Abstract

We report on structural modification in fused silica by a novel commercial femtosecond fiber laser with a fundamental wavelength of 1558 nm. The refractive-index change was induced by laser pulses at a repetition rate of 173 kHz and pulse duration of 870 fs. The refractive index change with a magnitude of 1.2 × 10-3 was estimated from the diffraction efficiencies of an internal grating.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Homoelle, S. Wielandy, A. L. Gaeta, N. F. Borrelli, and C. Smith, "Infrared photosensitivity in silica glasses exposed to femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 24, 1311-1313 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. Watanabe, T. Asano, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, "Wavelength division with three-dimensional couplers fabricated by filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 2491-2493 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, T. Toma, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, "In situ observation of photoinduced refractive-index changes in filaments formed in glasses by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 19-21 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. D. Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, "Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1559-1567 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. W. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, "Structural changes in fused silica after exposure to focused femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 1726-1728 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, "Microfluidic laser embedded in glass by three-dimensional femtosecond laser microprocessing," Opt. Lett. 29, 2007-2009 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, "Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 44, L687-L689 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Sowa, W. Watanabe, T. Tamaki, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, "Symmetric waveguides in poly(methyl methacrylate) fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 14, 291-297 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Zoubir, C. Lopez, M. Richardson, and K. Richardson, "Femtosecond laser fabrication of tubular waveguides in poly(methyl methacrylate)," Opt. Lett. 29, 1840-1842 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. W. Watanabe, Y. Note, and K. Itoh, "Fabrication of multimode interference couplers in glass using a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 2888-2890 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. M. Streltsov and N. F. Borrelli, "Study of femtosecond-laser-written waveguides in glasses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2496-2504 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Saliminia, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, "Waveguide writing in silica glass with femtosecond pulses from an optical parametric amplifier at 1.5 μm," Opt. Commun. 256, 422-427 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. D. Valle, R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, "C-band waveguide amplifier produced by femtosecond laser writing," Opt. Express 13, 5976-5982 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, V. Maselli, A. Yin, M. Zavelani-Rossi, G. Cerullo, P. Laporta, L. Aiello, S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, and G. Pierattini, "Optical properties of waveguides written by a 26 MHz stretched cavity Ti:sapphire femtosecond oscillator," Opt. Express 13, 612-620 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. D. Valle, S. Taccheo, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, "Optical waveguide writing with a diode-pumped femtosecond oscillator," Opt. Lett. 29, 1900-1902 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S. M. Eaton, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, A. Arai, H. Zhang, S. Ho, and P. R. Herman, "Thermal heating effects in writing optical waveguides with a 0.1 - 5 MHz rate ultrafast fiber laser," Proc. SPIE 5713, 35-42 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. L. Shah, A. Y. Arai, S. M. Eaton, and P. R. Herman, "Waveguide writing in fused silica with a femtosecond fiber laser at 522 nm and 1 MHz repetition rate," Opt. Express 13, 1999-2006 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, "Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate," Opt. Express 13, 4708-4716 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. M. Will, J. Burghoff, J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, "High speed fabrication of optical waveguides inside glasses using a high rep.-rate fiber CPA system," Proc. SPIE 5339, 168-174 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. M. Streltsov and N. F. Borrelli, "Fabrication and analysis of a directional coupler written in glass by nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 42-43 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. A. Squier and M. Müller, "Third-harmonic generation imaging of laser-induced breakdown in glass," Appl. Opt. 38, 5789-5794 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  28. P. Yang, G. R. Burns, J. Guo, T. S. Luk, and G. A. Vawter, "Femtosecond laser-pulse-induced birefringence in optically isotropic glass," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5280-5283 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  29. N. F. Borrelli, C. M. Smith, J. J. Price, and D. C. Allan, "Polarized excimer laser-induced birefringence in silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 219-221 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  30. L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short IR laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 191, 333-339 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  31. S. Onda, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, "Study of filamentary damage in synthesized silica induced by chirped femtosecond laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22,2437-2443 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  32. H. Kogelnik, "Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909-2947 (1969).
  33. K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, "Anisotropic refractive-index change in silica glass induced by self-trapped filament of linearly polarized femtosecond laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1889-1892 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (10)

