Abstract

Numerical simulations of a near-infrared negative-index metama-terial (NIM) slab consisting of multiple layers of perforated metal-dielectric stacks exhibiting a small imaginary part of the index over the wavelength range for negative refraction are presented. A consistent effective index is obtained using both scattering matrix and modal analysis approaches. Backward phase propagation is verified by calculation of fields inside the metamaterial. The NIM figure of merit, [-Re(n)/Im(n)], for these structures is improved by ~ 10× compared with previous reports, establishing a new approach to thick, low-loss metamaterials at infrared and optical frequencies.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ," Soviet Physics USPEKHI,  10509 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Sub-Diffraction-Limited Optical Imaging with a Silver Superlens," Science 308, 534-537 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. O. S. Melville and R. J. Blaikie, "Super-resolution imaging through a planar silver layer," Opt. Express 13,2127-2134 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. O'Brien and J. B. Pendry, "Magnetic activity at infrared frequencies in structured metallic photonic crystals," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, 6383-6394 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N.-C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, "Influence of the dispersive properties of metals on the transmission characteristics of left-handed materials," Phys. Rev. E68, 016611(2003).
  8. N.-C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, "Numerical investigation of negative refractive index metamaterials at infrared and optical frequencies," Opt. Commun. 233, 331-337 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz Magnetic Response from Artificial Materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. N. Katsarakis, G. Konstantinidis, A. Kostopoulos, R. S. Penciu, T. F. Gundogdu, Th Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou and C. M. Soukoulis "Magnetic response of split-ring resonators in the far infrared frequency regime,"Opt. Lett. 30, 1348-1350 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic Response of Metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Zhang, W. Fan, A. Frauenglass, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy and S. R. J. Brueck, "Demonstration of Mid-Infrared Resonant Magnetic Nanostructures Exhibiting a Negative Permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener and S. Linden "Focused-Ion-Beam Nanofabrication of Near-Infrared Magnetic Metamaterials," Adv. Mat. 17, 2547-2549 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood and S. R. J. Brueck, "Demonstration of Near-Infrared Negative-Index Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev and A. V. Kildishev, "Negative Index of Refraction in Optical Metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3356-3358 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J.  Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N.-C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, "Near-infrared double negative metamaterials," Opt. Express 13, 4922-4930 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N.-C. Paniou and R. M. Osgood, "Demonstration of metal-dielectric negative-index metamaterials with improved performance at optical frequencies," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 434-438 (2006).
  18. G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis and S. Linden, "Simultaneous Negative Phase and Group Velocity of Light in a Metamaterial," Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 31, 1800-1802 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. D. Seetharamdoo, R. Sauleau, K. Mahdjoubi and A. Tarot "Effective parameters of resonant negative refractive index metamaterials: Interpretation and validity," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 063505 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. V. Kildishev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev and V. M. Shalaev, "Negative Refractive Index in Optics of Metal-Dielectric Composites," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 423-433 (2006).
  22. J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking Surface Plasmons with Structured Surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans and J. R. Sambles, "Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons," Science 308, 670-672 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. B. K. Minhas, W. Fan, K. Agi, S. R. J. Brueck and K. J. Malloy, "Metallic Inductive and Capacitive Grids: Theory and Experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A19,1352-1359 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  25. D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104. (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (4)

A. V. Kildishev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev and V. M. Shalaev, "Negative Refractive Index in Optics of Metal-Dielectric Composites," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 423-433 (2006).

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N.-C. Paniou and R. M. Osgood, "Demonstration of metal-dielectric negative-index metamaterials with improved performance at optical frequencies," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 434-438 (2006).

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis and S. Linden, "Simultaneous Negative Phase and Group Velocity of Light in a Metamaterial," Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 31, 1800-1802 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (10)

