Abstract

We report generation of squeezed vacuum in sideband modes of continuous-wave light at 946nm using a periodically poled KTiOPO4 crystal in an optical parametric oscillator. At the pump power of 250mW, we observe the squeezing level of -5.6 ± 0.1dB and the anti-squeezing level of +12.7 ± 0.1dB. The pump power dependence of the observed squeezing/anti-squeezing levels agrees with theoretically calculated values when phase fluctuation of locking is taken into account.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. S. Polzik, J. Carri, and H. J. Kimble, "Spectroscopy with squeezed light," Phys. Rev. Lett 68,3020 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. M. Caves, "Quantum-mechanical noise in an interferometer," Phys. Rev. D 23,1693 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. W. Gardiner, "Inhibition of atomic phase decays by squeezed light: a direct effect of squeezing," Phys. Rev. Lett 56,1917 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Q. A. Turchette, N. Ph. Georgiades, C. J. Hood, H. J. Kimble, and A. S. Parkins, "Squeezed excitation in cavity QED: Experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. A 58,4056 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. R. Rice and L. M. Pedrotti, "Fluorescent spectrum of a single atom in a cavity with injected squeezed vacuum," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9,2008 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. L. Braunstein and P. van Loock, "Quantum information with continuous variables," Rev. Mod. Phys. 77,513 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. S. Polzik, J. Carri, and H. J. Kimble, "Atomic spectroscopy with squeezed light for sensitivity beyond the vacuum-state limit," Appl. Phys. B 55,279 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Schneider, M. Lang, J. Mlynek, and S. Schiller, "Generation of strongly squeezed continuous-wave light at 1064 nm," Optics Express 2,59 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quant. Elctron. 28,2631 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, W. R. Bosenberg, and J. W. Pierce, "Quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12,2102 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. E. Anderson, M. Beck, M. G. Raymer, and J. D. Bierlein, "Quadrature squeezing with ultrashort pulses in nonlinear-optical waveguides," Opt. Lett. 20,620 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. K. Serkland, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, and Y. Yamamoto, "Squeezing in a quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 waveguide," Opt. Lett. 20,1649 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. K. Serkland, P. Kumar, M. A. Arbore, and M. M. Fejer, "Amplitude squeezing by means of quasi-phasematched second-harmonic generation in a lithium niobate waveguide," Opt. Lett. 22,1497 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Hirano, K. Kotani, T. Ishibashi, S. Okude, and T. Kuwamoto, "3 dB squeezing by single-pass parametric amplification in a periodically poled KTiOPO4," Opt. Lett. 30,1722 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. P. K. Lam, T. C. Ralph, B. C. Buchler, D. E. McClelland, H. A. Bachor, and J. Gao, "Optimization and transfer of vacuum squeezing from an optical parametric oscillator," J. Opt. B 1,469 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. McKenzie, N. Grosse,W. P. Bowen, S. E. Whitcomb, M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, and P. K. Lam, "Squeezing in the audio gravitational-wave detection band," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,161105 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. T. Y. Fan and R. L. Byer, "Continuous-wave operation of a room-temperature, diode-laser-pumped, 946-nm Nd:YAG laser," Opt. Lett. 12,809 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. A. Shaddock, M. B. Gray, and D. E. McClelland, "Frequency locking a laser to an optical cavity by use of spatial mode interference," Opt. Lett. 24,1499 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. J. Collett and C.W. Gardiner, "Squeezing of intracavity and traveling-wave light fields produced in parametric amplification," Phys. Rev. A 30,1386 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Wang, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, "Dynamics of green light-induced infrared absorption in KTiOPO4 and periodically poled KTiOPO4," J. Appl. Phys. 96,2023 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Mabuchi, E. S. Polzik, and H. J. Kimble, "Blue-light-induced infrared absorption in KNbO3," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11,2023 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. C. Zhang, K.W. Goh, C.W. Chou, P. Lodahl, and H. J. Kimble, "Quantum teleportation of light beams," Phys. Rev. A 67,033802 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

