Abstract

Numerical simulations of a near-infrared negative-index metama-terial (NIM) slab consisting of multiple layers of perforated metal-dielectric stacks exhibiting a small imaginary part of the index over the wavelength range for negative refraction are presented. A consistent effective index is obtained using both scattering matrix and modal analysis approaches. Backward phase propagation is verified by calculation of fields inside the metamaterial. The NIM figure of merit, [-Re(n)/Im(n)], for these structures is improved by ~ 10× compared with previous reports, establishing a new approach to thick, low-loss metamaterials at infrared and optical frequencies.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Soviet Physics USPEKHI,  10509 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966–3969 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-Diffraction-Limited Optical Imaging with a Silver Super-lens,” Science 308, 534–537 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. D. O. S. Melville and R. J. Blaikie, “Super-resolution imaging through a planar silver layer,” Opt. Express 13, 2127–2134 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction,” Science 292, 77–79 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  6. S. O’Brien and J. B. Pendry, “Magnetic activity at infrared frequencies in structured metallic photonic crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, 6383–6394 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  7. N.-C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, “Influence of the dispersive properties of metals on the transmission characteristics of left-handed materials,” Phys. Rev. E68, 016611(2003).
  8. N.-C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, “Numerical investigation of negative refractive index metamaterials at infrared and optical frequencies,” Opt. Commun. 233, 331–337 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  9. T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz Magnetic Response from Artificial Materials,” Science 303, 1494–1496 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. N. Katsarakis, G. Konstantinidis, A. Kostopoulos, R. S. Penciu, T. F. Gundogdu, Th Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis “Magnetic response of split-ring resonators in the far infrared frequency regime,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1348–1350 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic Response of Metamaterials at 100 Terahertz,” Science 306, 1351–1353 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. S. Zhang, W. Fan, A. Frauenglass, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Demonstration of Mid-Infrared Resonant Magnetic Nanostructures Exhibiting a Negative Permeability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener, and S. Linden “Focused-Ion-Beam Nanofabrication of Near-Infrared Magnetic Metamaterials,” Adv. Mat. 17, 2547–2549 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  14. S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Demonstration of Near-Infrared Negative-Index Metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  16. S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N.-C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Near-infrared double negative metamaterials,” Opt. Exp. 13, 4922–4930 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  17. S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N.-C. Paniou, and R. M. Osgood, “Demonstration of metal-dielectric negative-index metamaterials with improved performance at optical frequencies,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 434–438 (2006).
  18. G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous Negative Phase and Group Velocity of Light in a Metamaterial,” Science 312, 892–894 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Low-loss negative-index metamate-rial at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1800–1802 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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  22. J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking Surface Plasmons with Structured Surfaces,” Science 305, 847–848 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, “Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons,” Science 308, 670–672 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. B. K. Minhas, W. Fan, K. Agi, S. R. J. Brueck, and K. J. Malloy, “Metallic Inductive and Capacitive Grids: Theory and Experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A19, 1352–1359 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  25. D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104. (2002).
    [Crossref]

2006 (4)

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N.-C. Paniou, and R. M. Osgood, “Demonstration of metal-dielectric negative-index metamaterials with improved performance at optical frequencies,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 434–438 (2006).

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous Negative Phase and Group Velocity of Light in a Metamaterial,” Science 312, 892–894 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Low-loss negative-index metamate-rial at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1800–1802 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Kildishev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Negative Refractive Index in Optics of Metal-Dielectric Composites,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 423–433 (2006).

2005 (10)

N. Katsarakis, G. Konstantinidis, A. Kostopoulos, R. S. Penciu, T. F. Gundogdu, Th Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis “Magnetic response of split-ring resonators in the far infrared frequency regime,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1348–1350 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, “Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons,” Science 308, 670–672 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Seetharamdoo, R. Sauleau, K. Mahdjoubi, and A. Tarot “Effective parameters of resonant negative refractive index metamaterials: Interpretation and validity,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 063505 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, A. Frauenglass, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Demonstration of Mid-Infrared Resonant Magnetic Nanostructures Exhibiting a Negative Permeability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener, and S. Linden “Focused-Ion-Beam Nanofabrication of Near-Infrared Magnetic Metamaterials,” Adv. Mat. 17, 2547–2549 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Demonstration of Near-Infrared Negative-Index Metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative Index of Refraction in Optical Metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3356–3358 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N.-C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Near-infrared double negative metamaterials,” Opt. Exp. 13, 4922–4930 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-Diffraction-Limited Optical Imaging with a Silver Super-lens,” Science 308, 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. O. S. Melville and R. J. Blaikie, “Super-resolution imaging through a planar silver layer,” Opt. Express 13, 2127–2134 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz Magnetic Response from Artificial Materials,” Science 303, 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic Response of Metamaterials at 100 Terahertz,” Science 306, 1351–1353 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking Surface Plasmons with Structured Surfaces,” Science 305, 847–848 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

N.-C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, “Influence of the dispersive properties of metals on the transmission characteristics of left-handed materials,” Phys. Rev. E68, 016611(2003).

