Abstract

A problem with conventional techniques of interference microscopy, when profiling surfaces with an extended range of heights, is that only points on a single plane are in sharp focus. Other points, which are higher or lower, may be out of focus, with a consequent loss of lateral resolution. We show that white-light interference microscopy, with an achromatic phase-shifter, makes it possible to produce a three-dimensional representation of such surfaces with high lateral resolution over the entire range of heights.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y.-Y. Cheng and J. C. Wyant, "Two-wavelength phase shifting interferometry," Appl. Opt. 23, 4539-4543 (1984).
  2. Y.-Y. Cheng and J. C. Wyant, "Multiple-wavelength phase shifting interferometry," Appl. Opt. 24, 804-807 (1985).
  3. K. Creath, "Step height measurement using two-wavelength phase-shifting interferometry," Appl. Opt. 26, 2810-2816 (1987).
  4. S. S. C. Chim and G. S. Kino, "Correlation microscope," Opt Lett. 15, 579-581 (1990).
  5. B. S. Lee and T. C. Strand, "Profilometry with a coherence scanning microscope," Appl. Opt. 29, 3784-3788 (1990).
  6. P. Hariharan and M. Roy, "White-light phase-stepping interferometry for surface profiling," J. Mod. Opt. 41, 2197-2201 (1994).
  7. P. Hariharan and M. Roy, "White-light phase-stepping interferometry: measurement of the fractional interference order," J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2357-2360 (1995).
  8. M. Roy, C. J. R. Sheppard, and P. Hariharan, "Low-coherence interference microscopy using a ferro-electric liquid crystal phase-modulator," Opt. Express. 12, 2512-2516 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Hariharan, P. E. Ciddor, and M. Roy, "Improved switchable achromatic phase shifters 2," Opt. Eng. 44, 105603/1-105603/4 (2005).
  10. M. Roy, G. Cox, and P. Hariharan, "Low-coherence interference microscopy with an improved switchable achromatic phase- shifter," Opt. Express. 13, 9125-9130 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2005

M. Roy, G. Cox, and P. Hariharan, "Low-coherence interference microscopy with an improved switchable achromatic phase- shifter," Opt. Express. 13, 9125-9130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Roy, C. J. R. Sheppard, and P. Hariharan, "Low-coherence interference microscopy using a ferro-electric liquid crystal phase-modulator," Opt. Express. 12, 2512-2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1995

P. Hariharan and M. Roy, "White-light phase-stepping interferometry: measurement of the fractional interference order," J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2357-2360 (1995).

1994

P. Hariharan and M. Roy, "White-light phase-stepping interferometry for surface profiling," J. Mod. Opt. 41, 2197-2201 (1994).

1990

S. S. C. Chim and G. S. Kino, "Correlation microscope," Opt Lett. 15, 579-581 (1990).

B. S. Lee and T. C. Strand, "Profilometry with a coherence scanning microscope," Appl. Opt. 29, 3784-3788 (1990).

1987

1985

1984

Cheng, Y.-Y.

Chim, S. S. C.

S. S. C. Chim and G. S. Kino, "Correlation microscope," Opt Lett. 15, 579-581 (1990).

Cox, G.

M. Roy, G. Cox, and P. Hariharan, "Low-coherence interference microscopy with an improved switchable achromatic phase- shifter," Opt. Express. 13, 9125-9130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Creath, K.

Hariharan, P.

M. Roy, G. Cox, and P. Hariharan, "Low-coherence interference microscopy with an improved switchable achromatic phase- shifter," Opt. Express. 13, 9125-9130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Roy, C. J. R. Sheppard, and P. Hariharan, "Low-coherence interference microscopy using a ferro-electric liquid crystal phase-modulator," Opt. Express. 12, 2512-2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Hariharan and M. Roy, "White-light phase-stepping interferometry: measurement of the fractional interference order," J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2357-2360 (1995).

P. Hariharan and M. Roy, "White-light phase-stepping interferometry for surface profiling," J. Mod. Opt. 41, 2197-2201 (1994).

Kino, G. S.

S. S. C. Chim and G. S. Kino, "Correlation microscope," Opt Lett. 15, 579-581 (1990).

Lee, B. S.

Roy, M.

M. Roy, G. Cox, and P. Hariharan, "Low-coherence interference microscopy with an improved switchable achromatic phase- shifter," Opt. Express. 13, 9125-9130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Roy, C. J. R. Sheppard, and P. Hariharan, "Low-coherence interference microscopy using a ferro-electric liquid crystal phase-modulator," Opt. Express. 12, 2512-2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Hariharan and M. Roy, "White-light phase-stepping interferometry: measurement of the fractional interference order," J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2357-2360 (1995).

P. Hariharan and M. Roy, "White-light phase-stepping interferometry for surface profiling," J. Mod. Opt. 41, 2197-2201 (1994).

Sheppard, C. J. R.

M. Roy, C. J. R. Sheppard, and P. Hariharan, "Low-coherence interference microscopy using a ferro-electric liquid crystal phase-modulator," Opt. Express. 12, 2512-2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Strand, T. C.

Wyant, J. C.

Appl. Opt.

J. Mod. Opt.

P. Hariharan and M. Roy, "White-light phase-stepping interferometry for surface profiling," J. Mod. Opt. 41, 2197-2201 (1994).

P. Hariharan and M. Roy, "White-light phase-stepping interferometry: measurement of the fractional interference order," J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2357-2360 (1995).

Opt Lett.

S. S. C. Chim and G. S. Kino, "Correlation microscope," Opt Lett. 15, 579-581 (1990).

Opt. Express.

M. Roy, G. Cox, and P. Hariharan, "Low-coherence interference microscopy with an improved switchable achromatic phase- shifter," Opt. Express. 13, 9125-9130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Roy, C. J. R. Sheppard, and P. Hariharan, "Low-coherence interference microscopy using a ferro-electric liquid crystal phase-modulator," Opt. Express. 12, 2512-2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. Hariharan, P. E. Ciddor, and M. Roy, "Improved switchable achromatic phase shifters 2," Opt. Eng. 44, 105603/1-105603/4 (2005).

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