Abstract

Reconfigurablele optical interconnects enable flexible and high-performance communication in multi-chip architectures to be arbitrarily adapted, leading to efficient parallel signal processing. The use of Opto-VLSI processors as beam steerers and multicasters for reconfigurable interchip optical interconnection is discussed. We demonstrate, as proof-ofconcept, 2.5 Gbps reconfigurable optical interconnects between an 850nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) array and a photodiode (PD) array integrated onto a PCB by driving two Opto-VLSI processors with steering and multicasting digital phase holograms. The architecture is experimentally demonstrated through three scenarios showing its flexibility to perform single, multicasting, and parallel reconfigurable optical interconnects. To our knowledge, this is the first reported high-speed reconfigurable N-to-N optical interconnects architecture, which will have a significant impact on the flexibility and efficiency of large shared-memory multiprocessor machines.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2006

C. J. Henderson, D. G. Leyva, T. D. Wilkinson, "Free space adaptive optical interconnect at 1.25 gb/s, with beam steering using a ferroelectric liquid-crystal slm," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1989 - 1997 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Aljada, K. E. Alameh, and K. Al-Begain, "Opto-VLSI-based correlator architecture for multi-wavelength optical header recognition," J. Lighwave Technol. 24, 2779-2785 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

2003

S. Ahderom, M. Raisi, K. E. Alameh, and K. Eshraghian, "Dynamic WDM equalizer using opto-VLSI beam processing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1603-1605 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. J Liu, Z. Kalayjian, B. Riely, W. Chang, G. J. Simonis, A. Apsel, and A. Andreou, "Multichannel ultrathin silicon-on-sapphire optical interconnects," IEEE J.Sel. Top. Quantum. Elect.  9, 380 - 386 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

R. Wang, A. D. Raki, and M. L. Majewski, "Design of microchannel free-space optical interconnects based on vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays," Appl. Opt. 41, 3469-3478 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. G. Manolis, T. D. Wilkinson, M. M. Redmond, and W. A. Crossland, "Reconfigurable multilevel phase holograms for Optical switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 801-803 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

V. M. Hietala, C. Chun, J. Laskar, K. D. Choquette, K. M. Geib, A. A. Allerman, and J. J. Hindi, "Two-dimensional 8×8 photoreceiver array and VCSEL drivers for high-throughput optical data links," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 36, 1297-1302 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Chateauneuf, A. G. Kirk, and J. S. Ahearn, "256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSEL’s and photodiodes on CMOS," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1093-1103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Mederer, R. Jager, H. J. Unold, R. Michalzik, K. J. Ebeling, S. Lehmacher, A. Neyer, and E. Griese, "3-Gb/s data transmission with GaAs VCSEL’s over PCB integrated polymer waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1032-1034 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

Y. Li, J. Ai, and J. Popelek, "Board-level 2-D data-capable optical interconnect circuits using polymer fiber-image guides," Proc. IEEE. 88, 794-805 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. May, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, J. F. Ahadian, C. G. Fonstad, K. L. Lear, K. Tatah, M. S. Robinson, and J. A. Trezza, "Interconnection of a two-dimensional array of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers to a receiver array by means of a fiber image guide," Appl. Opt. 39, 683-689 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, and A. G. Kirk, "Optical interconnects at the chip and board level: challenges and solutions," Proc IEEE. 88, 806 - 818 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Fey, W. Erhard, M. Gruber, J. Jahns, H. Bartelt, G. Grimm, L. Hoppe, and S. Sinzinger, "Optical interconnects for neural and reconfigurable VLSI architectures," Proc. IEEE.  88, 838 - 848 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, "Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects," Proc. IEEE. 88, 780-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

R. Bockstaele, T. Coosemans, C. Sys, L. Vanwassenhove, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, R. Baets, R. Annen, H. Melchior, J. Hall, P. L. Heremans, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, "Realization and characterization of 8 x 8 resonant cavity LED arrays mounted onto CMOS drivers for POF-based interchip interconnections," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Elect.  5, 224-235 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Baukens, G. Verschaffelt, P. Tuteleers, P. Vynck, H. Ottevaere, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, I. Veretennicoff, R. Bockstaele, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, and H. Thienpont, "Performances of optical multi-chip-module interconnects: comparing guided-wave and free-space pathways," J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt.  1, 255-261 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. Goulet, N. Nieuborg, H. Thienpont, A. Kirk, P. Koczyk, P. Heremans, M. Kuijk, C. De Tandt, W. Ranson, R. Vounckx, and I. Veretennicoff, "Polarization-based reconfigurable optical interconnects in free-space optical processing modules," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 367 - 369 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993

H. F. Bare, F. Haas, D. A. Honey, D. Mikolas, H. G. Craighead, G. Pugh, and R. Soave, "A simple surface-emitting LED array useful for developing free-space optical interconnect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 172 - 175 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

1979

H. Dammann, "Spectral characteristics of stepped-phase gratings," Optik 53, 409-417 (1979).

Ahadian, J. F.