W. Watanabe, Y. Note, and K. Itoh, "Fabrication of multimode interference couplers in glass using a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 2888-2890 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Saliminia, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, "Waveguide writing in silica glass with femtosecond pulses from an optical parametric amplifier at 1.5 μm," Opt. Commun. 256, 422-427 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Valle, R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, "C-band waveguide amplifier produced by femtosecond laser writing," Opt. Express 13, 5976-5982 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Eaton, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, A. Arai, H. Zhang, S. Ho, and P. R. Herman, "Thermal heating effects in writing optical waveguides with a 0.1 - 5 MHz rate ultrafast fiber laser," Proc. SPIE 5713, 35-42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Shah, A. Y. Arai, S. M. Eaton, and P. R. Herman, "Waveguide writing in fused silica with a femtosecond fiber laser at 522 nm and 1 MHz repetition rate," Opt. Express 13, 1999-2006 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, "Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate," Opt. Express 13, 4708-4716 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Kowalevicz, V. Sharma, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Minoshima, "Three-dimensional photonic devices fabricated in glass by use of a femtosecond laser oscillator," Opt. Lett. 30, 1060-1061 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, V. Maselli, A. Yin, M. Zavelani-Rossi, G. Cerullo, P. Laporta, L. Aiello, S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, and G. Pierattini, "Optical properties of waveguides written by a 26 MHz stretched cavity Ti:sapphire femtosecond oscillator," Opt. Express 13, 612-620 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Onda, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, "Study of filamentary damage in synthesized silica induced by chirped femtosecond laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22,2437-2443 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, "Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 44, L687-L689 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

2003 (4)

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. D. Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, "Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1559-1567 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Watanabe, T. Asano, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, "Wavelength division with three-dimensional couplers fabricated by filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 2491-2493 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, "Anisotropic refractive-index change in silica glass induced by self-trapped filament of linearly polarized femtosecond laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1889-1892 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

N. F. Borrelli, C. M. Smith, J. J. Price, and D. C. Allan, "Polarized excimer laser-induced birefringence in silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 219-221 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Streltsov and N. F. Borrelli, "Study of femtosecond-laser-written waveguides in glasses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2496-2504 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (6)

1999 (2)

1997 (1)

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, "Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909-2947 (1969).

Aiello, L.

Allan, D. C.

N. F. Borrelli, C. M. Smith, J. J. Price, and D. C. Allan, "Polarized excimer laser-induced birefringence in silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 219-221 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Arai, A.

S. M. Eaton, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, A. Arai, H. Zhang, S. Ho, and P. R. Herman, "Thermal heating effects in writing optical waveguides with a 0.1 - 5 MHz rate ultrafast fiber laser," Proc. SPIE 5713, 35-42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arai, A. Y.

Asano, T.

Borrelli, N. F.

Bovatsek, J.

Brodeur, A.

Burghoff, J.

M. Will, J. Burghoff, J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, "High speed fabrication of optical waveguides inside glasses using a high rep.-rate fiber CPA system," Proc. SPIE 5339, 168-174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Burns, G. R.

P. Yang, G. R. Burns, J. Guo, T. S. Luk, and G. A. Vawter, "Femtosecond laser-pulse-induced birefringence in optically isotropic glass," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5280-5283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

Chan, J. W.

Cheng, Y.

Chin, S. L.

A. Saliminia, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, "Waveguide writing in silica glass with femtosecond pulses from an optical parametric amplifier at 1.5 μm," Opt. Commun. 256, 422-427 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chiodo, N.

Davis, K. M.

De Nicola, S.

Eaton, S. M.

Ferraro, P.

Finizio, A.

Franco, M.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short IR laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 191, 333-339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gaeta, A. L.

García, J. F.

Guo, J.

P. Yang, G. R. Burns, J. Guo, T. S. Luk, and G. A. Vawter, "Femtosecond laser-pulse-induced birefringence in optically isotropic glass," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5280-5283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hartl, I.

Herman, P. R.

Hirao, K.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, S.

S. M. Eaton, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, A. Arai, H. Zhang, S. Ho, and P. R. Herman, "Thermal heating effects in writing optical waveguides with a 0.1 - 5 MHz rate ultrafast fiber laser," Proc. SPIE 5713, 35-42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Homoelle, D.

Huser, T.

Inouye, H.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Itoh, K.

Killi, A.

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, "Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909-2947 (1969).

Kopf, D.

Kowalevicz, A. M.

Krol, D. M.

Laporta, P.

Lederer, M.

Limpert, J.

M. Will, J. Burghoff, J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, "High speed fabrication of optical waveguides inside glasses using a high rep.-rate fiber CPA system," Proc. SPIE 5339, 168-174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, C.

Luk, T. S.

P. Yang, G. R. Burns, J. Guo, T. S. Luk, and G. A. Vawter, "Femtosecond laser-pulse-induced birefringence in optically isotropic glass," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5280-5283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marangoni, M.

