Abstract
We report on a study of the wave propagation and refraction in a 2D squarelattice photonic crystal for the first two photonic bands as well as the coupling of the external waves and criteria for flatlens focusing. Microwave experiments and numerical simulations are performed. Main results concern the transition from positive to negative refraction below the first band gap, the flatlens focusing using a novel criterion, viz. the constancy of the ratio of the tangents of the incident and refracted angle. Focusing results for medium (≈ 10) and ultralarge dielectric contrast (≈ 100) are presented. In the latter case focusing with a spot size below one wavelength at distances several wavelengths behind the photonic crystal is achieved.
© 2006 Optical Society of America
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References
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 Year
 
 Author
 
 Publication
 G. Eleftheriades and K. Balmain, NegativeRefraction Metamaterials (Wiley, 2003).
 K. Sakoda, Optical Properties of Photonic Crystals (Springer, 2001).
 V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509 (1968).
[Crossref]  M. Notomi, “Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystals: Refractionlike behavior in the vicinity of the photonic band gap,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 10,696 (2000).
[Crossref]  S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Refraction in Media with a Negative Refractive Index,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107,402 (2003).
[Crossref]  S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction and lefthanded behavior in twodimensional photonic crystals,” condmat/0212434v1 (2002).
 S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic wave propagation in twodimensional photonic crystals: A study of anomalous refractive effects,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 165,112 (2005).
[Crossref]  R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction,” Science 292, 77 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]  E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative Refraction by Photonic Crystals,” Nature 423, 604 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]  E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Subwavelength Resolution in a TwoDimensional PhotonicCrystalBased Superlens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207,401 (2003).
[Crossref]  P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokoloff, J. S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, “Negative Refraction and LeftHanded Electromagnetism in Microwave Photonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127,401 (2004).
[Crossref]  P. Vodo, P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, S. Sridhar, and R. Win, “Microwave photonic crystal with tailormade negative refractive index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1858 (2004).
[Crossref]  C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, “Allangle negative refraction without negative effective index,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 201,104 (2002).
[Crossref]  J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]  Z. Ruan, M. Qiu, S. Xiao, S. He, and L. Thylen, “Coupling between plane waves and Bloch waves in photonic crystals with negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 045,111 (2005).
[Crossref]  G. von Freymann, W. Koch, D. C. Meisel, M. Wegener, M. Diem, A. GarciaMartin, S. Pereira, K. Busch, J. Schilling, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Gösele, “Diffraction properties of twodimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 614 (2003).
[Crossref]  A. Martinez, H. Miguez, A. Griol, and J. Marti, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of the selffocusing of light by a photonic crystal lens,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 165,119 (2004).
[Crossref]  R. Gajic, F. Kuchar, R. Meisels, J. Radovanovic, K. Hingerl, J. Zarbakhsh, J. Stampfl, and A. Woesz, “Physical and materials aspects of photonic crystals for microwaves and millimetre waves,” Z. Metallk. 95, 618 (2004).
 “FullWAVE,” RSoft Design Group, Inc. http://www.rsoftdesign.com.

R. Gajic, R. Meisels, F. Kuchar, and K. Hingerl, “Refraction and rightness in photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 13, 8596 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]  “BandSOLVE,” RSoft Design Group, Inc. http://www.rsoftdesign.com.
 K. Guven, K. Aydin, K. B. Alici, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Spectral negative refraction and focusing analysis of a twodimensional lefthanded photonic crystal lens,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 205,125 (2004).
[Crossref]  C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, “Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 045,115 (2003).
[Crossref]  Z. Lu, J. Murakowski, C. Schuetz, S. Shi, G. Schneider, and D. Prather, “ThreeDimensional Subwavelength Imaging by a PhotonicCrystal Flat Lens Using Negative Refraction at Microwave Frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153,901 (2005).
[Crossref]  Z. Y. Li and L. L. Lin, “Evaluation of lensing in photonic crystal slabs exhibiting negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 245,110 (2003).