D. O. S. Melville and R. J. Blaikie, "Super-resolution imaging through a planar silver layer," Opt. Express 13,2127-2134 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Katsarakis, G. Konstantinidis, A. Kostopoulos, R. S. Penciu, T. F. Gundogdu, Th Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou and C. M. Soukoulis "Magnetic response of split-ring resonators in the far infrared frequency regime,"Opt. Lett. 30, 1348-1350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J.  Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N.-C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, "Near-infrared double negative metamaterials," Opt. Express 13, 4922-4930 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev and A. V. Kildishev, "Negative Index of Refraction in Optical Metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3356-3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans and J. R. Sambles, "Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons," Science 308, 670-672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, A. Frauenglass, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy and S. R. J. Brueck, "Demonstration of Mid-Infrared Resonant Magnetic Nanostructures Exhibiting a Negative Permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener and S. Linden "Focused-Ion-Beam Nanofabrication of Near-Infrared Magnetic Metamaterials," Adv. Mat. 17, 2547-2549 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood and S. R. J. Brueck, "Demonstration of Near-Infrared Negative-Index Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Seetharamdoo, R. Sauleau, K. Mahdjoubi and A. Tarot "Effective parameters of resonant negative refractive index metamaterials: Interpretation and validity," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 063505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Sub-Diffraction-Limited Optical Imaging with a Silver Superlens," Science 308, 534-537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz Magnetic Response from Artificial Materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic Response of Metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking Surface Plasmons with Structured Surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

N.-C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, "Influence of the dispersive properties of metals on the transmission characteristics of left-handed materials," Phys. Rev. E68, 016611(2003).

N.-C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, "Numerical investigation of negative refractive index metamaterials at infrared and optical frequencies," Opt. Commun. 233, 331-337 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. O'Brien and J. B. Pendry, "Magnetic activity at infrared frequencies in structured metallic photonic crystals," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, 6383-6394 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Minhas, W. Fan, K. Agi, S. R. J. Brueck and K. J. Malloy, "Metallic Inductive and Capacitive Grids: Theory and Experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A19,1352-1359 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104. (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ," Soviet Physics USPEKHI,  10509 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Agi, K.

B. K. Minhas, W. Fan, K. Agi, S. R. J. Brueck and K. J. Malloy, "Metallic Inductive and Capacitive Grids: Theory and Experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A19,1352-1359 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Basov, D. N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz Magnetic Response from Artificial Materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blaikie, R. J.

Brueck, S. R. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N.-C. Paniou and R. M. Osgood, "Demonstration of metal-dielectric negative-index metamaterials with improved performance at optical frequencies," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 434-438 (2006).

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J.  Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N.-C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, "Near-infrared double negative metamaterials," Opt. Express 13, 4922-4930 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, A. Frauenglass, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy and S. R. J. Brueck, "Demonstration of Mid-Infrared Resonant Magnetic Nanostructures Exhibiting a Negative Permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood and S. R. J. Brueck, "Demonstration of Near-Infrared Negative-Index Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. K. Minhas, W. Fan, K. Agi, S. R. J. Brueck and K. J. Malloy, "Metallic Inductive and Capacitive Grids: Theory and Experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A19,1352-1359 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

A. V. Kildishev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev and V. M. Shalaev, "Negative Refractive Index in Optics of Metal-Dielectric Composites," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 423-433 (2006).

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev and A. V. Kildishev, "Negative Index of Refraction in Optical Metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3356-3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

A. V. Kildishev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev and V. M. Shalaev, "Negative Refractive Index in Optics of Metal-Dielectric Composites," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 423-433 (2006).

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev and A. V. Kildishev, "Negative Index of Refraction in Optical Metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3356-3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dolling, G.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis and S. Linden, "Simultaneous Negative Phase and Group Velocity of Light in a Metamaterial," Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 31, 1800-1802 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drachev, V. P.

A. V. Kildishev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev and V. M. Shalaev, "Negative Refractive Index in Optics of Metal-Dielectric Composites," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 423-433 (2006).

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev and A. V. Kildishev, "Negative Index of Refraction in Optical Metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3356-3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Enkrich, C.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis and S. Linden, "Simultaneous Negative Phase and Group Velocity of Light in a Metamaterial," Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 31, 1800-1802 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener and S. Linden "Focused-Ion-Beam Nanofabrication of Near-Infrared Magnetic Metamaterials," Adv. Mat. 17, 2547-2549 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic Response of Metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, B. R.

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans and J. R. Sambles, "Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons," Science 308, 670-672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, W.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N.-C. Paniou and R. M. Osgood, "Demonstration of metal-dielectric negative-index metamaterials with improved performance at optical frequencies," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 434-438 (2006).

