Abstract

This paper discusses the effect of slow-light in Vertical-Cavity Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers. A Fabry-Perot model is used to predict the group delay (GD) and GD-bandwidth performance of a VCSOA operated in reflection in the linear regime. It is shown that the GD depends on all cavity parameters while the GDxGD-bandwidth product only depends on the gain. Experimental demonstration with a 1300nm GaInNAs VCSOA is used to validate the model and demonstrate tunable GDs between 25 and 100 ps by varying the VCSOA gain. Experimental distortion of the signals induced by nonlinear effects is also presented.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. W. Boyd and D. J. Gauthier, "Slow" and "Fast" Light," in Progress in Optics, 43, E. E. Wolf, ed., (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2002), pp. 497-530.
  2. I. Frigyes and A. J. Seeds, "Optically generated true-time delay in phased-array antennas," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2378-2386 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. K. Madsen, and R. E. Slusher, "Optical delay lines based on optical filters," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 525-532 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. S. Tucker, P. C. Ku, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Slow-light optical buffers: Capabilities and fundamental limitations," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4046-4066, (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. C. Ku, F. Sedgwick, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, P. Palinginis, T. Li, H. L. Wang, S. W. Chang, and S. L. Chuang, "Slow light in semiconductor quantum wells," Opt. Lett. 29, 2291-2293 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. W. Chang and S. L. Chuang, "Slow light based on population oscillation in quantum dots with inhomogeneous broadening," Phys. Rev. B 72, 235330 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. R. Chang, D. D. Smith, K. A. Fuller, J. O. Dimmock, D. A. Gregory, and D. O. Frazier, "Slow and fast light in coupled microresonators," in Advanced Optical and Quantum Memories and Computing II, H. J. Coufal, Z. U. Hasan, and A. E. Craig,eds., Proc SPIE 5735, 40-51 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. B. Matsko, D. V. Strekalov, and L. Maleki, "On the dynamic range of optical delay lines based on coherent atomic media," Opt. Express 13, 2210-2223 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Minin, M. R. Fisher, and S. L. Chuang, "Current-controlled group delay using a semiconductor Fabry-Perot amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3238-3240 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. R. Fisher, S. Minin, and S. L. Chuang, "Tunable optical group delay in an active waveguide semiconductor resonator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 197-203, 2005.
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Stapleton, S. Farrell, H. Akhavan, R. Shafiiha, Z. Peng, S.-J. Choi, J. O’Brian and P. D. Dapkus, "Optical phase characterization of active semiconductor microdisk resonators in transmission," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, art. 031106 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. X. Zhao, P. Palinginis, B. Pesala, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and P. Hemmer, "Tunable ultraslow light in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser amplifier," Opt. Express 13, 7899-7904 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. N. Laurand, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, A. C. Bryce, T. Jouhti, J. Konttinen, and M. Pessa, "Performance comparison of GaInNAs vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 642-649 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2005

R. S. Tucker, P. C. Ku, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Slow-light optical buffers: Capabilities and fundamental limitations," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4046-4066, (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Matsko, D. V. Strekalov, and L. Maleki, "On the dynamic range of optical delay lines based on coherent atomic media," Opt. Express 13, 2210-2223 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Fisher, S. Minin, and S. L. Chuang, "Tunable optical group delay in an active waveguide semiconductor resonator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 197-203, 2005.
[CrossRef]

X. X. Zhao, P. Palinginis, B. Pesala, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and P. Hemmer, "Tunable ultraslow light in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser amplifier," Opt. Express 13, 7899-7904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Laurand, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, A. C. Bryce, T. Jouhti, J. Konttinen, and M. Pessa, "Performance comparison of GaInNAs vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 642-649 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Minin, M. R. Fisher, and S. L. Chuang, "Current-controlled group delay using a semiconductor Fabry-Perot amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3238-3240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Ku, F. Sedgwick, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, P. Palinginis, T. Li, H. L. Wang, S. W. Chang, and S. L. Chuang, "Slow light in semiconductor quantum wells," Opt. Lett. 29, 2291-2293 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. K. Madsen, and R. E. Slusher, "Optical delay lines based on optical filters," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 525-532 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1995

I. Frigyes and A. J. Seeds, "Optically generated true-time delay in phased-array antennas," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2378-2386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bryce, A. C.

N. Laurand, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, A. C. Bryce, T. Jouhti, J. Konttinen, and M. Pessa, "Performance comparison of GaInNAs vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 642-649 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Calvez, S.

N. Laurand, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, A. C. Bryce, T. Jouhti, J. Konttinen, and M. Pessa, "Performance comparison of GaInNAs vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 642-649 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. W.

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

Chuang, S. L.

M. R. Fisher, S. Minin, and S. L. Chuang, "Tunable optical group delay in an active waveguide semiconductor resonator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 197-203, 2005.
[CrossRef]

P. C. Ku, F. Sedgwick, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, P. Palinginis, T. Li, H. L. Wang, S. W. Chang, and S. L. Chuang, "Slow light in semiconductor quantum wells," Opt. Lett. 29, 2291-2293 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Minin, M. R. Fisher, and S. L. Chuang, "Current-controlled group delay using a semiconductor Fabry-Perot amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3238-3240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, M. D.

N. Laurand, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, A. C. Bryce, T. Jouhti, J. Konttinen, and M. Pessa, "Performance comparison of GaInNAs vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 642-649 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. K. Madsen, and R. E. Slusher, "Optical delay lines based on optical filters," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 525-532 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, M. R.