N.-C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, “Numerical investigation of negative refractive index metamaterials at infrared and optical frequencies,” Opt. Commun. 233, 331–337 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (4)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction,” Science 292, 77–79 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. O’Brien and J. B. Pendry, “Magnetic activity at infrared frequencies in structured metallic photonic crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, 6383–6394 (2002).
[Crossref]

B. K. Minhas, W. Fan, K. Agi, S. R. J. Brueck, and K. J. Malloy, “Metallic Inductive and Capacitive Grids: Theory and Experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A19, 1352–1359 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104. (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966–3969 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Soviet Physics USPEKHI,  10509 (1968).
[Crossref]

Agi, K.

B. K. Minhas, W. Fan, K. Agi, S. R. J. Brueck, and K. J. Malloy, “Metallic Inductive and Capacitive Grids: Theory and Experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A19, 1352–1359 (2002).
[Crossref]

Basov, D. N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz Magnetic Response from Artificial Materials,” Science 303, 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blaikie, R. J.

Brueck, S. R. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N.-C. Paniou, and R. M. Osgood, “Demonstration of metal-dielectric negative-index metamaterials with improved performance at optical frequencies,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 434–438 (2006).

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N.-C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Near-infrared double negative metamaterials,” Opt. Exp. 13, 4922–4930 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, A. Frauenglass, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Demonstration of Mid-Infrared Resonant Magnetic Nanostructures Exhibiting a Negative Permeability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Demonstration of Near-Infrared Negative-Index Metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. K. Minhas, W. Fan, K. Agi, S. R. J. Brueck, and K. J. Malloy, “Metallic Inductive and Capacitive Grids: Theory and Experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A19, 1352–1359 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cai, W.

A. V. Kildishev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Negative Refractive Index in Optics of Metal-Dielectric Composites,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 423–433 (2006).

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative Index of Refraction in Optical Metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3356–3358 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chettiar, U. K.

A. V. Kildishev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Negative Refractive Index in Optics of Metal-Dielectric Composites,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 423–433 (2006).

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative Index of Refraction in Optical Metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3356–3358 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dolling, G.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Low-loss negative-index metamate-rial at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1800–1802 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous Negative Phase and Group Velocity of Light in a Metamaterial,” Science 312, 892–894 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drachev, V. P.

A. V. Kildishev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Negative Refractive Index in Optics of Metal-Dielectric Composites,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 423–433 (2006).

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative Index of Refraction in Optical Metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3356–3358 (2005).
[Crossref]

Economou, E. N.

Enkrich, C.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Low-loss negative-index metamate-rial at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1800–1802 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous Negative Phase and Group Velocity of Light in a Metamaterial,” Science 312, 892–894 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener, and S. Linden “Focused-Ion-Beam Nanofabrication of Near-Infrared Magnetic Metamaterials,” Adv. Mat. 17, 2547–2549 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic Response of Metamaterials at 100 Terahertz,” Science 306, 1351–1353 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Evans, B. R.

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, “Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons,” Science 308, 670–672 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, W.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N.-C. Paniou, and R. M. Osgood, “Demonstration of metal-dielectric negative-index metamaterials with improved performance at optical frequencies,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 434–438 (2006).

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N.-C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Near-infrared double negative metamaterials,” Opt. Exp. 13, 4922–4930 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, A. Frauenglass, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Demonstration of Mid-Infrared Resonant Magnetic Nanostructures Exhibiting a Negative Permeability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Demonstration of Near-Infrared Negative-Index Metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. K. Minhas, W. Fan, K. Agi, S. R. J. Brueck, and K. J. Malloy, “Metallic Inductive and Capacitive Grids: Theory and Experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A19, 1352–1359 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fang, N.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-Diffraction-Limited Optical Imaging with a Silver Super-lens,” Science 308, 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz Magnetic Response from Artificial Materials,” Science 303, 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frauenglass, A.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, A. Frauenglass, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Demonstration of Mid-Infrared Resonant Magnetic Nanostructures Exhibiting a Negative Permeability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking Surface Plasmons with Structured Surfaces,” Science 305, 847–848 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gerthsen, D.