2005 (4)
S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic wave propagation in twodimensional photonic crystals: A study of anomalous refractive effects,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 165,112 (2005).
[Crossref]
Z. Ruan, M. Qiu, S. Xiao, S. He, and L. Thylen, “Coupling between plane waves and Bloch waves in photonic crystals with negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 045,111 (2005).
[Crossref]
R. Gajic, R. Meisels, F. Kuchar, and K. Hingerl, “Refraction and rightness in photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 13, 8596 (2005).
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
Z. Lu, J. Murakowski, C. Schuetz, S. Shi, G. Schneider, and D. Prather, “ThreeDimensional Subwavelength Imaging by a PhotonicCrystal Flat Lens Using Negative Refraction at Microwave Frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153,901 (2005).
[Crossref]
2004 (5)
K. Guven, K. Aydin, K. B. Alici, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Spectral negative refraction and focusing analysis of a twodimensional lefthanded photonic crystal lens,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 205,125 (2004).
[Crossref]
A. Martinez, H. Miguez, A. Griol, and J. Marti, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of the selffocusing of light by a photonic crystal lens,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 165,119 (2004).
[Crossref]
R. Gajic, F. Kuchar, R. Meisels, J. Radovanovic, K. Hingerl, J. Zarbakhsh, J. Stampfl, and A. Woesz, “Physical and materials aspects of photonic crystals for microwaves and millimetre waves,” Z. Metallk. 95, 618 (2004).
P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokoloff, J. S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, “Negative Refraction and LeftHanded Electromagnetism in Microwave Photonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127,401 (2004).
[Crossref]
P. Vodo, P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, S. Sridhar, and R. Win, “Microwave photonic crystal with tailormade negative refractive index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1858 (2004).
[Crossref]
2003 (6)
C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, “Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 045,115 (2003).
[Crossref]
G. von Freymann, W. Koch, D. C. Meisel, M. Wegener, M. Diem, A. GarciaMartin, S. Pereira, K. Busch, J. Schilling, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Gösele, “Diffraction properties of twodimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 614 (2003).
[Crossref]
E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative Refraction by Photonic Crystals,” Nature 423, 604 (2003).
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Subwavelength Resolution in a TwoDimensional PhotonicCrystalBased Superlens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207,401 (2003).
[Crossref]
Z. Y. Li and L. L. Lin, “Evaluation of lensing in photonic crystal slabs exhibiting negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 245,110 (2003).
S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Refraction in Media with a Negative Refractive Index,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107,402 (2003).
[Crossref]
2002 (1)
C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, “Allangle negative refraction without negative effective index,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 201,104 (2002).
[Crossref]
2001 (1)
R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction,” Science 292, 77 (2001).
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
2000 (2)
M. Notomi, “Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystals: Refractionlike behavior in the vicinity of the photonic band gap,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 10,696 (2000).
[Crossref]
J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
1968 (1)
V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509 (1968).
[Crossref]
Alici, K. B.
K. Guven, K. Aydin, K. B. Alici, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Spectral negative refraction and focusing analysis of a twodimensional lefthanded photonic crystal lens,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 205,125 (2004).
[Crossref]
Aydin, K.
K. Guven, K. Aydin, K. B. Alici, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Spectral negative refraction and focusing analysis of a twodimensional lefthanded photonic crystal lens,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 205,125 (2004).
[Crossref]
E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative Refraction by Photonic Crystals,” Nature 423, 604 (2003).
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Subwavelength Resolution in a TwoDimensional PhotonicCrystalBased Superlens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207,401 (2003).
[Crossref]
Balmain, K.
G. Eleftheriades and K. Balmain, NegativeRefraction Metamaterials (Wiley, 2003).
Busch, K.
G. von Freymann, W. Koch, D. C. Meisel, M. Wegener, M. Diem, A. GarciaMartin, S. Pereira, K. Busch, J. Schilling, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Gösele, “Diffraction properties of twodimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 614 (2003).
