 33, 327-341 (2001)
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Debackere, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, "Improved ASR Convergence for the Simulation of Surface PlasmonWaveguide Modes," OWTNM 2006 Proceedings, 14 (2006)
  17. P. Debackere, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets,"Improved ASR Convergence for the Simulation of Surface PlasmonWaveguide Modes," to appear in special issue of Optical and Quantum Electronics on Optical Waveguide Theory and Numerical Modeling (2006)

2005

2004

F. J. Bueno, O. Esteban, N. Dıaz-Herrara, M. C. Navarrete and A. Gonzalez-Cano, "Sensing Properties of Asymmetric Double-Layer-Covered Tapered Fibers," Applied Optics,  43, 1615-1620 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

J. Homola, "Present and Future of Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensors," Anal. Bioanan. Chem.,  377, 528 - 539 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Prieto F. Sepülveda, Calle A . Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya and M. Lechuga, "An Integrated Optical Interferometric Nanodevice based on Silicon Technology for Biosensor Applications," Nanotechnology,  14, 907-912 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Prieto F. Sepülveda, Calle A . Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya and M. Lechuga, "An Integrated Optical Interferometric Nanodevice based on Silicon Technology for Biosensor Applications," Nanotechnology,  14, 907-912 (2003)
[CrossRef]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov and S. Bozhevolnyi, "Polymer-based Surface-Plasmon-Polariton Stripe Waveguides at Telecommunication Wavelengths," Applied Physics Letters,  82, 668-670 (2003)
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

J. Dostálek, J. Čtyrocký, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalský, P. Nekvindová, J. Spiriková, J. Skvor and U. Schröfe, "Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor based on Integrated Optical Waveguide," Sens. Actuators B,  76, 8 - 12 (2001)
[CrossRef]

P. Bienstman and R. Baets,"Optical Modelling of Photonic Crystals and VCSELs using Eigenmode Expansion and Perfectly Matched Layers," Opt. Quantum Electron 33, 327-341 (2001)
[CrossRef]

1999

J. Čtyrocký, J. Homola, P. V. Lambeck, S. Musa, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, B. Usievich, N. M. Lyndin, "Theory and Modelling of Optical Waveguide Sensors Utilising Surface Plasmon Resonance," Sens. Actuators B, 54, 66 - 73 (1999)
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, S. Sinclair and G. Gauglitz, "Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors: Review," Sens. Actuators B,  54, 3-15 (1999)
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

J. Homola,J. Čtyrocký, M. Skalský, J. Hradilová  and P. Kolárová, "A Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Integrated Optical Sensor," Sens. Actuators B, 38-39, 286 - 290 (1997)
[CrossRef]

1995

Harris Rd , Wilkinson J. S.,"Waveguide Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors," Sens. Actuators B, 29, 261 - 267 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Lyndin, B.

J. Čtyrocký, J. Homola, P. V. Lambeck, S. Musa, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, B. Usievich, N. M. Lyndin, "Theory and Modelling of Optical Waveguide Sensors Utilising Surface Plasmon Resonance," Sens. Actuators B, 54, 66 - 73 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Abad, C.

Prieto F. Sepülveda, Calle A . Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya and M. Lechuga, "An Integrated Optical Interferometric Nanodevice based on Silicon Technology for Biosensor Applications," Nanotechnology,  14, 907-912 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Baehr-Jones, M.

Baets, P.

P. Bienstman and R. Baets,"Optical Modelling of Photonic Crystals and VCSELs using Eigenmode Expansion and Perfectly Matched Layers," Opt. Quantum Electron 33, 327-341 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Baets, W.

Beckx, V.

Bienstman,

P. Bienstman and R. Baets,"Optical Modelling of Photonic Crystals and VCSELs using Eigenmode Expansion and Perfectly Matched Layers," Opt. Quantum Electron 33, 327-341 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, J.

Bogaerts,

Bozhevolnyi, I.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov and S. Bozhevolnyi, "Polymer-based Surface-Plasmon-Polariton Stripe Waveguides at Telecommunication Wavelengths," Applied Physics Letters,  82, 668-670 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Brynda, J.

J. Dostálek, J. Čtyrocký, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalský, P. Nekvindová, J. Spiriková, J. Skvor and U. Schröfe, "Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor based on Integrated Optical Waveguide," Sens. Actuators B,  76, 8 - 12 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Bueno,

F. J. Bueno, O. Esteban, N. Dıaz-Herrara, M. C. Navarrete and A. Gonzalez-Cano, "Sensing Properties of Asymmetric Double-Layer-Covered Tapered Fibers," Applied Optics,  43, 1615-1620 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calle, F.