Maselli, V.

Mazur, E.

Midorikawa, K.

Minoshima, K.

Mitsuyu, T.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgner, U.

Müller, M.

Mysyrowicz, A.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short IR laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 191, 333-339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, J.

Nolte, S.

M. Will, J. Burghoff, J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, "High speed fabrication of optical waveguides inside glasses using a high rep.-rate fiber CPA system," Proc. SPIE 5339, 168-174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Note, Y.

Onda, S.

Osellame, R.

Pierattini, G.

Polli, D.

Prade, B.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short IR laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 191, 333-339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Price, J. J.

N. F. Borrelli, C. M. Smith, J. J. Price, and D. C. Allan, "Polarized excimer laser-induced birefringence in silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 219-221 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, R.

Richardson, K.

Richardson, M.

Risbud, S.

Saliminia, A.

A. Saliminia, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, "Waveguide writing in silica glass with femtosecond pulses from an optical parametric amplifier at 1.5 μm," Opt. Commun. 256, 422-427 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, C. B.

Schreiber, T.

M. Will, J. Burghoff, J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, "High speed fabrication of optical waveguides inside glasses using a high rep.-rate fiber CPA system," Proc. SPIE 5339, 168-174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shah, L.

Sharma, V.

Silvestri, S. D.

Smith, C.

Smith, C. M.

N. F. Borrelli, C. M. Smith, J. J. Price, and D. C. Allan, "Polarized excimer laser-induced birefringence in silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 219-221 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sowa, S.

Squier, J. A.

Streltsov, A. M.

Sudrie, L.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short IR laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 191, 333-339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Sugioka, K.

Taccheo, S.

Tamaki, T.

S. Sowa, W. Watanabe, T. Tamaki, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, "Symmetric waveguides in poly(methyl methacrylate) fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 14, 291-297 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, "Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 44, L687-L689 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Toma, T.

Tuennermann, A.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

M. Will, J. Burghoff, J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, "High speed fabrication of optical waveguides inside glasses using a high rep.-rate fiber CPA system," Proc. SPIE 5339, 168-174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Valle, G. D.

Vallée, R.

A. Saliminia, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, "Waveguide writing in silica glass with femtosecond pulses from an optical parametric amplifier at 1.5 μm," Opt. Commun. 256, 422-427 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vawter, G. A.

P. Yang, G. R. Burns, J. Guo, T. S. Luk, and G. A. Vawter, "Femtosecond laser-pulse-induced birefringence in optically isotropic glass," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5280-5283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, W.

Wielandy, S.

Will, M.

M. Will, J. Burghoff, J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, "High speed fabrication of optical waveguides inside glasses using a high rep.-rate fiber CPA system," Proc. SPIE 5339, 168-174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

Yang, P.

P. Yang, G. R. Burns, J. Guo, T. S. Luk, and G. A. Vawter, "Femtosecond laser-pulse-induced birefringence in optically isotropic glass," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5280-5283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yin, A.

Yoshino, F.

S. M. Eaton, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, A. Arai, H. Zhang, S. Ho, and P. R. Herman, "Thermal heating effects in writing optical waveguides with a 0.1 - 5 MHz rate ultrafast fiber laser," Proc. SPIE 5713, 35-42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, "Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate," Opt. Express 13, 4708-4716 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zavelani-Rossi, M.

Zhang, H.

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, "Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate," Opt. Express 13, 4708-4716 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Eaton, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, A. Arai, H. Zhang, S. Ho, and P. R. Herman, "Thermal heating effects in writing optical waveguides with a 0.1 - 5 MHz rate ultrafast fiber laser," Proc. SPIE 5713, 35-42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zoubir, A.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Borrelli, C. M. Smith, J. J. Price, and D. C. Allan, "Polarized excimer laser-induced birefringence in silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 219-221 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

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J. Appl. Phys. (2)

K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, "Anisotropic refractive-index change in silica glass induced by self-trapped filament of linearly polarized femtosecond laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1889-1892 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Yang, G. R. Burns, J. Guo, T. S. Luk, and G. A. Vawter, "Femtosecond laser-pulse-induced birefringence in optically isotropic glass," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5280-5283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys (1)

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, "Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 44, L687-L689 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

A. Saliminia, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, "Waveguide writing in silica glass with femtosecond pulses from an optical parametric amplifier at 1.5 μm," Opt. Commun. 256, 422-427 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short IR laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 191, 333-339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (13)