[Crossref]
Cubukcu, E.
E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative Refraction by Photonic Crystals,” Nature 423, 604 (2003).
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Subwavelength Resolution in a TwoDimensional PhotonicCrystalBased Superlens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207,401 (2003).
[Crossref]
Derov, J. S.
P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokoloff, J. S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, “Negative Refraction and LeftHanded Electromagnetism in Microwave Photonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127,401 (2004).
[Crossref]
Diem, M.
G. von Freymann, W. Koch, D. C. Meisel, M. Wegener, M. Diem, A. GarciaMartin, S. Pereira, K. Busch, J. Schilling, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Gösele, “Diffraction properties of twodimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 614 (2003).
[Crossref]
Economou, E. N.
S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Refraction in Media with a Negative Refractive Index,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107,402 (2003).
[Crossref]
Eleftheriades, G.
G. Eleftheriades and K. Balmain, NegativeRefraction Metamaterials (Wiley, 2003).
Foteinopoulou, S.
S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic wave propagation in twodimensional photonic crystals: A study of anomalous refractive effects,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 165,112 (2005).
[Crossref]
S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Refraction in Media with a Negative Refractive Index,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107,402 (2003).
[Crossref]
E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative Refraction by Photonic Crystals,” Nature 423, 604 (2003).
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Subwavelength Resolution in a TwoDimensional PhotonicCrystalBased Superlens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207,401 (2003).
[Crossref]
S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction and lefthanded behavior in twodimensional photonic crystals,” condmat/0212434v1 (2002).
Gajic, R.
R. Gajic, R. Meisels, F. Kuchar, and K. Hingerl, “Refraction and rightness in photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 13, 8596 (2005).
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
R. Gajic, F. Kuchar, R. Meisels, J. Radovanovic, K. Hingerl, J. Zarbakhsh, J. Stampfl, and A. Woesz, “Physical and materials aspects of photonic crystals for microwaves and millimetre waves,” Z. Metallk. 95, 618 (2004).
GarciaMartin, A.
G. von Freymann, W. Koch, D. C. Meisel, M. Wegener, M. Diem, A. GarciaMartin, S. Pereira, K. Busch, J. Schilling, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Gösele, “Diffraction properties of twodimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 614 (2003).
[Crossref]
Gösele, U.
G. von Freymann, W. Koch, D. C. Meisel, M. Wegener, M. Diem, A. GarciaMartin, S. Pereira, K. Busch, J. Schilling, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Gösele, “Diffraction properties of twodimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 614 (2003).
[Crossref]
Griol, A.
A. Martinez, H. Miguez, A. Griol, and J. Marti, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of the selffocusing of light by a photonic crystal lens,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 165,119 (2004).
[Crossref]
Guven, K.
K. Guven, K. Aydin, K. B. Alici, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Spectral negative refraction and focusing analysis of a twodimensional lefthanded photonic crystal lens,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 205,125 (2004).
[Crossref]
He, S.
Z. Ruan, M. Qiu, S. Xiao, S. He, and L. Thylen, “Coupling between plane waves and Bloch waves in photonic crystals with negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 045,111 (2005).
[Crossref]
Hingerl, K.
R. Gajic, R. Meisels, F. Kuchar, and K. Hingerl, “Refraction and rightness in photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 13, 8596 (2005).
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
R. Gajic, F. Kuchar, R. Meisels, J. Radovanovic, K. Hingerl, J. Zarbakhsh, J. Stampfl, and A. Woesz, “Physical and materials aspects of photonic crystals for microwaves and millimetre waves,” Z. Metallk. 95, 618 (2004).
Joannopoulos, J. D.
C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, “Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 045,115 (2003).
[Crossref]
C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, “Allangle negative refraction without negative effective index,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 201,104 (2002).
[Crossref]
Johnson, S. G.