K. McKenzie, N. Grosse,W. P. Bowen, S. E. Whitcomb, M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, and P. K. Lam, "Squeezing in the audio gravitational-wave detection band," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,161105 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wang, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, "Dynamics of green light-induced infrared absorption in KTiOPO4 and periodically poled KTiOPO4," J. Appl. Phys. 96,2023 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. C. Zhang, K.W. Goh, C.W. Chou, P. Lodahl, and H. J. Kimble, "Quantum teleportation of light beams," Phys. Rev. A 67,033802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

D. A. Shaddock, M. B. Gray, and D. E. McClelland, "Frequency locking a laser to an optical cavity by use of spatial mode interference," Opt. Lett. 24,1499 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Lam, T. C. Ralph, B. C. Buchler, D. E. McClelland, H. A. Bachor, and J. Gao, "Optimization and transfer of vacuum squeezing from an optical parametric oscillator," J. Opt. B 1,469 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

K. Schneider, M. Lang, J. Mlynek, and S. Schiller, "Generation of strongly squeezed continuous-wave light at 1064 nm," Optics Express 2,59 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. A. Turchette, N. Ph. Georgiades, C. J. Hood, H. J. Kimble, and A. S. Parkins, "Squeezed excitation in cavity QED: Experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. A 58,4056 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1995 (3)

1994 (1)

1992 (4)

P. R. Rice and L. M. Pedrotti, "Fluorescent spectrum of a single atom in a cavity with injected squeezed vacuum," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9,2008 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Polzik, J. Carri, and H. J. Kimble, "Spectroscopy with squeezed light," Phys. Rev. Lett 68,3020 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quant. Elctron. 28,2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Polzik, J. Carri, and H. J. Kimble, "Atomic spectroscopy with squeezed light for sensitivity beyond the vacuum-state limit," Appl. Phys. B 55,279 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

C. W. Gardiner, "Inhibition of atomic phase decays by squeezed light: a direct effect of squeezing," Phys. Rev. Lett 56,1917 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

M. J. Collett and C.W. Gardiner, "Squeezing of intracavity and traveling-wave light fields produced in parametric amplification," Phys. Rev. A 30,1386 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

C. M. Caves, "Quantum-mechanical noise in an interferometer," Phys. Rev. D 23,1693 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, M. E.

Arbore, M. A.

Bachor, H. A.

P. K. Lam, T. C. Ralph, B. C. Buchler, D. E. McClelland, H. A. Bachor, and J. Gao, "Optimization and transfer of vacuum squeezing from an optical parametric oscillator," J. Opt. B 1,469 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

Bierlein, J. D.

Bosenberg, W. R.

Bowen, W. P.

K. McKenzie, N. Grosse,W. P. Bowen, S. E. Whitcomb, M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, and P. K. Lam, "Squeezing in the audio gravitational-wave detection band," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,161105 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braunstein, S. L.

S. L. Braunstein and P. van Loock, "Quantum information with continuous variables," Rev. Mod. Phys. 77,513 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Buchler, B. C.

P. K. Lam, T. C. Ralph, B. C. Buchler, D. E. McClelland, H. A. Bachor, and J. Gao, "Optimization and transfer of vacuum squeezing from an optical parametric oscillator," J. Opt. B 1,469 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

Carri, J.

E. S. Polzik, J. Carri, and H. J. Kimble, "Atomic spectroscopy with squeezed light for sensitivity beyond the vacuum-state limit," Appl. Phys. B 55,279 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Polzik, J. Carri, and H. J. Kimble, "Spectroscopy with squeezed light," Phys. Rev. Lett 68,3020 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caves, C. M.

C. M. Caves, "Quantum-mechanical noise in an interferometer," Phys. Rev. D 23,1693 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chou, C.W.