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J.  Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N.-C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, "Near-infrared double negative metamaterials," Opt. Express 13, 4922-4930 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, A. Frauenglass, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy and S. R. J. Brueck, "Demonstration of Mid-Infrared Resonant Magnetic Nanostructures Exhibiting a Negative Permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood and S. R. J. Brueck, "Demonstration of Near-Infrared Negative-Index Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. K. Minhas, W. Fan, K. Agi, S. R. J. Brueck and K. J. Malloy, "Metallic Inductive and Capacitive Grids: Theory and Experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A19,1352-1359 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fang, N.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Sub-Diffraction-Limited Optical Imaging with a Silver Superlens," Science 308, 534-537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz Magnetic Response from Artificial Materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frauenglass, A.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, A. Frauenglass, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy and S. R. J. Brueck, "Demonstration of Mid-Infrared Resonant Magnetic Nanostructures Exhibiting a Negative Permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking Surface Plasmons with Structured Surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerthsen, D.

C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener and S. Linden "Focused-Ion-Beam Nanofabrication of Near-Infrared Magnetic Metamaterials," Adv. Mat. 17, 2547-2549 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gundogdu, T. F.

Hibbins, A. P.

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans and J. R. Sambles, "Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons," Science 308, 670-672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katsarakis, N.

Kildishev, A. V.

A. V. Kildishev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev and V. M. Shalaev, "Negative Refractive Index in Optics of Metal-Dielectric Composites," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 423-433 (2006).

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev and A. V. Kildishev, "Negative Index of Refraction in Optical Metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3356-3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Konstantinidis, G.

Koschny, T.

C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener and S. Linden "Focused-Ion-Beam Nanofabrication of Near-Infrared Magnetic Metamaterials," Adv. Mat. 17, 2547-2549 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic Response of Metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kostopoulos, A.

Lee, H.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Sub-Diffraction-Limited Optical Imaging with a Silver Superlens," Science 308, 534-537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linden, S.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis and S. Linden, "Simultaneous Negative Phase and Group Velocity of Light in a Metamaterial," Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 31, 1800-1802 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener and S. Linden "Focused-Ion-Beam Nanofabrication of Near-Infrared Magnetic Metamaterials," Adv. Mat. 17, 2547-2549 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic Response of Metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahdjoubi, K.

D. Seetharamdoo, R. Sauleau, K. Mahdjoubi and A. Tarot "Effective parameters of resonant negative refractive index metamaterials: Interpretation and validity," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 063505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Malloy, K. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N.-C. Paniou and R. M. Osgood, "Demonstration of metal-dielectric negative-index metamaterials with improved performance at optical frequencies," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 434-438 (2006).

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J.  Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N.-C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, "Near-infrared double negative metamaterials," Opt. Express 13, 4922-4930 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, A. Frauenglass, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy and S. R. J. Brueck, "Demonstration of Mid-Infrared Resonant Magnetic Nanostructures Exhibiting a Negative Permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood and S. R. J. Brueck, "Demonstration of Near-Infrared Negative-Index Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. K. Minhas, W. Fan, K. Agi, S. R. J. Brueck and K. J. Malloy, "Metallic Inductive and Capacitive Grids: Theory and Experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A19,1352-1359 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Markos, P.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104. (2002).
[CrossRef]

Martin-Moreno, L.

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking Surface Plasmons with Structured Surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melville, D. O. S.

Minhas, B.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, A. Frauenglass, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy and S. R. J. Brueck, "Demonstration of Mid-Infrared Resonant Magnetic Nanostructures Exhibiting a Negative Permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minhas, B. K.

B. K. Minhas, W. Fan, K. Agi, S. R. J. Brueck and K. J. Malloy, "Metallic Inductive and Capacitive Grids: Theory and Experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A19,1352-1359 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O'Brien, S.

S. O'Brien and J. B. Pendry, "Magnetic activity at infrared frequencies in structured metallic photonic crystals," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, 6383-6394 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N.-C. Paniou and R. M. Osgood, "Demonstration of metal-dielectric negative-index metamaterials with improved performance at optical frequencies," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 434-438 (2006).

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J.  Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N.-C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, "Near-infrared double negative metamaterials," Opt. Express 13, 4922-4930 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood and S. R. J. Brueck, "Demonstration of Near-Infrared Negative-Index Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.-C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, "Influence of the dispersive properties of metals on the transmission characteristics of left-handed materials," Phys. Rev. E68, 016611(2003).

N.-C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, "Numerical investigation of negative refractive index metamaterials at infrared and optical frequencies," Opt. Commun. 233, 331-337 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz Magnetic Response from Artificial Materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paniou, N.-C.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N.-C. Paniou and R. M. Osgood, "Demonstration of metal-dielectric negative-index metamaterials with improved performance at optical frequencies," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 434-438 (2006).