C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, “Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 045,115 (2003).
[Crossref]
C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, “Allangle negative refraction without negative effective index,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 201,104 (2002).
[Crossref]
Koch, W.
G. von Freymann, W. Koch, D. C. Meisel, M. Wegener, M. Diem, A. GarciaMartin, S. Pereira, K. Busch, J. Schilling, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Gösele, “Diffraction properties of twodimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 614 (2003).
[Crossref]
Kuchar, F.
R. Gajic, R. Meisels, F. Kuchar, and K. Hingerl, “Refraction and rightness in photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 13, 8596 (2005).
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
R. Gajic, F. Kuchar, R. Meisels, J. Radovanovic, K. Hingerl, J. Zarbakhsh, J. Stampfl, and A. Woesz, “Physical and materials aspects of photonic crystals for microwaves and millimetre waves,” Z. Metallk. 95, 618 (2004).
Li, Z. Y.
Z. Y. Li and L. L. Lin, “Evaluation of lensing in photonic crystal slabs exhibiting negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 245,110 (2003).
Lin, L. L.
Z. Y. Li and L. L. Lin, “Evaluation of lensing in photonic crystal slabs exhibiting negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 245,110 (2003).
Lu, W. T.
P. Vodo, P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, S. Sridhar, and R. Win, “Microwave photonic crystal with tailormade negative refractive index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1858 (2004).
[Crossref]
P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokoloff, J. S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, “Negative Refraction and LeftHanded Electromagnetism in Microwave Photonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127,401 (2004).
[Crossref]
Lu, Z.
Z. Lu, J. Murakowski, C. Schuetz, S. Shi, G. Schneider, and D. Prather, “ThreeDimensional Subwavelength Imaging by a PhotonicCrystal Flat Lens Using Negative Refraction at Microwave Frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153,901 (2005).
[Crossref]
Luo, C.
C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, “Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 045,115 (2003).
[Crossref]
C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, “Allangle negative refraction without negative effective index,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 201,104 (2002).
[Crossref]
Marti, J.
A. Martinez, H. Miguez, A. Griol, and J. Marti, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of the selffocusing of light by a photonic crystal lens,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 165,119 (2004).
[Crossref]
Martinez, A.
A. Martinez, H. Miguez, A. Griol, and J. Marti, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of the selffocusing of light by a photonic crystal lens,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 165,119 (2004).
[Crossref]
Meisel, D. C.
G. von Freymann, W. Koch, D. C. Meisel, M. Wegener, M. Diem, A. GarciaMartin, S. Pereira, K. Busch, J. Schilling, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Gösele, “Diffraction properties of twodimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 614 (2003).
[Crossref]
Meisels, R.
R. Gajic, R. Meisels, F. Kuchar, and K. Hingerl, “Refraction and rightness in photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 13, 8596 (2005).
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
R. Gajic, F. Kuchar, R. Meisels, J. Radovanovic, K. Hingerl, J. Zarbakhsh, J. Stampfl, and A. Woesz, “Physical and materials aspects of photonic crystals for microwaves and millimetre waves,” Z. Metallk. 95, 618 (2004).
Miguez, H.
A. Martinez, H. Miguez, A. Griol, and J. Marti, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of the selffocusing of light by a photonic crystal lens,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 165,119 (2004).
[Crossref]
Murakowski, J.
Z. Lu, J. Murakowski, C. Schuetz, S. Shi, G. Schneider, and D. Prather, “ThreeDimensional Subwavelength Imaging by a PhotonicCrystal Flat Lens Using Negative Refraction at Microwave Frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153,901 (2005).
[Crossref]
Notomi, M.
M. Notomi, “Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystals: Refractionlike behavior in the vicinity of the photonic band gap,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 10,696 (2000).
[Crossref]
Ozbay, E.
K. Guven, K. Aydin, K. B. Alici, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Spectral negative refraction and focusing analysis of a twodimensional lefthanded photonic crystal lens,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 205,125 (2004).