Ahderom, S.

S. Ahderom, M. Raisi, K. E. Alameh, and K. Eshraghian, "Dynamic WDM equalizer using opto-VLSI beam processing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1603-1605 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ahearn, J. S.

Ai, J.

Y. Li, J. Ai, and J. Popelek, "Board-level 2-D data-capable optical interconnect circuits using polymer fiber-image guides," Proc. IEEE. 88, 794-805 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Alameh, K. E.

M. Aljada, K. E. Alameh, and K. Al-Begain, "Opto-VLSI-based correlator architecture for multi-wavelength optical header recognition," J. Lighwave Technol. 24, 2779-2785 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, R. Zheng, K. E. Alameh, R. Robertson, U. Mueller, and L. Bloom, "Opto-VLSI-based dynamic optical splitter," Electron. Lett.  40, 1445 - 1446 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Ahderom, M. Raisi, K. E. Alameh, and K. Eshraghian, "Dynamic WDM equalizer using opto-VLSI beam processing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1603-1605 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Al-Begain, K.

M. Aljada, K. E. Alameh, and K. Al-Begain, "Opto-VLSI-based correlator architecture for multi-wavelength optical header recognition," J. Lighwave Technol. 24, 2779-2785 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ali, M. E.

Aljada, M.

M. Aljada, K. E. Alameh, and K. Al-Begain, "Opto-VLSI-based correlator architecture for multi-wavelength optical header recognition," J. Lighwave Technol. 24, 2779-2785 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Allerman, A. A.

V. M. Hietala, C. Chun, J. Laskar, K. D. Choquette, K. M. Geib, A. A. Allerman, and J. J. Hindi, "Two-dimensional 8×8 photoreceiver array and VCSEL drivers for high-throughput optical data links," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 36, 1297-1302 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Andreou, A.

J. J Liu, Z. Kalayjian, B. Riely, W. Chang, G. J. Simonis, A. Apsel, and A. Andreou, "Multichannel ultrathin silicon-on-sapphire optical interconnects," IEEE J.Sel. Top. Quantum. Elect.  9, 380 - 386 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Annen, R.

R. Bockstaele, T. Coosemans, C. Sys, L. Vanwassenhove, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, R. Baets, R. Annen, H. Melchior, J. Hall, P. L. Heremans, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, "Realization and characterization of 8 x 8 resonant cavity LED arrays mounted onto CMOS drivers for POF-based interchip interconnections," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Elect.  5, 224-235 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Apsel, A.

J. J Liu, Z. Kalayjian, B. Riely, W. Chang, G. J. Simonis, A. Apsel, and A. Andreou, "Multichannel ultrathin silicon-on-sapphire optical interconnects," IEEE J.Sel. Top. Quantum. Elect.  9, 380 - 386 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

R. Bockstaele, T. Coosemans, C. Sys, L. Vanwassenhove, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, R. Baets, R. Annen, H. Melchior, J. Hall, P. L. Heremans, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, "Realization and characterization of 8 x 8 resonant cavity LED arrays mounted onto CMOS drivers for POF-based interchip interconnections," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Elect.  5, 224-235 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Baukens, G. Verschaffelt, P. Tuteleers, P. Vynck, H. Ottevaere, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, I. Veretennicoff, R. Bockstaele, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, and H. Thienpont, "Performances of optical multi-chip-module interconnects: comparing guided-wave and free-space pathways," J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt.  1, 255-261 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bare, H. F.

H. F. Bare, F. Haas, D. A. Honey, D. Mikolas, H. G. Craighead, G. Pugh, and R. Soave, "A simple surface-emitting LED array useful for developing free-space optical interconnect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 172 - 175 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bartelt, H.