Panoiu, N. C.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood and S. R. J. Brueck, "Demonstration of Near-Infrared Negative-Index Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panoiu, N.-C.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J.  Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N.-C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, "Near-infrared double negative metamaterials," Opt. Express 13, 4922-4930 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N.-C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, "Numerical investigation of negative refractive index metamaterials at infrared and optical frequencies," Opt. Commun. 233, 331-337 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N.-C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, "Influence of the dispersive properties of metals on the transmission characteristics of left-handed materials," Phys. Rev. E68, 016611(2003).

Penciu, R. S.

Pendry, J. B.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz Magnetic Response from Artificial Materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking Surface Plasmons with Structured Surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. O'Brien and J. B. Pendry, "Magnetic activity at infrared frequencies in structured metallic photonic crystals," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, 6383-6394 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pérez-Willard, F.

C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener and S. Linden "Focused-Ion-Beam Nanofabrication of Near-Infrared Magnetic Metamaterials," Adv. Mat. 17, 2547-2549 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, J. R.

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans and J. R. Sambles, "Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons," Science 308, 670-672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarychev, A. K.

A. V. Kildishev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev and V. M. Shalaev, "Negative Refractive Index in Optics of Metal-Dielectric Composites," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 423-433 (2006).

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev and A. V. Kildishev, "Negative Index of Refraction in Optical Metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3356-3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sauleau, R.

D. Seetharamdoo, R. Sauleau, K. Mahdjoubi and A. Tarot "Effective parameters of resonant negative refractive index metamaterials: Interpretation and validity," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 063505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104. (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Seetharamdoo, D.

D. Seetharamdoo, R. Sauleau, K. Mahdjoubi and A. Tarot "Effective parameters of resonant negative refractive index metamaterials: Interpretation and validity," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 063505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

A. V. Kildishev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev and V. M. Shalaev, "Negative Refractive Index in Optics of Metal-Dielectric Composites," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 423-433 (2006).

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev and A. V. Kildishev, "Negative Index of Refraction in Optical Metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3356-3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz Magnetic Response from Artificial Materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104. (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis and S. Linden, "Simultaneous Negative Phase and Group Velocity of Light in a Metamaterial," Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 31, 1800-1802 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener and S. Linden "Focused-Ion-Beam Nanofabrication of Near-Infrared Magnetic Metamaterials," Adv. Mat. 17, 2547-2549 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic Response of Metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104. (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Sub-Diffraction-Limited Optical Imaging with a Silver Superlens," Science 308, 534-537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tarot, A.

D. Seetharamdoo, R. Sauleau, K. Mahdjoubi and A. Tarot "Effective parameters of resonant negative refractive index metamaterials: Interpretation and validity," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 063505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Th Koschny, T. F.

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ," Soviet Physics USPEKHI,  10509 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D. C.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz Magnetic Response from Artificial Materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 31, 1800-1802 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis and S. Linden, "Simultaneous Negative Phase and Group Velocity of Light in a Metamaterial," Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener and S. Linden "Focused-Ion-Beam Nanofabrication of Near-Infrared Magnetic Metamaterials," Adv. Mat. 17, 2547-2549 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic Response of Metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yen, T. J.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz Magnetic Response from Artificial Materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, H-K.

A. V. Kildishev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev and V. M. Shalaev, "Negative Refractive Index in Optics of Metal-Dielectric Composites," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 423-433 (2006).

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev and A. V. Kildishev, "Negative Index of Refraction in Optical Metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3356-3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N.-C. Paniou and R. M. Osgood, "Demonstration of metal-dielectric negative-index metamaterials with improved performance at optical frequencies," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 434-438 (2006).

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J.  Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N.-C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, "Near-infrared double negative metamaterials," Opt. Express 13, 4922-4930 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, A. Frauenglass, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy and S. R. J. Brueck, "Demonstration of Mid-Infrared Resonant Magnetic Nanostructures Exhibiting a Negative Permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood and S. R. J. Brueck, "Demonstration of Near-Infrared Negative-Index Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Sub-Diffraction-Limited Optical Imaging with a Silver Superlens," Science 308, 534-537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz Magnetic Response from Artificial Materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic Response of Metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J. F.