[Crossref]
E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative Refraction by Photonic Crystals,” Nature 423, 604 (2003).
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Subwavelength Resolution in a TwoDimensional PhotonicCrystalBased Superlens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207,401 (2003).
[Crossref]
Parimi, P. V.
P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokoloff, J. S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, “Negative Refraction and LeftHanded Electromagnetism in Microwave Photonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127,401 (2004).
[Crossref]
P. Vodo, P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, S. Sridhar, and R. Win, “Microwave photonic crystal with tailormade negative refractive index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1858 (2004).
[Crossref]
Pendry, J. B.
C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, “Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 045,115 (2003).
[Crossref]
C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, “Allangle negative refraction without negative effective index,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 201,104 (2002).
[Crossref]
J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
Pereira, S.
G. von Freymann, W. Koch, D. C. Meisel, M. Wegener, M. Diem, A. GarciaMartin, S. Pereira, K. Busch, J. Schilling, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Gösele, “Diffraction properties of twodimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 614 (2003).
[Crossref]
Prather, D.
Z. Lu, J. Murakowski, C. Schuetz, S. Shi, G. Schneider, and D. Prather, “ThreeDimensional Subwavelength Imaging by a PhotonicCrystal Flat Lens Using Negative Refraction at Microwave Frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153,901 (2005).
[Crossref]
Qiu, M.
Z. Ruan, M. Qiu, S. Xiao, S. He, and L. Thylen, “Coupling between plane waves and Bloch waves in photonic crystals with negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 045,111 (2005).
[Crossref]
Radovanovic, J.
R. Gajic, F. Kuchar, R. Meisels, J. Radovanovic, K. Hingerl, J. Zarbakhsh, J. Stampfl, and A. Woesz, “Physical and materials aspects of photonic crystals for microwaves and millimetre waves,” Z. Metallk. 95, 618 (2004).
Ruan, Z.
Z. Ruan, M. Qiu, S. Xiao, S. He, and L. Thylen, “Coupling between plane waves and Bloch waves in photonic crystals with negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 045,111 (2005).
[Crossref]
Sakoda, K.
K. Sakoda, Optical Properties of Photonic Crystals (Springer, 2001).
Schilling, J.
G. von Freymann, W. Koch, D. C. Meisel, M. Wegener, M. Diem, A. GarciaMartin, S. Pereira, K. Busch, J. Schilling, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Gösele, “Diffraction properties of twodimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 614 (2003).
[Crossref]
Schneider, G.
Z. Lu, J. Murakowski, C. Schuetz, S. Shi, G. Schneider, and D. Prather, “ThreeDimensional Subwavelength Imaging by a PhotonicCrystal Flat Lens Using Negative Refraction at Microwave Frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153,901 (2005).
[Crossref]
Schuetz, C.
Z. Lu, J. Murakowski, C. Schuetz, S. Shi, G. Schneider, and D. Prather, “ThreeDimensional Subwavelength Imaging by a PhotonicCrystal Flat Lens Using Negative Refraction at Microwave Frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153,901 (2005).
[Crossref]
Schultz, S.
R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction,” Science 292, 77 (2001).
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
Shelby, R. A.
R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction,” Science 292, 77 (2001).
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
Shi, S.
Z. Lu, J. Murakowski, C. Schuetz, S. Shi, G. Schneider, and D. Prather, “ThreeDimensional Subwavelength Imaging by a PhotonicCrystal Flat Lens Using Negative Refraction at Microwave Frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153,901 (2005).
[Crossref]
Smith, D. R.
R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction,” Science 292, 77 (2001).
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
Sokoloff, J.
P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokoloff, J. S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, “Negative Refraction and LeftHanded Electromagnetism in Microwave Photonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127,401 (2004).
[Crossref]
Soukoulis, C. M.
S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic wave propagation in twodimensional photonic crystals: A study of anomalous refractive effects,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 165,112 (2005).