T. C. Zhang, K.W. Goh, C.W. Chou, P. Lodahl, and H. J. Kimble, "Quantum teleportation of light beams," Phys. Rev. A 67,033802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Collett, M. J.

M. J. Collett and C.W. Gardiner, "Squeezing of intracavity and traveling-wave light fields produced in parametric amplification," Phys. Rev. A 30,1386 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Eckardt, R. C.

Fan, T. Y.

Fejer, M. M.

Gao, J.

P. K. Lam, T. C. Ralph, B. C. Buchler, D. E. McClelland, H. A. Bachor, and J. Gao, "Optimization and transfer of vacuum squeezing from an optical parametric oscillator," J. Opt. B 1,469 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gardiner, C. W.

C. W. Gardiner, "Inhibition of atomic phase decays by squeezed light: a direct effect of squeezing," Phys. Rev. Lett 56,1917 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gardiner, C.W.

M. J. Collett and C.W. Gardiner, "Squeezing of intracavity and traveling-wave light fields produced in parametric amplification," Phys. Rev. A 30,1386 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Georgiades, N. Ph.

Q. A. Turchette, N. Ph. Georgiades, C. J. Hood, H. J. Kimble, and A. S. Parkins, "Squeezed excitation in cavity QED: Experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. A 58,4056 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goh, K.W.

T. C. Zhang, K.W. Goh, C.W. Chou, P. Lodahl, and H. J. Kimble, "Quantum teleportation of light beams," Phys. Rev. A 67,033802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gray, M. B.

K. McKenzie, N. Grosse,W. P. Bowen, S. E. Whitcomb, M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, and P. K. Lam, "Squeezing in the audio gravitational-wave detection band," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,161105 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Shaddock, M. B. Gray, and D. E. McClelland, "Frequency locking a laser to an optical cavity by use of spatial mode interference," Opt. Lett. 24,1499 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grosse, N.

K. McKenzie, N. Grosse,W. P. Bowen, S. E. Whitcomb, M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, and P. K. Lam, "Squeezing in the audio gravitational-wave detection band," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,161105 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirano, T.

Hood, C. J.

Q. A. Turchette, N. Ph. Georgiades, C. J. Hood, H. J. Kimble, and A. S. Parkins, "Squeezed excitation in cavity QED: Experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. A 58,4056 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ishibashi, T.

Jundt, D. H.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quant. Elctron. 28,2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kimble, H. J.

T. C. Zhang, K.W. Goh, C.W. Chou, P. Lodahl, and H. J. Kimble, "Quantum teleportation of light beams," Phys. Rev. A 67,033802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Q. A. Turchette, N. Ph. Georgiades, C. J. Hood, H. J. Kimble, and A. S. Parkins, "Squeezed excitation in cavity QED: Experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. A 58,4056 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Mabuchi, E. S. Polzik, and H. J. Kimble, "Blue-light-induced infrared absorption in KNbO3," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11,2023 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Polzik, J. Carri, and H. J. Kimble, "Atomic spectroscopy with squeezed light for sensitivity beyond the vacuum-state limit," Appl. Phys. B 55,279 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Polzik, J. Carri, and H. J. Kimble, "Spectroscopy with squeezed light," Phys. Rev. Lett 68,3020 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kotani, K.

Kumar, P.

Kuwamoto, T.

Lam, P. K.

K. McKenzie, N. Grosse,W. P. Bowen, S. E. Whitcomb, M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, and P. K. Lam, "Squeezing in the audio gravitational-wave detection band," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,161105 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Lam, T. C. Ralph, B. C. Buchler, D. E. McClelland, H. A. Bachor, and J. Gao, "Optimization and transfer of vacuum squeezing from an optical parametric oscillator," J. Opt. B 1,469 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lang, M.

K. Schneider, M. Lang, J. Mlynek, and S. Schiller, "Generation of strongly squeezed continuous-wave light at 1064 nm," Optics Express 2,59 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laurell, F.