C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener, and S. Linden “Focused-Ion-Beam Nanofabrication of Near-Infrared Magnetic Metamaterials,” Adv. Mat. 17, 2547–2549 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gundogdu, T. F.

Hibbins, A. P.

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, “Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons,” Science 308, 670–672 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kafesaki, M.

Katsarakis, N.

Kildishev, A. V.

A. V. Kildishev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Negative Refractive Index in Optics of Metal-Dielectric Composites,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 423–433 (2006).

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative Index of Refraction in Optical Metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3356–3358 (2005).
[Crossref]

Konstantinidis, G.

Koschny, T.

C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener, and S. Linden “Focused-Ion-Beam Nanofabrication of Near-Infrared Magnetic Metamaterials,” Adv. Mat. 17, 2547–2549 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic Response of Metamaterials at 100 Terahertz,” Science 306, 1351–1353 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koschny, Th

Kostopoulos, A.

Lee, H.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-Diffraction-Limited Optical Imaging with a Silver Super-lens,” Science 308, 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Linden, S.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Low-loss negative-index metamate-rial at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1800–1802 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous Negative Phase and Group Velocity of Light in a Metamaterial,” Science 312, 892–894 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener, and S. Linden “Focused-Ion-Beam Nanofabrication of Near-Infrared Magnetic Metamaterials,” Adv. Mat. 17, 2547–2549 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic Response of Metamaterials at 100 Terahertz,” Science 306, 1351–1353 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahdjoubi, K.

D. Seetharamdoo, R. Sauleau, K. Mahdjoubi, and A. Tarot “Effective parameters of resonant negative refractive index metamaterials: Interpretation and validity,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 063505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Malloy, K. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N.-C. Paniou, and R. M. Osgood, “Demonstration of metal-dielectric negative-index metamaterials with improved performance at optical frequencies,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 434–438 (2006).

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N.-C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Near-infrared double negative metamaterials,” Opt. Exp. 13, 4922–4930 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, A. Frauenglass, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Demonstration of Mid-Infrared Resonant Magnetic Nanostructures Exhibiting a Negative Permeability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Demonstration of Near-Infrared Negative-Index Metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. K. Minhas, W. Fan, K. Agi, S. R. J. Brueck, and K. J. Malloy, “Metallic Inductive and Capacitive Grids: Theory and Experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A19, 1352–1359 (2002).
[Crossref]

Markos, P.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104. (2002).
[Crossref]

Martin-Moreno, L.

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking Surface Plasmons with Structured Surfaces,” Science 305, 847–848 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Melville, D. O. S.

Minhas, B.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, A. Frauenglass, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Demonstration of Mid-Infrared Resonant Magnetic Nanostructures Exhibiting a Negative Permeability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Minhas, B. K.

B. K. Minhas, W. Fan, K. Agi, S. R. J. Brueck, and K. J. Malloy, “Metallic Inductive and Capacitive Grids: Theory and Experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A19, 1352–1359 (2002).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, S.

S. O’Brien and J. B. Pendry, “Magnetic activity at infrared frequencies in structured metallic photonic crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, 6383–6394 (2002).
[Crossref]

Osgood, R. M.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N.-C. Paniou, and R. M. Osgood, “Demonstration of metal-dielectric negative-index metamaterials with improved performance at optical frequencies,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 434–438 (2006).

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N.-C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Near-infrared double negative metamaterials,” Opt. Exp. 13, 4922–4930 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Demonstration of Near-Infrared Negative-Index Metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N.-C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, “Numerical investigation of negative refractive index metamaterials at infrared and optical frequencies,” Opt. Commun. 233, 331–337 (2003).
[Crossref]

N.-C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, “Influence of the dispersive properties of metals on the transmission characteristics of left-handed materials,” Phys. Rev. E68, 016611(2003).

Padilla, W. J.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz Magnetic Response from Artificial Materials,” Science 303, 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paniou, N.-C.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N.-C. Paniou, and R. M. Osgood, “Demonstration of metal-dielectric negative-index metamaterials with improved performance at optical frequencies,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 434–438 (2006).

Panoiu, N. C.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Demonstration of Near-Infrared Negative-Index Metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Panoiu, N.-C.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N.-C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Near-infrared double negative metamaterials,” Opt. Exp. 13, 4922–4930 (2005).
[Crossref]

N.-C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, “Numerical investigation of negative refractive index metamaterials at infrared and optical frequencies,” Opt. Commun. 233, 331–337 (2003).
[Crossref]

N.-C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, “Influence of the dispersive properties of metals on the transmission characteristics of left-handed materials,” Phys. Rev. E68, 016611(2003).