M. R. Fisher, S. Minin, and S. L. Chuang, "Tunable optical group delay in an active waveguide semiconductor resonator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 197-203, 2005.
[CrossRef]

S. Minin, M. R. Fisher, and S. L. Chuang, "Current-controlled group delay using a semiconductor Fabry-Perot amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3238-3240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Frigyes, I.

I. Frigyes and A. J. Seeds, "Optically generated true-time delay in phased-array antennas," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2378-2386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hamann, H. F.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hemmer, P.

Jouhti, T.

N. Laurand, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, A. C. Bryce, T. Jouhti, J. Konttinen, and M. Pessa, "Performance comparison of GaInNAs vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 642-649 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Konttinen, J.

N. Laurand, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, A. C. Bryce, T. Jouhti, J. Konttinen, and M. Pessa, "Performance comparison of GaInNAs vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 642-649 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ku, P. C.

Laurand, N.

N. Laurand, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, A. C. Bryce, T. Jouhti, J. Konttinen, and M. Pessa, "Performance comparison of GaInNAs vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 642-649 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lenz, G.

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. K. Madsen, and R. E. Slusher, "Optical delay lines based on optical filters," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 525-532 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

Madsen, C. K.

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. K. Madsen, and R. E. Slusher, "Optical delay lines based on optical filters," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 525-532 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, L.

Matsko, A. B.

McNab, S. J.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minin, S.

M. R. Fisher, S. Minin, and S. L. Chuang, "Tunable optical group delay in an active waveguide semiconductor resonator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 197-203, 2005.
[CrossRef]

S. Minin, M. R. Fisher, and S. L. Chuang, "Current-controlled group delay using a semiconductor Fabry-Perot amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3238-3240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O'Boyle, M.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palinginis, P.

Pesala, B.

Pessa, M.

N. Laurand, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, A. C. Bryce, T. Jouhti, J. Konttinen, and M. Pessa, "Performance comparison of GaInNAs vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 642-649 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sedgwick, F.

Seeds, A. J.

I. Frigyes and A. J. Seeds, "Optically generated true-time delay in phased-array antennas," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2378-2386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. K. Madsen, and R. E. Slusher, "Optical delay lines based on optical filters," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 525-532 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Strekalov, D. V.

Tucker, R. S.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H. L.

Zhao, X. X.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Minin, M. R. Fisher, and S. L. Chuang, "Current-controlled group delay using a semiconductor Fabry-Perot amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3238-3240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. K. Madsen, and R. E. Slusher, "Optical delay lines based on optical filters," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 525-532 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Laurand, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, A. C. Bryce, T. Jouhti, J. Konttinen, and M. Pessa, "Performance comparison of GaInNAs vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 642-649 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

M. R. Fisher, S. Minin, and S. L. Chuang, "Tunable optical group delay in an active waveguide semiconductor resonator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 197-203, 2005.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.

I. Frigyes and A. J. Seeds, "Optically generated true-time delay in phased-array antennas," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2378-2386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Nature

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

H. R. Chang, D. D. Smith, K. A. Fuller, J. O. Dimmock, D. A. Gregory, and D. O. Frazier, "Slow and fast light in coupled microresonators," in Advanced Optical and Quantum Memories and Computing II, H. J. Coufal, Z. U. Hasan, and A. E. Craig,eds., Proc SPIE 5735, 40-51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Stapleton, S. Farrell, H. Akhavan, R. Shafiiha, Z. Peng, S.-J. Choi, J. O’Brian and P. D. Dapkus, "Optical phase characterization of active semiconductor microdisk resonators in transmission," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, art. 031106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Boyd and D. J. Gauthier, "Slow" and "Fast" Light," in Progress in Optics, 43, E. E. Wolf, ed., (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2002), pp. 497-530.

S. W. Chang and S. L. Chuang, "Slow light based on population oscillation in quantum dots with inhomogeneous broadening," Phys. Rev. B 72, 235330 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Top: VCSOA GD as a function of the device gain for different cavity parameters with corresponding threshold curves. Bottom: GDxGD-bandwidth product as a function of device gain.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) VCSOA GD measurement set-up; (b) Examples of normalized RF signal delay measurements in linear regime at different VCSOA gain.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Group delay as a function of the VCSOA gain in dB; (b) Gain and delay spectra for G=17dB and GD=100 ps.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) VCSOA output signal for different Pin. (b) VCSOA output signal for signal-VCSOA resonance detuning of -40, 0 and 40 pm for Pin=-11dBm and a small-signal gain Gsm~13dB.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

G ( λ ) = R f + C M ( 1 R f ) R b g s k = 0 ( R f R b g s e ) k 2
= ( R f D R b g s ) 2 + 4 D R f R b g s sin 2 φ 2 ( 1 R f R b g s ) 2 + 4 D R f R b g s sin 2 φ 2
ϕ ( λ ) = Arc tan R b g s ( R f D ) sin φ R f · ( 1 + R b D g s 2 ) R f g s ( R f + D ) cos φ
GD ( λ ) = ( λ ) λ 2 2 π c = 2 L C c R b g s 2 ( D 2 R f 2 ) R f R b ( 1 + R b Dg s 2 ) ( D R f ) g s cos φ R f + R b g s 2 ( D 2 + R f 2 + R f R b D 2 g s 2 ) 2 R f R b ( 1 + R b Dg s 2 ) g s ( D + R f ) cos φ + 4 R f R b Dg s 2 cos 2 φ

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