Prieto F. Sepülveda, Calle A . Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya and M. Lechuga, "An Integrated Optical Interferometric Nanodevice based on Silicon Technology for Biosensor Applications," Nanotechnology,  14, 907-912 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Ctyrocký,

J. Čtyrocký, J. Homola, P. V. Lambeck, S. Musa, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, B. Usievich, N. M. Lyndin, "Theory and Modelling of Optical Waveguide Sensors Utilising Surface Plasmon Resonance," Sens. Actuators B, 54, 66 - 73 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Ctyrocký, J.

J. Dostálek, J. Čtyrocký, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalský, P. Nekvindová, J. Spiriková, J. Skvor and U. Schröfe, "Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor based on Integrated Optical Waveguide," Sens. Actuators B,  76, 8 - 12 (2001)
[CrossRef]

J. Homola,J. Čtyrocký, M. Skalský, J. Hradilová  and P. Kolárová, "A Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Integrated Optical Sensor," Sens. Actuators B, 38-39, 286 - 290 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Diaz-Herrara, O.

F. J. Bueno, O. Esteban, N. Dıaz-Herrara, M. C. Navarrete and A. Gonzalez-Cano, "Sensing Properties of Asymmetric Double-Layer-Covered Tapered Fibers," Applied Optics,  43, 1615-1620 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Domínguez, A.

Prieto F. Sepülveda, Calle A . Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya and M. Lechuga, "An Integrated Optical Interferometric Nanodevice based on Silicon Technology for Biosensor Applications," Nanotechnology,  14, 907-912 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Dostálek,

J. Dostálek, J. Čtyrocký, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalský, P. Nekvindová, J. Spiriková, J. Skvor and U. Schröfe, "Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor based on Integrated Optical Waveguide," Sens. Actuators B,  76, 8 - 12 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Dumon, R.

Esteban, F. J.

F. J. Bueno, O. Esteban, N. Dıaz-Herrara, M. C. Navarrete and A. Gonzalez-Cano, "Sensing Properties of Asymmetric Double-Layer-Covered Tapered Fibers," Applied Optics,  43, 1615-1620 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fabricius, J.

Gauglitz, S.

J. Homola, S. Sinclair and G. Gauglitz, "Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors: Review," Sens. Actuators B,  54, 3-15 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez-Cano, M. C.

F. J. Bueno, O. Esteban, N. Dıaz-Herrara, M. C. Navarrete and A. Gonzalez-Cano, "Sensing Properties of Asymmetric Double-Layer-Covered Tapered Fibers," Applied Optics,  43, 1615-1620 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris,

Harris Rd , Wilkinson J. S.,"Waveguide Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors," Sens. Actuators B, 29, 261 - 267 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Harris, H. J. W. M.

J. Čtyrocký, J. Homola, P. V. Lambeck, S. Musa, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, B. Usievich, N. M. Lyndin, "Theory and Modelling of Optical Waveguide Sensors Utilising Surface Plasmon Resonance," Sens. Actuators B, 54, 66 - 73 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Hochberg,

Hoekstra, S.

J. Čtyrocký, J. Homola, P. V. Lambeck, S. Musa, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, B. Usievich, N. M. Lyndin, "Theory and Modelling of Optical Waveguide Sensors Utilising Surface Plasmon Resonance," Sens. Actuators B, 54, 66 - 73 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Hollenbach, J

Homola,

J. Homola, "Present and Future of Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensors," Anal. Bioanan. Chem.,  377, 528 - 539 (2003)
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, S. Sinclair and G. Gauglitz, "Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors: Review," Sens. Actuators B,  54, 3-15 (1999)
[CrossRef]

J. Homola,J. Čtyrocký, M. Skalský, J. Hradilová  and P. Kolárová, "A Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Integrated Optical Sensor," Sens. Actuators B, 38-39, 286 - 290 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

J. Dostálek, J. Čtyrocký, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalský, P. Nekvindová, J. Spiriková, J. Skvor and U. Schröfe, "Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor based on Integrated Optical Waveguide," Sens. Actuators B,  76, 8 - 12 (2001)
[CrossRef]

J. Čtyrocký, J. Homola, P. V. Lambeck, S. Musa, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, B. Usievich, N. M. Lyndin, "Theory and Modelling of Optical Waveguide Sensors Utilising Surface Plasmon Resonance," Sens. Actuators B, 54, 66 - 73 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Hradilová, M.

J. Homola,J. Čtyrocký, M. Skalský, J. Hradilová  and P. Kolárová, "A Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Integrated Optical Sensor," Sens. Actuators B, 38-39, 286 - 290 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Ingenhoff, U.

Kolárová, J.

J. Homola,J. Čtyrocký, M. Skalský, J. Hradilová  and P. Kolárová, "A Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Integrated Optical Sensor," Sens. Actuators B, 38-39, 286 - 290 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Lambeck, J.