C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener and S. Linden "Focused-Ion-Beam Nanofabrication of Near-Infrared Magnetic Metamaterials," Adv. Mat. 17, 2547-2549 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mat. (1)

C. Enkrich, F. Pérez-Willard, D. Gerthsen, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, M. Wegener and S. Linden "Focused-Ion-Beam Nanofabrication of Near-Infrared Magnetic Metamaterials," Adv. Mat. 17, 2547-2549 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Seetharamdoo, R. Sauleau, K. Mahdjoubi and A. Tarot "Effective parameters of resonant negative refractive index metamaterials: Interpretation and validity," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 063505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

A. V. Kildishev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev and V. M. Shalaev, "Negative Refractive Index in Optics of Metal-Dielectric Composites," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 423-433 (2006).

B. K. Minhas, W. Fan, K. Agi, S. R. J. Brueck and K. J. Malloy, "Metallic Inductive and Capacitive Grids: Theory and Experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A19,1352-1359 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N.-C. Paniou and R. M. Osgood, "Demonstration of metal-dielectric negative-index metamaterials with improved performance at optical frequencies," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 434-438 (2006).

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

S. O'Brien and J. B. Pendry, "Magnetic activity at infrared frequencies in structured metallic photonic crystals," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, 6383-6394 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

N.-C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, "Numerical investigation of negative refractive index metamaterials at infrared and optical frequencies," Opt. Commun. 233, 331-337 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. (1)

N.-C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, "Influence of the dispersive properties of metals on the transmission characteristics of left-handed materials," Phys. Rev. E68, 016611(2003).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104. (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood and S. R. J. Brueck, "Demonstration of Near-Infrared Negative-Index Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, A. Frauenglass, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy and S. R. J. Brueck, "Demonstration of Mid-Infrared Resonant Magnetic Nanostructures Exhibiting a Negative Permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (7)

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz Magnetic Response from Artificial Materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic Response of Metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Sub-Diffraction-Limited Optical Imaging with a Silver Superlens," Science 308, 534-537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking Surface Plasmons with Structured Surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans and J. R. Sambles, "Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons," Science 308, 670-672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis and S. Linden, "Simultaneous Negative Phase and Group Velocity of Light in a Metamaterial," Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soviet Physics USPEKHI (1)

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ," Soviet Physics USPEKHI,  10509 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of a metamaterial consisting of multiple unit cells. The geometric parameters are: 801-nm pitch along orthogonal in-plane directions and a linewidth of the metal gratings along the direction of magnetic field of 500 nm and that along the electrical field of 200 nm. The thickness of the air/Au/dielectric/Au/air unit cell is 5/30/60/30/5 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of forward and backward propagating beams before and after a single unit cell. (2N+1) diffraction orders are kept for both in-plane directions.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The magnitude of the transmission (a), (c) and reflectance (b), (d) for slabs consisting of 1, 2, 5, 6 and 10, 100 and 200 unit cells along the propagation direction.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Refractive index extracted from the complex coefficient of transmission and reflectance for different numbers of unit cells. The unfilled square, triangle, black, red and blue symbols represent the effective index extracted from slabs consisting of 1, 2, 5, 6 and 10 unit cells, respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) The effective indices of the two modes with the lowest decay rates. For wavelengths below ~ 2 μm mode 1 has the lowest loss and dominates the response. At longer wavelengths, mode 2 has a lower loss and becomes dominant. (b) The ratio of the real part to the imaginary part of effective index in the negative index region.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Evolution of the phase of the average electric field along the propagation direction across a unit cell. (b), (c) Electric field amplitude and phase plots (λ = 1.7 μm) at the center of the cell (z = 65 nm) across a unit cell in the transverse plane. The white frames represent the location of the open aperture.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The magnitude and phase of the magnetic field for a three-layer structure across one transverse unit cell atthe middle of the structure (indicated by the dashed line) for wavelengths of 1.5, 1.7 and 2.1 μm.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E A , i , σ = m , n A mn , i , σ f mn ( x , y ) g imn ( z ) e imn , σ
f mn ( x , y ) = exp [ j ( α m x + β n y ) ] and g imn ( z ) = exp ( j Λ imn z )
[ A mn , 0 , σ B mn , 0 , σ ] = M ̿ [ A mn , l , σ B mn , l , σ ]
n′ = Im [ log ( γ ) ] ( k o d ) and n″ = log ( γ ) ( k o d )

Metrics