Abstract

A simple pixel shift technique is proposed to double the spectral sampling rate and enhance the signal to noise ratio of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) in the 1.3um wavelength range. Both theoretical analysis and experimental comparison are presented. The results show that interpixel shifted SDOCT can not only double the depth of field of SDOCT image but also eliminate the artifacts induced by aliasing effect, thus improving image contrast in areas with large depths (e.g., Δz≥1.5mm). If combined with endoscopic OCT, this technique has the potential to enhance in vivo diagnosis of biological tissues that require a larger field of view in the axial direction, such as cartilage degeneration and bladder tumors with deep asperities or invaginations.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  23. M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Davis, M. A. Choma, and J. A. Izatt, "Heterodyne swept-source optical coherence tomography for complete complex conjugate ambiguity removal," J. Biomed. Opt. 10 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, J. S. Nelson, and Z. P. Chen, "Removal of a mirror image and enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography using an electro-optic phase modulator," Opt. Lett. 30, 147 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, "Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 mu m," Opt. Express 13, 3931 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, S. H. Yun, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Phase-resolved optical frequency domain imaging," Opt. Express 13, 5483 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Sarunic, B. E. Applegate, and J. A. Izatt, "Spectral domain second-harmonic optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 30, 2391 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "115 kHz tuning repetition rate ultrahigh-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 3159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K. P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments," Opt. Express 13, 10652 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2003

2002

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

C. Dorrer, N. Belabas, J. P. Likforman, and M. Joffre, "Spectral resolution and sampling issues in Fourier-transform spectral interferometry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt.Phys. 17, 1795 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Akiba, M.

Applegate, B. E.

Bajraszewski, T.

Belabas, N.

C. Dorrer, N. Belabas, J. P. Likforman, and M. Joffre, "Spectral resolution and sampling issues in Fourier-transform spectral interferometry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt.Phys. 17, 1795 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Berisha, F.

Bouma, B. E.

Cense, B.

Chan, K. P.

Chen, Z. P.

Choma, M. A.

A. M. Davis, M. A. Choma, and J. A. Izatt, "Heterodyne swept-source optical coherence tomography for complete complex conjugate ambiguity removal," J. Biomed. Opt. 10 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, "Instantaneous quadrature low-coherence interferometry with 3 x 3 fiber-optic couplers," Opt. Lett. 28, 2162 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chong, C.

Davis, A. M.

A. M. Davis, M. A. Choma, and J. A. Izatt, "Heterodyne swept-source optical coherence tomography for complete complex conjugate ambiguity removal," J. Biomed. Opt. 10 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

Dorrer, C.

C. Dorrer, N. Belabas, J. P. Likforman, and M. Joffre, "Spectral resolution and sampling issues in Fourier-transform spectral interferometry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt.Phys. 17, 1795 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Drexler, W.

Duker, J. S.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Endo, T.

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, M. Takahashi, C. Katada, and M. Mutoh, "Polarization-sensitive complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for Jones matrix imaging of biological samples," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3023-3025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

Fujimoto, J. G.

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 3225 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Huber, R.

Itoh, M.

Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K. P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments," Opt. Express 13, 10652 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, M. Takahashi, C. Katada, and M. Mutoh, "Polarization-sensitive complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for Jones matrix imaging of biological samples," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3023-3025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Izatt, J. A.

Joffre, M.

C. Dorrer, N. Belabas, J. P. Likforman, and M. Joffre, "Spectral resolution and sampling issues in Fourier-transform spectral interferometry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt.Phys. 17, 1795 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jung, W. G.

Katada, C.

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, M. Takahashi, C. Katada, and M. Mutoh, "Polarization-sensitive complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for Jones matrix imaging of biological samples," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3023-3025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le, T.

Leitgeb, R.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R. A.

Likforman, J. P.

C. Dorrer, N. Belabas, J. P. Likforman, and M. Joffre, "Spectral resolution and sampling issues in Fourier-transform spectral interferometry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt.Phys. 17, 1795 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Madjarova, V. D.

Makita, S.

Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K. P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments," Opt. Express 13, 10652 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, M. Takahashi, C. Katada, and M. Mutoh, "Polarization-sensitive complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for Jones matrix imaging of biological samples," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3023-3025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Morosawa, A.

Mujat, M.

Mutoh, M.

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, M. Takahashi, C. Katada, and M. Mutoh, "Polarization-sensitive complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for Jones matrix imaging of biological samples," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3023-3025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nassif, N. A.

Nelson, J. S.

Oh, W. Y.

Park, B. H.

Pierce, M. C.

Sakai, T.

Sarunic, M. V.

Schmetterer, L.

Schuman, J. S.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stingl, A.

Takahashi, M.

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, M. Takahashi, C. Katada, and M. Mutoh, "Polarization-sensitive complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for Jones matrix imaging of biological samples," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3023-3025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

Unterhuber, A.

Vakoc, B. J.

Wojtkowski, M.

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 3225 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, F. Berisha, M. Wojtkowski, and T. Bajraszewski, "Real-time measurement of in vitro flow by Fourier-domain color Doppler optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 171 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C. H.

Yasuno, Y.

Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K. P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments," Opt. Express 13, 10652 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, M. Takahashi, C. Katada, and M. Mutoh, "Polarization-sensitive complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for Jones matrix imaging of biological samples," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3023-3025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yatagai, T.

Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K. P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments," Opt. Express 13, 10652 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, M. Takahashi, C. Katada, and M. Mutoh, "Polarization-sensitive complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for Jones matrix imaging of biological samples," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3023-3025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yun, S. H.

Zhang, J.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, M. Takahashi, C. Katada, and M. Mutoh, "Polarization-sensitive complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for Jones matrix imaging of biological samples," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3023-3025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

A. M. Davis, M. A. Choma, and J. A. Izatt, "Heterodyne swept-source optical coherence tomography for complete complex conjugate ambiguity removal," J. Biomed. Opt. 10 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K. P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments," Opt. Express 13, 10652 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 3225 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, S. H. Yun, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Phase-resolved optical frequency domain imaging," Opt. Express 13, 5483 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, and N. A. Nassif, "Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2435 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, W. G. Jung, J. S. Nelson, and Z. P. Chen, "Full range polarization-sensitive Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 6033 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, "Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 mu m," Opt. Express 13, 3931 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, "High-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 mu m wavelength," Opt. Express 11, 3598 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

M. V. Sarunic, B. E. Applegate, and J. A. Izatt, "Spectral domain second-harmonic optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 30, 2391 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, F. Berisha, M. Wojtkowski, and T. Bajraszewski, "Real-time measurement of in vitro flow by Fourier-domain color Doppler optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 171 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, and T. Bajraszewski, "Phase-shifting algorithm to achieve high-speed long-depth-range probing by frequency-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 2201 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, "Instantaneous quadrature low-coherence interferometry with 3 x 3 fiber-optic couplers," Opt. Lett. 28, 2162 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, J. S. Nelson, and Z. P. Chen, "Removal of a mirror image and enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography using an electro-optic phase modulator," Opt. Lett. 30, 147 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 2067 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "115 kHz tuning repetition rate ultrahigh-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 3159 (2005).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) BBS: broadband light source; AL: aiming laser; BS: beam splitter; FC/APC: angled polished fiber connector; CM: collimator; RM: reference mirror; SM: sample scanning mirror; AC: achromatic lens; LSC: line scan camera; G: grating; A/D: analog to digital converter; PC: personal computer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured spectral curves by LSC and OSA for spectral calibration

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). Correlation between wavelength and pixel, with 3rd-order polynomial curve fitting; (b). Comparison of reconstructed PSF with calibration for both OSA and LSC.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Results of theoretical simulation of the PSF reconstructed PSFs. Simulation is based on the optical parameters given for our setup in Fig. 1 and a 512-pixel camera and that with pixel shift are used.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

A sketch illustrating the principle of interpixel shifted SDOCT. Spectrographs are of (A) incident light, (B) detected by a 512-element InGaAs array, (C) detected after half-pixel shift, and (D) recombined from (B) and (C), respectively.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Backscattering from a glass plate at depth of 2.8mm. Red and blue curves are reconstructed with and without pixel shift, respectively. The dashed line represents the aliasing threshold.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Dependences of PSFs vs depth, reconstructed from 512-pixel, 512 inter pixel shifted and 1024-pixel SDOCT.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Dog bladder imaged with (A) 512-pixel, (B) 512-interpixel shifted, and (C) 1024-pixel SDOCT. U: urothelium; LP: lamina propria; ML: muscularis. Image dynamic ranges: (A) 111.4dB, (B) 111.5dB and (C) 111.5dB. Image Size (lateral × axial): (A) 6mm × 1.2mm, (B) and (C) 6mm × 1.8mm.

Equations (11)

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I ( k ) = 2 S sr ( k ) · cos ( L )
( k ) = { 0 for k > Δ k / 2 1 / 2 for k = Δ k / 2 1 for k < Δ k / 2 ,
C ( k ) = i = δ [ k ( k 0 + i Δ k ) ]
I D ( k ) = C ( k ) · ( ( k ) I ( k ) )
PSE ( Δ L ) = FT [ I D ( k ) ]
= FT [ C ( k ) ] FT [ S sr ( k ) ] [ δ ( L + Δ L ) + δ ( L Δ L ) ] · sin c ( Δ L Δ k / 2 )
= π Δ k j = [ δ ( L 2 j π Δ k + Δ L ) + δ ( L 2 j π Δ k Δ L ) ] FT [ S sr ( k ) ] · sin c ( Δ L Δ k / 2 )
C ps ( k ) = i = δ [ k ( k 0 + i Δ k ) ]
PSF ps ( Δ L ) = FT [ I D ( k ) ]
= FT [ C ps ( k ) ] FT [ S sr ( k ) ] [ δ ( L + Δ L ) + δ ( L Δ L ) ] · sin c ( Δ L Δ k / 2 )
= π Δk′ j = [ δ ( L 2 j π Δk′ + Δ L ) + δ ( L 2 j π Δk′ Δ L ) ] FT [ S sr ( k ) ] · sin c ( Δ L Δ k / 2 )

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