Penciu, R. S.

Pendry, J. B.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz Magnetic Response from Artificial Materials,” Science 303, 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking Surface Plasmons with Structured Surfaces,” Science 305, 847–848 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. O’Brien and J. B. Pendry, “Magnetic activity at infrared frequencies in structured metallic photonic crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, 6383–6394 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966–3969 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pérez-Willard, F.

C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener, and S. Linden “Focused-Ion-Beam Nanofabrication of Near-Infrared Magnetic Metamaterials,” Adv. Mat. 17, 2547–2549 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sambles, J. R.

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, “Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons,” Science 308, 670–672 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarychev, A. K.

A. V. Kildishev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Negative Refractive Index in Optics of Metal-Dielectric Composites,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 423–433 (2006).

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative Index of Refraction in Optical Metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3356–3358 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sauleau, R.

D. Seetharamdoo, R. Sauleau, K. Mahdjoubi, and A. Tarot “Effective parameters of resonant negative refractive index metamaterials: Interpretation and validity,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 063505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction,” Science 292, 77–79 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104. (2002).
[Crossref]

Seetharamdoo, D.

D. Seetharamdoo, R. Sauleau, K. Mahdjoubi, and A. Tarot “Effective parameters of resonant negative refractive index metamaterials: Interpretation and validity,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 063505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shalaev, V. M.

A. V. Kildishev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Negative Refractive Index in Optics of Metal-Dielectric Composites,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 423–433 (2006).

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative Index of Refraction in Optical Metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3356–3358 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction,” Science 292, 77–79 (2002).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. R.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz Magnetic Response from Artificial Materials,” Science 303, 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction,” Science 292, 77–79 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104. (2002).
[Crossref]

Soukoulis, C. M.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Low-loss negative-index metamate-rial at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1800–1802 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous Negative Phase and Group Velocity of Light in a Metamaterial,” Science 312, 892–894 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener, and S. Linden “Focused-Ion-Beam Nanofabrication of Near-Infrared Magnetic Metamaterials,” Adv. Mat. 17, 2547–2549 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. Katsarakis, G. Konstantinidis, A. Kostopoulos, R. S. Penciu, T. F. Gundogdu, Th Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis “Magnetic response of split-ring resonators in the far infrared frequency regime,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1348–1350 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic Response of Metamaterials at 100 Terahertz,” Science 306, 1351–1353 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104. (2002).
[Crossref]

Sun, C.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-Diffraction-Limited Optical Imaging with a Silver Super-lens,” Science 308, 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tarot, A.

D. Seetharamdoo, R. Sauleau, K. Mahdjoubi, and A. Tarot “Effective parameters of resonant negative refractive index metamaterials: Interpretation and validity,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 063505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Soviet Physics USPEKHI,  10509 (1968).
[Crossref]

Vier, D. C.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz Magnetic Response from Artificial Materials,” Science 303, 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous Negative Phase and Group Velocity of Light in a Metamaterial,” Science 312, 892–894 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Low-loss negative-index metamate-rial at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1800–1802 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener, and S. Linden “Focused-Ion-Beam Nanofabrication of Near-Infrared Magnetic Metamaterials,” Adv. Mat. 17, 2547–2549 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic Response of Metamaterials at 100 Terahertz,” Science 306, 1351–1353 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yen, T. J.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz Magnetic Response from Artificial Materials,” Science 303, 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, H-K.

A. V. Kildishev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Negative Refractive Index in Optics of Metal-Dielectric Composites,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 423–433 (2006).

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative Index of Refraction in Optical Metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3356–3358 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N.-C. Paniou, and R. M. Osgood, “Demonstration of metal-dielectric negative-index metamaterials with improved performance at optical frequencies,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 434–438 (2006).

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N.-C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Near-infrared double negative metamaterials,” Opt. Exp. 13, 4922–4930 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, A. Frauenglass, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Demonstration of Mid-Infrared Resonant Magnetic Nanostructures Exhibiting a Negative Permeability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Demonstration of Near-Infrared Negative-Index Metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-Diffraction-Limited Optical Imaging with a Silver Super-lens,” Science 308, 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz Magnetic Response from Artificial Materials,” Science 303, 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic Response of Metamaterials at 100 Terahertz,” Science 306, 1351–1353 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, J. F.