A. Zoubir, C. Lopez, M. Richardson, and K. Richardson, "Femtosecond laser fabrication of tubular waveguides in poly(methyl methacrylate)," Opt. Lett. 29, 1840-1842 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Watanabe, Y. Note, and K. Itoh, "Fabrication of multimode interference couplers in glass using a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 2888-2890 (2005).
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C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. García, and E. Mazur, "Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy," Opt. Lett. 26, 93-95(2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Minoshima, A. M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Photonic device fabrication in glass by use of nonlinear materials processing with a femtosecond laser oscillator," Opt. Lett. 26, 1516-1518 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Kowalevicz, V. Sharma, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Minoshima, "Three-dimensional photonic devices fabricated in glass by use of a femtosecond laser oscillator," Opt. Lett. 30, 1060-1061 (2005).
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J. W. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, "Structural changes in fused silica after exposure to focused femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 1726-1728 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, "Microfluidic laser embedded in glass by three-dimensional femtosecond laser microprocessing," Opt. Lett. 29, 2007-2009 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Homoelle, S. Wielandy, A. L. Gaeta, N. F. Borrelli, and C. Smith, "Infrared photosensitivity in silica glasses exposed to femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 24, 1311-1313 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Watanabe, T. Asano, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, "Wavelength division with three-dimensional couplers fabricated by filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 2491-2493 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, T. Toma, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, "In situ observation of photoinduced refractive-index changes in filaments formed in glasses by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 19-21 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. D. Valle, S. Taccheo, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, "Optical waveguide writing with a diode-pumped femtosecond oscillator," Opt. Lett. 29, 1900-1902 (2004).
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A. M. Streltsov and N. F. Borrelli, "Fabrication and analysis of a directional coupler written in glass by nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 42-43 (2001).
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Proc. SPIE (2)

S. M. Eaton, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, A. Arai, H. Zhang, S. Ho, and P. R. Herman, "Thermal heating effects in writing optical waveguides with a 0.1 - 5 MHz rate ultrafast fiber laser," Proc. SPIE 5713, 35-42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Will, J. Burghoff, J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, "High speed fabrication of optical waveguides inside glasses using a high rep.-rate fiber CPA system," Proc. SPIE 5339, 168-174 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup for inducing structural modification in fused silica. L1, plano-convex lens (focal length f = 100 mm); L2, plano-convex lens (f= 50 mm); L3, achromatic lens (f = 200 mm); HWP, λ/2 wavelength plate; P, Glan-laser polarizer; Shutter, electromagnetic shutter; DM, dichroic mirror; OB1 and OB2, objective lenses; M, mirror.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a), (b), (d) and (e) are unpolarized transmission white-light microscope images of induced structural modifications in fused silica by 1558-nm laser pulses; (a) and (b) between 0.87 μJ/pulse (150 mW) and 2.02 μJ/pulse (350 mW) and (d) and (e) between 1.07 μJ/pulse (185 mW) and 1.1 μJ/pulse (190 mW). (c) and (f) are crossed-Nicols images of the structures indicated in (b) and (e), when the sample was set between two crossed polarizers.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Magnitude of birefringence as a function of the incident pulse energy.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Optical image of structural modifications in fused silica as a function of the scan speed at the pulse energy of 1.08 μJ/pulse (187 mW). (a) Transmission white-light microscope images of refractive-index change in fused silica observed in the xz-plane (b) and in the xy-plane by optical microscopes.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical image of the fabricated grating with a period of 10 μm in fused silica.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Thresholds of induced refractive-index change at different repetition rates.

Equations (10)

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I 45 = ( I 2 ) 2 ( 1 + cos φ ) 2 ,
I 135 = ( I 2 ) 2 ( 1 cos φ ) 2 ,
ϕ = cos 1 ( I 45 I 135 I ) .
Δn = λ cos 1 ( I 45 I 135 I ) ( 2 πd ) ,
Q = 2 πλT n 0 Λ 2 < < 1 .
Δn ( x ) = m = 1 m = Δ n m cos ( m × 2 πx Λ ) ( m = 1,2,3 , )
= Δ n 1 cos ( 2 πx Λ ) + Δ n 2 cos ( 2 * 2 πx Λ ) + ( m = 1,2,3 , ) .
η l = J l 2 ( 2 κ l T ) ( l = 1,2,3 , ) .
κ l = π Δ n l λ ( l = 1,2,3 , ) .
Δn ( x ) = m = 1 m = Δ n m ( m = 1,2,3 , ) .

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