D. Fey, W. Erhard, M. Gruber, J. Jahns, H. Bartelt, G. Grimm, L. Hoppe, and S. Sinzinger, "Optical interconnects for neural and reconfigurable VLSI architectures," Proc. IEEE.  88, 838 - 848 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Baukens, V.

V. Baukens, G. Verschaffelt, P. Tuteleers, P. Vynck, H. Ottevaere, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, I. Veretennicoff, R. Bockstaele, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, and H. Thienpont, "Performances of optical multi-chip-module interconnects: comparing guided-wave and free-space pathways," J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt.  1, 255-261 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bihari, B.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, "Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects," Proc. IEEE. 88, 780-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bloom, L.

Z. Wang, R. Zheng, K. E. Alameh, R. Robertson, U. Mueller, and L. Bloom, "Opto-VLSI-based dynamic optical splitter," Electron. Lett.  40, 1445 - 1446 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bockstaele, R.

V. Baukens, G. Verschaffelt, P. Tuteleers, P. Vynck, H. Ottevaere, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, I. Veretennicoff, R. Bockstaele, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, and H. Thienpont, "Performances of optical multi-chip-module interconnects: comparing guided-wave and free-space pathways," J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt.  1, 255-261 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Bockstaele, T. Coosemans, C. Sys, L. Vanwassenhove, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, R. Baets, R. Annen, H. Melchior, J. Hall, P. L. Heremans, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, "Realization and characterization of 8 x 8 resonant cavity LED arrays mounted onto CMOS drivers for POF-based interchip interconnections," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Elect.  5, 224-235 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bristow, J.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, "Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects," Proc. IEEE. 88, 780-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brunfaut, M.

R. Bockstaele, T. Coosemans, C. Sys, L. Vanwassenhove, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, R. Baets, R. Annen, H. Melchior, J. Hall, P. L. Heremans, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, "Realization and characterization of 8 x 8 resonant cavity LED arrays mounted onto CMOS drivers for POF-based interchip interconnections," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Elect.  5, 224-235 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Buckman Windover, L. A.

Burrus, C. A.

Chang, W.

J. J Liu, Z. Kalayjian, B. Riely, W. Chang, G. J. Simonis, A. Apsel, and A. Andreou, "Multichannel ultrathin silicon-on-sapphire optical interconnects," IEEE J.Sel. Top. Quantum. Elect.  9, 380 - 386 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chateauneuf, M.

Chen, R. T.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, "Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects," Proc. IEEE. 88, 780-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Choi, C.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, "Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects," Proc. IEEE. 88, 780-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Choquette, K. D.

V. M. Hietala, C. Chun, J. Laskar, K. D. Choquette, K. M. Geib, A. A. Allerman, and J. J. Hindi, "Two-dimensional 8×8 photoreceiver array and VCSEL drivers for high-throughput optical data links," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 36, 1297-1302 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chun, C.

V. M. Hietala, C. Chun, J. Laskar, K. D. Choquette, K. M. Geib, A. A. Allerman, and J. J. Hindi, "Two-dimensional 8×8 photoreceiver array and VCSEL drivers for high-throughput optical data links," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 36, 1297-1302 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Coosemans, T.

R. Bockstaele, T. Coosemans, C. Sys, L. Vanwassenhove, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, R. Baets, R. Annen, H. Melchior, J. Hall, P. L. Heremans, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, "Realization and characterization of 8 x 8 resonant cavity LED arrays mounted onto CMOS drivers for POF-based interchip interconnections," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Elect.  5, 224-235 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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R. Bockstaele, T. Coosemans, C. Sys, L. Vanwassenhove, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, R. Baets, R. Annen, H. Melchior, J. Hall, P. L. Heremans, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, "Realization and characterization of 8 x 8 resonant cavity LED arrays mounted onto CMOS drivers for POF-based interchip interconnections," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Elect.  5, 224-235 (1999).
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D. Fey, W. Erhard, M. Gruber, J. Jahns, H. Bartelt, G. Grimm, L. Hoppe, and S. Sinzinger, "Optical interconnects for neural and reconfigurable VLSI architectures," Proc. IEEE.  88, 838 - 848 (2000).
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D. Fey, W. Erhard, M. Gruber, J. Jahns, H. Bartelt, G. Grimm, L. Hoppe, and S. Sinzinger, "Optical interconnects for neural and reconfigurable VLSI architectures," Proc. IEEE.  88, 838 - 848 (2000).
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F. Mederer, R. Jager, H. J. Unold, R. Michalzik, K. J. Ebeling, S. Lehmacher, A. Neyer, and E. Griese, "3-Gb/s data transmission with GaAs VCSEL’s over PCB integrated polymer waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1032-1034 (2001).
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D. Fey, W. Erhard, M. Gruber, J. Jahns, H. Bartelt, G. Grimm, L. Hoppe, and S. Sinzinger, "Optical interconnects for neural and reconfigurable VLSI architectures," Proc. IEEE.  88, 838 - 848 (2000).
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D. Fey, W. Erhard, M. Gruber, J. Jahns, H. Bartelt, G. Grimm, L. Hoppe, and S. Sinzinger, "Optical interconnects for neural and reconfigurable VLSI architectures," Proc. IEEE.  88, 838 - 848 (2000).
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H. F. Bare, F. Haas, D. A. Honey, D. Mikolas, H. G. Craighead, G. Pugh, and R. Soave, "A simple surface-emitting LED array useful for developing free-space optical interconnect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 172 - 175 (1993).
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Hall, J.