C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener, and S. Linden “Focused-Ion-Beam Nanofabrication of Near-Infrared Magnetic Metamaterials,” Adv. Mat. 17, 2547–2549 (2005).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mat. (1)

C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener, and S. Linden “Focused-Ion-Beam Nanofabrication of Near-Infrared Magnetic Metamaterials,” Adv. Mat. 17, 2547–2549 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Seetharamdoo, R. Sauleau, K. Mahdjoubi, and A. Tarot “Effective parameters of resonant negative refractive index metamaterials: Interpretation and validity,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 063505 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

A. V. Kildishev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Negative Refractive Index in Optics of Metal-Dielectric Composites,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 423–433 (2006).

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N.-C. Paniou, and R. M. Osgood, “Demonstration of metal-dielectric negative-index metamaterials with improved performance at optical frequencies,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 434–438 (2006).

B. K. Minhas, W. Fan, K. Agi, S. R. J. Brueck, and K. J. Malloy, “Metallic Inductive and Capacitive Grids: Theory and Experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A19, 1352–1359 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

S. O’Brien and J. B. Pendry, “Magnetic activity at infrared frequencies in structured metallic photonic crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, 6383–6394 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

N.-C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, “Numerical investigation of negative refractive index metamaterials at infrared and optical frequencies,” Opt. Commun. 233, 331–337 (2003).
[Crossref]

Opt. Exp. (1)

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N.-C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Near-infrared double negative metamaterials,” Opt. Exp. 13, 4922–4930 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. (1)

N.-C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, “Influence of the dispersive properties of metals on the transmission characteristics of left-handed materials,” Phys. Rev. E68, 016611(2003).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104. (2002).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966–3969 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, A. Frauenglass, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Demonstration of Mid-Infrared Resonant Magnetic Nanostructures Exhibiting a Negative Permeability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Demonstration of Near-Infrared Negative-Index Metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (7)

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous Negative Phase and Group Velocity of Light in a Metamaterial,” Science 312, 892–894 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking Surface Plasmons with Structured Surfaces,” Science 305, 847–848 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, “Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons,” Science 308, 670–672 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz Magnetic Response from Artificial Materials,” Science 303, 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic Response of Metamaterials at 100 Terahertz,” Science 306, 1351–1353 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-Diffraction-Limited Optical Imaging with a Silver Super-lens,” Science 308, 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction,” Science 292, 77–79 (2002).
[Crossref]

Soviet Physics USPEKHI (1)

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Soviet Physics USPEKHI,  10509 (1968).
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of a metamaterial consisting of multiple unit cells. The geometric parameters are: 801-nm pitch along orthogonal in-plane directions and a linewidth of the metal gratings along the direction of magnetic field of 500 nm and that along the electrical field of 200 nm. The thickness of the air/Au/dielectric/Au/air unit cell is 5/30/60/30/5 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of forward and backward propagating beams before and after a single unit cell. (2N+1) diffraction orders are kept for both in-plane directions.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The magnitude of the transmission (a), (c) and reflectance (b), (d) for slabs consisting of 1, 2, 5, 6 and 10, 100 and 200 unit cells along the propagation direction.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Refractive index extracted from the complex coefficient of transmission and reflectance for different numbers of unit cells. The unfilled square, triangle, black, red and blue symbols represent the effective index extracted from slabs consisting of 1, 2, 5, 6 and 10 unit cells, respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) The effective indices of the two modes with the lowest decay rates. For wavelengths below ~ 2 μm mode 1 has the lowest loss and dominates the response. At longer wavelengths, mode 2 has a lower loss and becomes dominant. (b) The ratio of the real part to the imaginary part of effective index in the negative index region.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Evolution of the phase of the average electric field along the propagation direction across a unit cell. (b), (c) Electric field amplitude and phase plots (λ = 1.7 μm) at the center of the cell (z = 65 nm) across a unit cell in the transverse plane. The white frames represent the location of the open aperture.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The magnitude and phase of the magnetic field for a three-layer structure across one transverse unit cell atthe middle of the structure (indicated by the dashed line) for wavelengths of 1.5, 1.7 and 2.1 μm.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E A , i , σ = m , n A mn , i , σ f mn ( x , y ) g imn ( z ) e imn , σ
f mn ( x , y ) = exp [ j ( α m x + β n y ) ] and g imn ( z ) = exp ( j Λ imn z )
[ A mn , 0 , σ B mn , 0 , σ ] = M ̿ [ A mn , l , σ B mn , l , σ ]
n′ = Im [ log ( γ ) ] ( k o d ) and n″ = log ( γ ) ( k o d )

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