J. Čtyrocký, J. Homola, P. V. Lambeck, S. Musa, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, B. Usievich, N. M. Lyndin, "Theory and Modelling of Optical Waveguide Sensors Utilising Surface Plasmon Resonance," Sens. Actuators B, 54, 66 - 73 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Lechuga, A.

Prieto F. Sepülveda, Calle A . Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya and M. Lechuga, "An Integrated Optical Interferometric Nanodevice based on Silicon Technology for Biosensor Applications," Nanotechnology,  14, 907-912 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Leosson, T.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov and S. Bozhevolnyi, "Polymer-based Surface-Plasmon-Polariton Stripe Waveguides at Telecommunication Wavelengths," Applied Physics Letters,  82, 668-670 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Llobera, A

Prieto F. Sepülveda, Calle A . Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya and M. Lechuga, "An Integrated Optical Interferometric Nanodevice based on Silicon Technology for Biosensor Applications," Nanotechnology,  14, 907-912 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Luff,

Luyssaert, D

Montoya, A.

Prieto F. Sepülveda, Calle A . Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya and M. Lechuga, "An Integrated Optical Interferometric Nanodevice based on Silicon Technology for Biosensor Applications," Nanotechnology,  14, 907-912 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Musa, P. V.

J. Čtyrocký, J. Homola, P. V. Lambeck, S. Musa, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, B. Usievich, N. M. Lyndin, "Theory and Modelling of Optical Waveguide Sensors Utilising Surface Plasmon Resonance," Sens. Actuators B, 54, 66 - 73 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Navarrete, N.

F. J. Bueno, O. Esteban, N. Dıaz-Herrara, M. C. Navarrete and A. Gonzalez-Cano, "Sensing Properties of Asymmetric Double-Layer-Covered Tapered Fibers," Applied Optics,  43, 1615-1620 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nekvindová, M.

J. Dostálek, J. Čtyrocký, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalský, P. Nekvindová, J. Spiriková, J. Skvor and U. Schröfe, "Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor based on Integrated Optical Waveguide," Sens. Actuators B,  76, 8 - 12 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Nikolajsen,

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov and S. Bozhevolnyi, "Polymer-based Surface-Plasmon-Polariton Stripe Waveguides at Telecommunication Wavelengths," Applied Physics Letters,  82, 668-670 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Piehler, J.

Prieto,

Prieto F. Sepülveda, Calle A . Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya and M. Lechuga, "An Integrated Optical Interferometric Nanodevice based on Silicon Technology for Biosensor Applications," Nanotechnology,  14, 907-912 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Salakhutdinov, K.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov and S. Bozhevolnyi, "Polymer-based Surface-Plasmon-Polariton Stripe Waveguides at Telecommunication Wavelengths," Applied Physics Letters,  82, 668-670 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Scherer, C.

Schröfel, J.

J. Dostálek, J. Čtyrocký, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalský, P. Nekvindová, J. Spiriková, J. Skvor and U. Schröfe, "Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor based on Integrated Optical Waveguide," Sens. Actuators B,  76, 8 - 12 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Sepülveda, F.

Prieto F. Sepülveda, Calle A . Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya and M. Lechuga, "An Integrated Optical Interferometric Nanodevice based on Silicon Technology for Biosensor Applications," Nanotechnology,  14, 907-912 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Sinclair, J.

J. Homola, S. Sinclair and G. Gauglitz, "Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors: Review," Sens. Actuators B,  54, 3-15 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Skalský, E.

J. Dostálek, J. Čtyrocký, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalský, P. Nekvindová, J. Spiriková, J. Skvor and U. Schröfe, "Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor based on Integrated Optical Waveguide," Sens. Actuators B,  76, 8 - 12 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Skalský, J.

J. Homola,J. Čtyrocký, M. Skalský, J. Hradilová  and P. Kolárová, "A Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Integrated Optical Sensor," Sens. Actuators B, 38-39, 286 - 290 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Skvor, J.

J. Dostálek, J. Čtyrocký, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalský, P. Nekvindová, J. Spiriková, J. Skvor and U. Schröfe, "Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor based on Integrated Optical Waveguide," Sens. Actuators B,  76, 8 - 12 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Spiriková, P.

J. Dostálek, J. Čtyrocký, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalský, P. Nekvindová, J. Spiriková, J. Skvor and U. Schröfe, "Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor based on Integrated Optical Waveguide," Sens. Actuators B,  76, 8 - 12 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Taillaert, S.

Usievich, J. S.

J. Čtyrocký, J. Homola, P. V. Lambeck, S. Musa, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, B. Usievich, N. M. Lyndin, "Theory and Modelling of Optical Waveguide Sensors Utilising Surface Plasmon Resonance," Sens. Actuators B, 54, 66 - 73 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Van Campenhout, B.