R. Bockstaele, T. Coosemans, C. Sys, L. Vanwassenhove, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, R. Baets, R. Annen, H. Melchior, J. Hall, P. L. Heremans, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, "Realization and characterization of 8 x 8 resonant cavity LED arrays mounted onto CMOS drivers for POF-based interchip interconnections," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Elect.  5, 224-235 (1999).
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Heremans, P.

A. Goulet, N. Nieuborg, H. Thienpont, A. Kirk, P. Koczyk, P. Heremans, M. Kuijk, C. De Tandt, W. Ranson, R. Vounckx, and I. Veretennicoff, "Polarization-based reconfigurable optical interconnects in free-space optical processing modules," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 367 - 369 (1998).
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Heremans, P. L.

R. Bockstaele, T. Coosemans, C. Sys, L. Vanwassenhove, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, R. Baets, R. Annen, H. Melchior, J. Hall, P. L. Heremans, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, "Realization and characterization of 8 x 8 resonant cavity LED arrays mounted onto CMOS drivers for POF-based interchip interconnections," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Elect.  5, 224-235 (1999).
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R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, "Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects," Proc. IEEE. 88, 780-793 (2000).
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Hietala, V. M.

V. M. Hietala, C. Chun, J. Laskar, K. D. Choquette, K. M. Geib, A. A. Allerman, and J. J. Hindi, "Two-dimensional 8×8 photoreceiver array and VCSEL drivers for high-throughput optical data links," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 36, 1297-1302 (2001).
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Hindi, J. J.

V. M. Hietala, C. Chun, J. Laskar, K. D. Choquette, K. M. Geib, A. A. Allerman, and J. J. Hindi, "Two-dimensional 8×8 photoreceiver array and VCSEL drivers for high-throughput optical data links," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 36, 1297-1302 (2001).
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H. F. Bare, F. Haas, D. A. Honey, D. Mikolas, H. G. Craighead, G. Pugh, and R. Soave, "A simple surface-emitting LED array useful for developing free-space optical interconnect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 172 - 175 (1993).
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Hoppe, L.

D. Fey, W. Erhard, M. Gruber, J. Jahns, H. Bartelt, G. Grimm, L. Hoppe, and S. Sinzinger, "Optical interconnects for neural and reconfigurable VLSI architectures," Proc. IEEE.  88, 838 - 848 (2000).
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F. Mederer, R. Jager, H. J. Unold, R. Michalzik, K. J. Ebeling, S. Lehmacher, A. Neyer, and E. Griese, "3-Gb/s data transmission with GaAs VCSEL’s over PCB integrated polymer waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1032-1034 (2001).
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D. Fey, W. Erhard, M. Gruber, J. Jahns, H. Bartelt, G. Grimm, L. Hoppe, and S. Sinzinger, "Optical interconnects for neural and reconfigurable VLSI architectures," Proc. IEEE.  88, 838 - 848 (2000).
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J. J Liu, Z. Kalayjian, B. Riely, W. Chang, G. J. Simonis, A. Apsel, and A. Andreou, "Multichannel ultrathin silicon-on-sapphire optical interconnects," IEEE J.Sel. Top. Quantum. Elect.  9, 380 - 386 (2003).
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Kiamilev, F.

Kirk, A.