[Crossref]
K. Guven, K. Aydin, K. B. Alici, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Spectral negative refraction and focusing analysis of a twodimensional lefthanded photonic crystal lens,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 205,125 (2004).
[Crossref]
S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Refraction in Media with a Negative Refractive Index,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107,402 (2003).
[Crossref]
E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Subwavelength Resolution in a TwoDimensional PhotonicCrystalBased Superlens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207,401 (2003).
[Crossref]
E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative Refraction by Photonic Crystals,” Nature 423, 604 (2003).
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction and lefthanded behavior in twodimensional photonic crystals,” condmat/0212434v1 (2002).
Sridhar, S.
P. Vodo, P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, S. Sridhar, and R. Win, “Microwave photonic crystal with tailormade negative refractive index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1858 (2004).
[Crossref]
P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokoloff, J. S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, “Negative Refraction and LeftHanded Electromagnetism in Microwave Photonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127,401 (2004).
[Crossref]
Stampfl, J.
R. Gajic, F. Kuchar, R. Meisels, J. Radovanovic, K. Hingerl, J. Zarbakhsh, J. Stampfl, and A. Woesz, “Physical and materials aspects of photonic crystals for microwaves and millimetre waves,” Z. Metallk. 95, 618 (2004).
Thylen, L.
Z. Ruan, M. Qiu, S. Xiao, S. He, and L. Thylen, “Coupling between plane waves and Bloch waves in photonic crystals with negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 045,111 (2005).
[Crossref]
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P. Vodo, P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, S. Sridhar, and R. Win, “Microwave photonic crystal with tailormade negative refractive index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1858 (2004).
[Crossref]
P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokoloff, J. S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, “Negative Refraction and LeftHanded Electromagnetism in Microwave Photonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127,401 (2004).
[Crossref]
von Freymann, G.
G. von Freymann, W. Koch, D. C. Meisel, M. Wegener, M. Diem, A. GarciaMartin, S. Pereira, K. Busch, J. Schilling, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Gösele, “Diffraction properties of twodimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 614 (2003).
[Crossref]
Wegener, M.
G. von Freymann, W. Koch, D. C. Meisel, M. Wegener, M. Diem, A. GarciaMartin, S. Pereira, K. Busch, J. Schilling, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Gösele, “Diffraction properties of twodimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 614 (2003).
[Crossref]
Wehrspohn, R. B.
G. von Freymann, W. Koch, D. C. Meisel, M. Wegener, M. Diem, A. GarciaMartin, S. Pereira, K. Busch, J. Schilling, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Gösele, “Diffraction properties of twodimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 614 (2003).
[Crossref]
Win, R.
P. Vodo, P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, S. Sridhar, and R. Win, “Microwave photonic crystal with tailormade negative refractive index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1858 (2004).
[Crossref]
Woesz, A.
R. Gajic, F. Kuchar, R. Meisels, J. Radovanovic, K. Hingerl, J. Zarbakhsh, J. Stampfl, and A. Woesz, “Physical and materials aspects of photonic crystals for microwaves and millimetre waves,” Z. Metallk. 95, 618 (2004).
Xiao, S.
Z. Ruan, M. Qiu, S. Xiao, S. He, and L. Thylen, “Coupling between plane waves and Bloch waves in photonic crystals with negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 045,111 (2005).
[Crossref]
Zarbakhsh, J.
R. Gajic, F. Kuchar, R. Meisels, J. Radovanovic, K. Hingerl, J. Zarbakhsh, J. Stampfl, and A. Woesz, “Physical and materials aspects of photonic crystals for microwaves and millimetre waves,” Z. Metallk. 95, 618 (2004).
Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)
P. Vodo, P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, S. Sridhar, and R. Win, “Microwave photonic crystal with tailormade negative refractive index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1858 (2004).