Van Thourhout, P.

Walker, T.

Wiaux, P.

Wilkinson, Rd

Harris Rd , Wilkinson J. S.,"Waveguide Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors," Sens. Actuators B, 29, 261 - 267 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, B.

Wilkinson, R. D.

J. Čtyrocký, J. Homola, P. V. Lambeck, S. Musa, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, B. Usievich, N. M. Lyndin, "Theory and Modelling of Optical Waveguide Sensors Utilising Surface Plasmon Resonance," Sens. Actuators B, 54, 66 - 73 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Anal. Bioanan. Chem.

J. Homola, "Present and Future of Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensors," Anal. Bioanan. Chem.,  377, 528 - 539 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Applied Optics

F. J. Bueno, O. Esteban, N. Dıaz-Herrara, M. C. Navarrete and A. Gonzalez-Cano, "Sensing Properties of Asymmetric Double-Layer-Covered Tapered Fibers," Applied Optics,  43, 1615-1620 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Applied Physics Letters

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov and S. Bozhevolnyi, "Polymer-based Surface-Plasmon-Polariton Stripe Waveguides at Telecommunication Wavelengths," Applied Physics Letters,  82, 668-670 (2003)
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Express

Opt. Quantum Electron

P. Bienstman and R. Baets,"Optical Modelling of Photonic Crystals and VCSELs using Eigenmode Expansion and Perfectly Matched Layers," Opt. Quantum Electron 33, 327-341 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B

J. Homola, S. Sinclair and G. Gauglitz, "Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors: Review," Sens. Actuators B,  54, 3-15 (1999)
[CrossRef]

J. Čtyrocký, J. Homola, P. V. Lambeck, S. Musa, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, B. Usievich, N. M. Lyndin, "Theory and Modelling of Optical Waveguide Sensors Utilising Surface Plasmon Resonance," Sens. Actuators B, 54, 66 - 73 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Harris Rd , Wilkinson J. S.,"Waveguide Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors," Sens. Actuators B, 29, 261 - 267 (1995)
[CrossRef]

J. Homola,J. Čtyrocký, M. Skalský, J. Hradilová  and P. Kolárová, "A Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Integrated Optical Sensor," Sens. Actuators B, 38-39, 286 - 290 (1997)
[CrossRef]

J. Dostálek, J. Čtyrocký, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalský, P. Nekvindová, J. Spiriková, J. Skvor and U. Schröfe, "Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor based on Integrated Optical Waveguide," Sens. Actuators B,  76, 8 - 12 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Other

Prieto F. Sepülveda, Calle A . Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya and M. Lechuga, "An Integrated Optical Interferometric Nanodevice based on Silicon Technology for Biosensor Applications," Nanotechnology,  14, 907-912 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, edited by E. Palik, Academic Press New York (1985)

CAMFR, http://sourceforge.org/projects/CAMFR

P. Debackere, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, "Improved ASR Convergence for the Simulation of Surface PlasmonWaveguide Modes," OWTNM 2006 Proceedings, 14 (2006)

P. Debackere, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets,"Improved ASR Convergence for the Simulation of Surface PlasmonWaveguide Modes," to appear in special issue of Optical and Quantum Electronics on Optical Waveguide Theory and Numerical Modeling (2006)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematical setup of the proposed structure, all dimensions in μm

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Dispersion of the effective indices of the guided modes as a function of the waveguide thickness. The presence of the gold layer on top of the waveguide shifts the effective index of the index-guided mode to lower values. For a waveguide thickness of 230 nm the effective index of this mode is smaller than the refractive index of SiO 2 so that this mode starts to radiate into the silica. For thicknesses below 230 nm the gold-clad Si waveguide has no index-guided modes.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Coupling loss to surface plasmon modes as a function of the waveguide thickness. The input waveguide has a thickness of 220 nm, the thickness of the Si layer supporting the gold layer varies from 220 nm (Si layer is equally thick as the Si layer in the input waveguide) to 0 nm (Au layer is on top of the SiO 2 layer).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Transmission of the structure depicted in Fig. 1. The length of the structure is 10 μm

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Transmission of the structure as a function of the wavelength

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Simulation results for the optimized structure

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Shift of the wavelength for which transmission is minimal as a function of the refractive index of the sample medium

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Shift of the wavelength for which transmission is minimal as a function of the thickness of the absorbed layer

Equations (4)

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I [ 1 + V cos ( Δ ϕ ) ]
( ϕ T ( intern , in ) + ϕ prop , intern + ϕ T ( in , intern ) )
( ϕ T ( extern , in ) + ϕ prop , extern + ϕ T ( in , extern ) ) π ,
L = 1 k external k i internal 1 log e log ( T ( intern , in ) 2 T ( extern , in ) 2 ) ,

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