A. Goulet, N. Nieuborg, H. Thienpont, A. Kirk, P. Koczyk, P. Heremans, M. Kuijk, C. De Tandt, W. Ranson, R. Vounckx, and I. Veretennicoff, "Polarization-based reconfigurable optical interconnects in free-space optical processing modules," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 367 - 369 (1998).
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Koczyk, P.

A. Goulet, N. Nieuborg, H. Thienpont, A. Kirk, P. Koczyk, P. Heremans, M. Kuijk, C. De Tandt, W. Ranson, R. Vounckx, and I. Veretennicoff, "Polarization-based reconfigurable optical interconnects in free-space optical processing modules," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 367 - 369 (1998).
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V. Baukens, G. Verschaffelt, P. Tuteleers, P. Vynck, H. Ottevaere, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, I. Veretennicoff, R. Bockstaele, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, and H. Thienpont, "Performances of optical multi-chip-module interconnects: comparing guided-wave and free-space pathways," J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt.  1, 255-261 (1999).
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Kufner, S.

V. Baukens, G. Verschaffelt, P. Tuteleers, P. Vynck, H. Ottevaere, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, I. Veretennicoff, R. Bockstaele, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, and H. Thienpont, "Performances of optical multi-chip-module interconnects: comparing guided-wave and free-space pathways," J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt.  1, 255-261 (1999).
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A. Goulet, N. Nieuborg, H. Thienpont, A. Kirk, P. Koczyk, P. Heremans, M. Kuijk, C. De Tandt, W. Ranson, R. Vounckx, and I. Veretennicoff, "Polarization-based reconfigurable optical interconnects in free-space optical processing modules," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 367 - 369 (1998).
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Laprise, E.

Laskar, J.

V. M. Hietala, C. Chun, J. Laskar, K. D. Choquette, K. M. Geib, A. A. Allerman, and J. J. Hindi, "Two-dimensional 8×8 photoreceiver array and VCSEL drivers for high-throughput optical data links," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 36, 1297-1302 (2001).
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Lear, K. L.

Lee, Y. H.

Lehmacher, S.

F. Mederer, R. Jager, H. J. Unold, R. Michalzik, K. J. Ebeling, S. Lehmacher, A. Neyer, and E. Griese, "3-Gb/s data transmission with GaAs VCSEL’s over PCB integrated polymer waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1032-1034 (2001).
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Y. Li, J. Ai, and J. Popelek, "Board-level 2-D data-capable optical interconnect circuits using polymer fiber-image guides," Proc. IEEE. 88, 794-805 (2000).
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Lin, L.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, "Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects," Proc. IEEE. 88, 780-793 (2000).
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Liu, J. J

J. J Liu, Z. Kalayjian, B. Riely, W. Chang, G. J. Simonis, A. Apsel, and A. Andreou, "Multichannel ultrathin silicon-on-sapphire optical interconnects," IEEE J.Sel. Top. Quantum. Elect.  9, 380 - 386 (2003).
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Liu, Y. J.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, "Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects," Proc. IEEE. 88, 780-793 (2000).
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Liu, Y. S.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, "Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects," Proc. IEEE. 88, 780-793 (2000).
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Majewski, M. L.

Manolis, I. G.

I. G. Manolis, T. D. Wilkinson, M. M. Redmond, and W. A. Crossland, "Reconfigurable multilevel phase holograms for Optical switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 801-803 (2002).
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McFadden, M. J.

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F. Mederer, R. Jager, H. J. Unold, R. Michalzik, K. J. Ebeling, S. Lehmacher, A. Neyer, and E. Griese, "3-Gb/s data transmission with GaAs VCSEL’s over PCB integrated polymer waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1032-1034 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Melchior, H.

R. Bockstaele, T. Coosemans, C. Sys, L. Vanwassenhove, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, R. Baets, R. Annen, H. Melchior, J. Hall, P. L. Heremans, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, "Realization and characterization of 8 x 8 resonant cavity LED arrays mounted onto CMOS drivers for POF-based interchip interconnections," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Elect.  5, 224-235 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Michalzik, R.

F. Mederer, R. Jager, H. J. Unold, R. Michalzik, K. J. Ebeling, S. Lehmacher, A. Neyer, and E. Griese, "3-Gb/s data transmission with GaAs VCSEL’s over PCB integrated polymer waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1032-1034 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mikolas, D.

H. F. Bare, F. Haas, D. A. Honey, D. Mikolas, H. G. Craighead, G. Pugh, and R. Soave, "A simple surface-emitting LED array useful for developing free-space optical interconnect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 172 - 175 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mirkarimi, L. W.