S. Wang, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, "Dynamics of green light-induced infrared absorption in KTiOPO4 and periodically poled KTiOPO4," J. Appl. Phys. 96,2023 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lodahl, P.

T. C. Zhang, K.W. Goh, C.W. Chou, P. Lodahl, and H. J. Kimble, "Quantum teleportation of light beams," Phys. Rev. A 67,033802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mabuchi, H.

Magel, G. A.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quant. Elctron. 28,2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

McClelland, D. E.

K. McKenzie, N. Grosse,W. P. Bowen, S. E. Whitcomb, M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, and P. K. Lam, "Squeezing in the audio gravitational-wave detection band," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,161105 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Shaddock, M. B. Gray, and D. E. McClelland, "Frequency locking a laser to an optical cavity by use of spatial mode interference," Opt. Lett. 24,1499 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Lam, T. C. Ralph, B. C. Buchler, D. E. McClelland, H. A. Bachor, and J. Gao, "Optimization and transfer of vacuum squeezing from an optical parametric oscillator," J. Opt. B 1,469 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McKenzie, K.

K. McKenzie, N. Grosse,W. P. Bowen, S. E. Whitcomb, M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, and P. K. Lam, "Squeezing in the audio gravitational-wave detection band," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,161105 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mlynek, J.

K. Schneider, M. Lang, J. Mlynek, and S. Schiller, "Generation of strongly squeezed continuous-wave light at 1064 nm," Optics Express 2,59 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Myers, L. E.

Okude, S.

Parkins, A. S.

Q. A. Turchette, N. Ph. Georgiades, C. J. Hood, H. J. Kimble, and A. S. Parkins, "Squeezed excitation in cavity QED: Experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. A 58,4056 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pasiskevicius, V.

S. Wang, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, "Dynamics of green light-induced infrared absorption in KTiOPO4 and periodically poled KTiOPO4," J. Appl. Phys. 96,2023 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pedrotti, L. M.

Pierce, J. W.

Polzik, E. S.

H. Mabuchi, E. S. Polzik, and H. J. Kimble, "Blue-light-induced infrared absorption in KNbO3," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11,2023 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Polzik, J. Carri, and H. J. Kimble, "Atomic spectroscopy with squeezed light for sensitivity beyond the vacuum-state limit," Appl. Phys. B 55,279 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Polzik, J. Carri, and H. J. Kimble, "Spectroscopy with squeezed light," Phys. Rev. Lett 68,3020 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ralph, T. C.

P. K. Lam, T. C. Ralph, B. C. Buchler, D. E. McClelland, H. A. Bachor, and J. Gao, "Optimization and transfer of vacuum squeezing from an optical parametric oscillator," J. Opt. B 1,469 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Raymer, M. G.

Rice, P. R.

Schiller, S.

K. Schneider, M. Lang, J. Mlynek, and S. Schiller, "Generation of strongly squeezed continuous-wave light at 1064 nm," Optics Express 2,59 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneider, K.

K. Schneider, M. Lang, J. Mlynek, and S. Schiller, "Generation of strongly squeezed continuous-wave light at 1064 nm," Optics Express 2,59 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serkland, D. K.

Shaddock, D. A.

Turchette, Q. A.

Q. A. Turchette, N. Ph. Georgiades, C. J. Hood, H. J. Kimble, and A. S. Parkins, "Squeezed excitation in cavity QED: Experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. A 58,4056 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van Loock, P.

S. L. Braunstein and P. van Loock, "Quantum information with continuous variables," Rev. Mod. Phys. 77,513 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, "Dynamics of green light-induced infrared absorption in KTiOPO4 and periodically poled KTiOPO4," J. Appl. Phys. 96,2023 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Whitcomb, S. E.

K. McKenzie, N. Grosse,W. P. Bowen, S. E. Whitcomb, M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, and P. K. Lam, "Squeezing in the audio gravitational-wave detection band," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,161105 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, Y.