[Crossref]
G. von Freymann, W. Koch, D. C. Meisel, M. Wegener, M. Diem, A. GarciaMartin, S. Pereira, K. Busch, J. Schilling, R. B. Wehrspohn, and U. Gösele, “Diffraction properties of twodimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 614 (2003).
[Crossref]
Nature (1)
E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative Refraction by Photonic Crystals,” Nature 423, 604 (2003).
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
Opt. Express (1)
R. Gajic, R. Meisels, F. Kuchar, and K. Hingerl, “Refraction and rightness in photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 13, 8596 (2005).
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
Phys. Rev. B (8)
K. Guven, K. Aydin, K. B. Alici, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Spectral negative refraction and focusing analysis of a twodimensional lefthanded photonic crystal lens,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 205,125 (2004).
[Crossref]
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M. Notomi, “Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystals: Refractionlike behavior in the vicinity of the photonic band gap,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 10,696 (2000).
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A. Martinez, H. Miguez, A. Griol, and J. Marti, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of the selffocusing of light by a photonic crystal lens,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 165,119 (2004).
[Crossref]
C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, “Allangle negative refraction without negative effective index,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 201,104 (2002).
[Crossref]
Z. Ruan, M. Qiu, S. Xiao, S. He, and L. Thylen, “Coupling between plane waves and Bloch waves in photonic crystals with negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 045,111 (2005).
[Crossref]
Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)
J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Refraction in Media with a Negative Refractive Index,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107,402 (2003).
[Crossref]
E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Subwavelength Resolution in a TwoDimensional PhotonicCrystalBased Superlens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207,401 (2003).
[Crossref]
P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokoloff, J. S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, “Negative Refraction and LeftHanded Electromagnetism in Microwave Photonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127,401 (2004).
[Crossref]
Z. Lu, J. Murakowski, C. Schuetz, S. Shi, G. Schneider, and D. Prather, “ThreeDimensional Subwavelength Imaging by a PhotonicCrystal Flat Lens Using Negative Refraction at Microwave Frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153,901 (2005).
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Science (1)
R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction,” Science 292, 77 (2001).
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
Sov. Phys. Usp. (1)
V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509 (1968).
[Crossref]
Z. Metallk. (1)
R. Gajic, F. Kuchar, R. Meisels, J. Radovanovic, K. Hingerl, J. Zarbakhsh, J. Stampfl, and A. Woesz, “Physical and materials aspects of photonic crystals for microwaves and millimetre waves,” Z. Metallk. 95, 618 (2004).
Other (5)
“FullWAVE,” RSoft Design Group, Inc. http://www.rsoftdesign.com.
S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction and lefthanded behavior in twodimensional photonic crystals,” condmat/0212434v1 (2002).
G. Eleftheriades and K. Balmain, NegativeRefraction Metamaterials (Wiley, 2003).
K. Sakoda, Optical Properties of Photonic Crystals (Springer, 2001).
“BandSOLVE,” RSoft Design Group, Inc. http://www.rsoftdesign.com.
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Figures (10)
Intensity versus position of the TM beam without the PhC and transmitted through the PhC at
Angle of refraction Θ
_{r}
as a function of frequency with the angle of incidence Θ
_{i}
, as the parameter based on the EFC calculations. Also included are the experimental data points for Θ
_{i}
= 45° (diamonds) and Θ
_{i}
= 30° (triangles) (details see section 2.1). A variation of the rod radius corresponding to that one of the rods used in the experiments is included for Θ
_{i}
= 45° (dashed curve: r = 0.60 mm, all other curves: r = 0.61 mm). The full dots on the calculated curves mark
Intensity versus position of the TE beam without the PhC (curves peaked near x = 0 mm) and transmitted through the PhC (curves peaked near x = 20 mm) for
EFCs of the second TE band with 0.5 GHz steps between 65 and 67.5 GHz.
Deviations of
EFC in the first TM band for
Ratio of the tangents of the refracted and incident angles (
Wave pattern (
Wave pattern from a small (1
Phase refractive index