Moerman, I.

R. Bockstaele, T. Coosemans, C. Sys, L. Vanwassenhove, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, R. Baets, R. Annen, H. Melchior, J. Hall, P. L. Heremans, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, "Realization and characterization of 8 x 8 resonant cavity LED arrays mounted onto CMOS drivers for POF-based interchip interconnections," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Elect.  5, 224-235 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, U.

Z. Wang, R. Zheng, K. E. Alameh, R. Robertson, U. Mueller, and L. Bloom, "Opto-VLSI-based dynamic optical splitter," Electron. Lett.  40, 1445 - 1446 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Neyer, A.

F. Mederer, R. Jager, H. J. Unold, R. Michalzik, K. J. Ebeling, S. Lehmacher, A. Neyer, and E. Griese, "3-Gb/s data transmission with GaAs VCSEL’s over PCB integrated polymer waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1032-1034 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nieuborg, N.

A. Goulet, N. Nieuborg, H. Thienpont, A. Kirk, P. Koczyk, P. Heremans, M. Kuijk, C. De Tandt, W. Ranson, R. Vounckx, and I. Veretennicoff, "Polarization-based reconfigurable optical interconnects in free-space optical processing modules," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 367 - 369 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O'Brien, C. J.

Ottevaere, H.

V. Baukens, G. Verschaffelt, P. Tuteleers, P. Vynck, H. Ottevaere, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, I. Veretennicoff, R. Bockstaele, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, and H. Thienpont, "Performances of optical multi-chip-module interconnects: comparing guided-wave and free-space pathways," J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt.  1, 255-261 (1999).
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Papen, G. C.

Petrovic, N. S.

Picor, B.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, "Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects," Proc. IEEE. 88, 780-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Plant, D. V.

Popelek, J.

Y. Li, J. Ai, and J. Popelek, "Board-level 2-D data-capable optical interconnect circuits using polymer fiber-image guides," Proc. IEEE. 88, 794-805 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pugh, G.

H. F. Bare, F. Haas, D. A. Honey, D. Mikolas, H. G. Craighead, G. Pugh, and R. Soave, "A simple surface-emitting LED array useful for developing free-space optical interconnect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 172 - 175 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Raisi, M.

S. Ahderom, M. Raisi, K. E. Alameh, and K. Eshraghian, "Dynamic WDM equalizer using opto-VLSI beam processing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1603-1605 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Raki, A. D.

Rakic, A. D.

Rankin, G.

Ranson, W.

A. Goulet, N. Nieuborg, H. Thienpont, A. Kirk, P. Koczyk, P. Heremans, M. Kuijk, C. De Tandt, W. Ranson, R. Vounckx, and I. Veretennicoff, "Polarization-based reconfigurable optical interconnects in free-space optical processing modules," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 367 - 369 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Razavi, K.

Redmond, M. M.

I. G. Manolis, T. D. Wilkinson, M. M. Redmond, and W. A. Crossland, "Reconfigurable multilevel phase holograms for Optical switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 801-803 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Riely, B.

J. J Liu, Z. Kalayjian, B. Riely, W. Chang, G. J. Simonis, A. Apsel, and A. Andreou, "Multichannel ultrathin silicon-on-sapphire optical interconnects," IEEE J.Sel. Top. Quantum. Elect.  9, 380 - 386 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, R.

Z. Wang, R. Zheng, K. E. Alameh, R. Robertson, U. Mueller, and L. Bloom, "Opto-VLSI-based dynamic optical splitter," Electron. Lett.  40, 1445 - 1446 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, M. S.

Rosenau, S. A.

Saraswat, K. C.

Simon, J. N.

Simonis, G. J.

J. J Liu, Z. Kalayjian, B. Riely, W. Chang, G. J. Simonis, A. Apsel, and A. Andreou, "Multichannel ultrathin silicon-on-sapphire optical interconnects," IEEE J.Sel. Top. Quantum. Elect.  9, 380 - 386 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sinzinger, S.

D. Fey, W. Erhard, M. Gruber, J. Jahns, H. Bartelt, G. Grimm, L. Hoppe, and S. Sinzinger, "Optical interconnects for neural and reconfigurable VLSI architectures," Proc. IEEE.  88, 838 - 848 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Soave, R.