Zhang, T. C.

T. C. Zhang, K.W. Goh, C.W. Chou, P. Lodahl, and H. J. Kimble, "Quantum teleportation of light beams," Phys. Rev. A 67,033802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

E. S. Polzik, J. Carri, and H. J. Kimble, "Atomic spectroscopy with squeezed light for sensitivity beyond the vacuum-state limit," Appl. Phys. B 55,279 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quant. Elctron. (1)

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quant. Elctron. 28,2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Wang, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, "Dynamics of green light-induced infrared absorption in KTiOPO4 and periodically poled KTiOPO4," J. Appl. Phys. 96,2023 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. B (1)

P. K. Lam, T. C. Ralph, B. C. Buchler, D. E. McClelland, H. A. Bachor, and J. Gao, "Optimization and transfer of vacuum squeezing from an optical parametric oscillator," J. Opt. B 1,469 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Optics Express (1)

K. Schneider, M. Lang, J. Mlynek, and S. Schiller, "Generation of strongly squeezed continuous-wave light at 1064 nm," Optics Express 2,59 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (3)

Q. A. Turchette, N. Ph. Georgiades, C. J. Hood, H. J. Kimble, and A. S. Parkins, "Squeezed excitation in cavity QED: Experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. A 58,4056 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Zhang, K.W. Goh, C.W. Chou, P. Lodahl, and H. J. Kimble, "Quantum teleportation of light beams," Phys. Rev. A 67,033802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Collett and C.W. Gardiner, "Squeezing of intracavity and traveling-wave light fields produced in parametric amplification," Phys. Rev. A 30,1386 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. D (1)

C. M. Caves, "Quantum-mechanical noise in an interferometer," Phys. Rev. D 23,1693 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett (2)

C. W. Gardiner, "Inhibition of atomic phase decays by squeezed light: a direct effect of squeezing," Phys. Rev. Lett 56,1917 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Polzik, J. Carri, and H. J. Kimble, "Spectroscopy with squeezed light," Phys. Rev. Lett 68,3020 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

K. McKenzie, N. Grosse,W. P. Bowen, S. E. Whitcomb, M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, and P. K. Lam, "Squeezing in the audio gravitational-wave detection band," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,161105 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

S. L. Braunstein and P. van Loock, "Quantum information with continuous variables," Rev. Mod. Phys. 77,513 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup. LO: local oscillator, OPO: optical parametric oscillator, SA: spectrum analyzer. Homodyne detector1 is used to measure the amplitude of the lock beam to lock the OPO cavity length. AC output of the homodyne detector2 is put into a spectrum analyzer to measure the squeezing/anti-squeezing levels, while DC output is used to lock the LO phase and pump beam phase relative to the probe beam.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured noise levels at the pump power of 250mW. (i) LO phase is scanned. (ii) LO phase is locked at anti-squeezed quadrature. (iii) LO phase is locked at squeezed quadrature. (iv) Shotnoise level. Noise levels are displayed as the relative power compared to the shotnoise level (0dB). The settings of the spectrum analyzer are, zero-span mode at 1MHz, resolution bandwidth = 30kHz, video bandwidth = 300Hz. All the traces except (i) are averaged for 30 times. Detector circuit noise is not corrected.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Pump power dependence of the observed squeezing/anti-squeezing levels (circles/squares) and calculated values (upper/lower triangles) according to eq. (5). Detector circuit noise is corrected for experimentally observed levels.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R ± = 1 ± αρ 4 x ( 1 x ) 2 + 4 Ω 2 ,
ρ = T T + L ,
G = 1 ( 1 x ) 2 .
Ω = ω γ .
R ± ( θ ˜ ) = 1 2 π θ ˜ exp ( θ 2 2 θ ˜ 2 ) ( R ± cos 2 θ + R sin 2 θ )
R ± cos 2 θ ˜ + R sin 2 θ ˜ .

Metrics