H. F. Bare, F. Haas, D. A. Honey, D. Mikolas, H. G. Craighead, G. Pugh, and R. Soave, "A simple surface-emitting LED array useful for developing free-space optical interconnect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 172 - 175 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sys, C.

R. Bockstaele, T. Coosemans, C. Sys, L. Vanwassenhove, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, R. Baets, R. Annen, H. Melchior, J. Hall, P. L. Heremans, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, "Realization and characterization of 8 x 8 resonant cavity LED arrays mounted onto CMOS drivers for POF-based interchip interconnections," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Elect.  5, 224-235 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tandon, A.

Tang, S.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, "Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects," Proc. IEEE. 88, 780-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tatah, K.

Thienpont, H.

V. Baukens, G. Verschaffelt, P. Tuteleers, P. Vynck, H. Ottevaere, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, I. Veretennicoff, R. Bockstaele, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, and H. Thienpont, "Performances of optical multi-chip-module interconnects: comparing guided-wave and free-space pathways," J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt.  1, 255-261 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Trezza, J. A.

Tsai, F.-C. F.

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V. Baukens, G. Verschaffelt, P. Tuteleers, P. Vynck, H. Ottevaere, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, I. Veretennicoff, R. Bockstaele, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, and H. Thienpont, "Performances of optical multi-chip-module interconnects: comparing guided-wave and free-space pathways," J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt.  1, 255-261 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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F. Mederer, R. Jager, H. J. Unold, R. Michalzik, K. J. Ebeling, S. Lehmacher, A. Neyer, and E. Griese, "3-Gb/s data transmission with GaAs VCSEL’s over PCB integrated polymer waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1032-1034 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Van Campenhout, J.

R. Bockstaele, T. Coosemans, C. Sys, L. Vanwassenhove, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, R. Baets, R. Annen, H. Melchior, J. Hall, P. L. Heremans, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, "Realization and characterization of 8 x 8 resonant cavity LED arrays mounted onto CMOS drivers for POF-based interchip interconnections," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Elect.  5, 224-235 (1999).
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R. Bockstaele, T. Coosemans, C. Sys, L. Vanwassenhove, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, R. Baets, R. Annen, H. Melchior, J. Hall, P. L. Heremans, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, "Realization and characterization of 8 x 8 resonant cavity LED arrays mounted onto CMOS drivers for POF-based interchip interconnections," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Elect.  5, 224-235 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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R. Bockstaele, T. Coosemans, C. Sys, L. Vanwassenhove, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, R. Baets, R. Annen, H. Melchior, J. Hall, P. L. Heremans, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, "Realization and characterization of 8 x 8 resonant cavity LED arrays mounted onto CMOS drivers for POF-based interchip interconnections," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Elect.  5, 224-235 (1999).
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[CrossRef]

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R. Bockstaele, T. Coosemans, C. Sys, L. Vanwassenhove, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, R. Baets, R. Annen, H. Melchior, J. Hall, P. L. Heremans, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, "Realization and characterization of 8 x 8 resonant cavity LED arrays mounted onto CMOS drivers for POF-based interchip interconnections," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Elect.  5, 224-235 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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V. Baukens, G. Verschaffelt, P. Tuteleers, P. Vynck, H. Ottevaere, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, I. Veretennicoff, R. Bockstaele, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, and H. Thienpont, "Performances of optical multi-chip-module interconnects: comparing guided-wave and free-space pathways," J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt.  1, 255-261 (1999).
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V. Baukens, G. Verschaffelt, P. Tuteleers, P. Vynck, H. Ottevaere, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, I. Veretennicoff, R. Bockstaele, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, and H. Thienpont, "Performances of optical multi-chip-module interconnects: comparing guided-wave and free-space pathways," J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt.  1, 255-261 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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A. Goulet, N. Nieuborg, H. Thienpont, A. Kirk, P. Koczyk, P. Heremans, M. Kuijk, C. De Tandt, W. Ranson, R. Vounckx, and I. Veretennicoff, "Polarization-based reconfigurable optical interconnects in free-space optical processing modules," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 367 - 369 (1998).
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V. Baukens, G. Verschaffelt, P. Tuteleers, P. Vynck, H. Ottevaere, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, I. Veretennicoff, R. Bockstaele, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, and H. Thienpont, "Performances of optical multi-chip-module interconnects: comparing guided-wave and free-space pathways," J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt.  1, 255-261 (1999).
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R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, "Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects," Proc. IEEE. 88, 780-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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C. J. Henderson, D. G. Leyva, T. D. Wilkinson, "Free space adaptive optical interconnect at 1.25 gb/s, with beam steering using a ferroelectric liquid-crystal slm," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1989 - 1997 (2006).
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[CrossRef]

Wu, L.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, "Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects," Proc. IEEE. 88, 780-793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xia, H.

Zheng, R.

Z. Wang, R. Zheng, K. E. Alameh, R. Robertson, U. Mueller, and L. Bloom, "Opto-VLSI-based dynamic optical splitter," Electron. Lett.  40, 1445 - 1446 (2004).
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Appl. Opt.

Electron. Lett

Z. Wang, R. Zheng, K. E. Alameh, R. Robertson, U. Mueller, and L. Bloom, "Opto-VLSI-based dynamic optical splitter," Electron. Lett.  40, 1445 - 1446 (2004).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Elect.

R. Bockstaele, T. Coosemans, C. Sys, L. Vanwassenhove, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, R. Baets, R. Annen, H. Melchior, J. Hall, P. L. Heremans, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, "Realization and characterization of 8 x 8 resonant cavity LED arrays mounted onto CMOS drivers for POF-based interchip interconnections," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Elect.  5, 224-235 (1999).
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IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits

V. M. Hietala, C. Chun, J. Laskar, K. D. Choquette, K. M. Geib, A. A. Allerman, and J. J. Hindi, "Two-dimensional 8×8 photoreceiver array and VCSEL drivers for high-throughput optical data links," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 36, 1297-1302 (2001).
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S. Ahderom, M. Raisi, K. E. Alameh, and K. Eshraghian, "Dynamic WDM equalizer using opto-VLSI beam processing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1603-1605 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. G. Manolis, T. D. Wilkinson, M. M. Redmond, and W. A. Crossland, "Reconfigurable multilevel phase holograms for Optical switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 801-803 (2002).
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A. Goulet, N. Nieuborg, H. Thienpont, A. Kirk, P. Koczyk, P. Heremans, M. Kuijk, C. De Tandt, W. Ranson, R. Vounckx, and I. Veretennicoff, "Polarization-based reconfigurable optical interconnects in free-space optical processing modules," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 367 - 369 (1998).
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M. Aljada, K. E. Alameh, and K. Al-Begain, "Opto-VLSI-based correlator architecture for multi-wavelength optical header recognition," J. Lighwave Technol. 24, 2779-2785 (2006).
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V. Baukens, G. Verschaffelt, P. Tuteleers, P. Vynck, H. Ottevaere, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, I. Veretennicoff, R. Bockstaele, A. Van Hove, B. Dhoedt, R. Baets, and H. Thienpont, "Performances of optical multi-chip-module interconnects: comparing guided-wave and free-space pathways," J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt.  1, 255-261 (1999).
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Figures (14)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Opto-VLSI processor and a typical 8-phase LC cell structure design.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Phase holograms driving various pixel blocks, (b) Principle of beam steering and multicasting using an Opto-VLSI processor.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Reconfigurable optical interconnect architecture.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) PCB of the VCSEL circuitry, (b) VCSEL array after flip-chip bonding, and (c) transmitter circuit design.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) PCB of the PD circuitry, (b) PD array after flip-chip bonding, (c) Receiver circuit design.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

First interconnect scenario: establishing reconfigurable single optical interconnects.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Optimum steering holograms of the Opto-VLSI processors for establishing the different optical interconnects from the VCSEL element to any PD element.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Output signals and eye diagrams for optical interconnect between the VCSEL element and the (a) first (b) second and (c) third PD element.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Second interconnect scenario: establishing a multicasting optical interconnects between a VCSEL element and two PD elements.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

(a) Multicasting hologram generated on the first Opto-VLSI processor to split the VCSEL beam toward the pixel blocks assigned to the first and the second PD elements on the second Opto-VLSI processor, (b) the steering holograms generated on the second Opto-VLSI processor to steer the optical beams to the first and the second PD elements.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Output signals and the eye diagrams at the output port of (a) the first PD element, and (b) the second PD element.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Third interconnect scenario: establishing parallel optical interconnects.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Steering hologram generated for parallel optical interconnects: (a) on the first Opto-VLSI processor (b) on the second Opto-VLSI processor.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Output signals and the eye diagrams at the various output ports for the case of parallel optical interconnect.

Equations (2)

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θ max λ M d ( Radians )
η = sin c 2 ( π n M )

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