Abstract

We extend the understanding of the imaging properties of dielectric photonic crystal slabs to object distances that are larger than the slab thickness. We specifically consider hexagonal crystal lattices in the second band. For object distances smaller than the slab thickness, the image distance is a negative linear function of the object distance as expected for negative refractive index materials. The effective refractive index extracted from this linear object-image relation is close to the negative unity value calculated for infinite photonic crystal using the plane wave expansion method. In contrast to previous predictions, we find that a real image can still be formed for object distances up to twice the slab thickness. In this regime the image distance changes little as the object distance increases, and can thus be described as the saturated image regime. Sub-wavelength resolution performance can be approximately maintained even for these larger object distances. The full-width half-maximum spot size at the image is approximately (0.43-0.55)λ up to object distances 1.5 times the slab thickness. By evaluating the image angular frequency spectrum we show that this sub-wavelength resolution imaging at larger object distances is due to evanescent waves that arise within the slab, rather than being directly transferred from the object. The eventual loss of image resolution is due to interference side lobes which enter the image plane.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. V. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of epsilon and mu, " Soviet Phys.Uspekhi 10, 509-514 (1968, in Russian,1964).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J.B. Pentry, "Negative Refraction Makes a Perfect Lens," Phys. Rev.Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D.R. Smith, W.J. Padina, D.C. Vier, S.C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "A composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys.Rev.Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 58,10096-10099 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. Gralak, S. Enoch, and G. Tayeb, "Anomalous refractive properties of photonic crystals, "J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1012-2020 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Notomi, "Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystals: refractionlike behavior in the vicinity of the photonic band gap," Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696-10705 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, and B. Gralak, "The richness of the dispersion relation of electromagnetic bandgap materials," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2659-2666 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Sakoda, Optical properties of photonic crystals, (2nd ed., Springer-Verlag, New York, (2005)
  9. C. Luo, S.G. Johnson, J.D. Joannopoulos, and J.B. Pendry, "All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index," Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Z.-Y. Li and L.-L. Lin, "Evaluation of lensing in photonic crystal slabs exhibiting negative refraction," Phys. Rev. B 68, 245110 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. Wang, Z.F. Ren, and K. Kempa, "Unrestricted superlensing in a triangular two dimensional photonic crystal," Opt. Express 12, 2919-2924(2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. He, Z. Ruan, L. Chen, and J. Shen, "Focusing properties of a photonic crystal slab with negative refraction, " Phys. Rev. B 70, 115113, (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Martinez and J. Marti, "Negative refraction in two-dimensional photonic crystals: role of lattice orientation and interface termination," Phys. Rev. B 71, 235115 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Martínez, H. Míguez, J. Sánchez-Dehesa, and J. Martí, "Analysis of wave propagation in a twodimensional photonic crystal with negative index of refraction: plane wave decomposition of the Bloch modes," Opt. Express 13, 4160-4174 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. Foteinopoulou and C.M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic wave propagation in two-dimentional photonic crystals: a study of anomalous refractive effects," Phys. Rev. B 72, 165112(2005)
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Gajić, R. Meisels, F. Kuchar, and K. Hingerl, "Refraction and rightness in photonic crystals," Opt. Express 13, 8596-8605 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. B. Pendry and S.A. Ramakrishna, "Near-field lenses in two dimensions," J. Phys: Condens. Matter 14, 8463-8479, 2002
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. B. Pendry, " Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 68, 045115 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, " Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. B 71, 085106 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylen, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative Refraction at Infrared Wavelengths in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. E. Schonbrun, M. Tinker, W. Park, and J.-B. Lee, "Negative refraction on a Si-Polymer photonic crystal membrane," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1196-1198 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopolou1 and C.M. Soukoulis, "Subwavelength Resolution in a Two-Dimensional Photonic-Crystal-Based Superlens, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Z. Lu, S. Shi, C. Schuetz, and D. Prather, "Experimental demonstration of negative refraction imaging in both amplitude and phase," Opt. Express 13, 2007-2012 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. B. Lombardet, L. A. Dunbar, R. Ferrini, and R. Houdré, "Fourier analysis of Bloch wave propagation in photonic crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1179-1190 (2005)
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. Xiao, Z. Ruan, M. Qiu, L. Shen, S. He, "Theoretical investigation on point imaging by photonic crystal slab using negative refraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4269-4271(2004).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Z. Feng, X. Zhang, K. Ren, S. Feng, Z.-Y. Li, B. Cheng, and D. Zhang, "Experimental demonstration of non-near-field image formed by negative refraction," Phys. Rev. B 73, 075118 (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  27. G. Sun, A. S. Jugessur, and A. G. Kirk, "Saturated super-resolution imaging of photonic crystal with negative refraction," in Proceedings of Optical Data Storage Topical Meeting, IEEE-LEOS, SPIE and OSA, 73-75, (2006).
  28. Z. Ruan, M. Qiu, S. Xiao, S. He and L. Thylen, "Coupling between plane wave and Bloch waves in photonics in photonics crystals with negative refraction," Phys. Rev. B 71, 04511(2005)
    [CrossRef]
  29. X. Wang, Z.F. Ren, and K. Kempa, "Improved superlensing in two-dimensional photonic crystals with a basis,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 061105 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  30. R. Zengerla and P.C. Hoang, "Wide-angle beam refocusing using negative refraction in non-uniform photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 5719-5730 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  31. S. Ponti and C. Oldano, "Open problems in the optics of crystals: The role of multiple scattering," Phys. Rev. E 67, 036616 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  32. A.J. den Dekker and A. van den Bos, "Resolution: a survey," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A14, 547-557, (1997)
    [CrossRef]
  33. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of optics electromagnetic theory of propagation, interference and diffraction of light, 7th Ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1999.
  34. J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, and A. Scherer, "Hybrid superprism with low insertion losses and suppressed cross-talk," Phys. Rev. E 71, 026604 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  35. L. Liu and S. He, "Near-field optical storage system using a solid immersion lens with a left-handed material slab," Opt. Express 12, 4835-4840 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. S. Mimouni, Y. Desieres, S. Gidon, L. Poupinet, P. Chaton, and P. Royer, "Near-field optical storage system including evanescent wave amplifier metamaterial based on photonic crystal," in Photonic Crystal Materials and Devices III, R. M. De La Rue, P. Viktorovitch, C. Lopez, and M. Midrio, eds., Proc. SPIE, 6182, 61821L1-9, (2006)
    [CrossRef]

2006

Z. Feng, X. Zhang, K. Ren, S. Feng, Z.-Y. Li, B. Cheng, and D. Zhang, "Experimental demonstration of non-near-field image formed by negative refraction," Phys. Rev. B 73, 075118 (2006)
[CrossRef]

2005

Z. Ruan, M. Qiu, S. Xiao, S. He and L. Thylen, "Coupling between plane wave and Bloch waves in photonics in photonics crystals with negative refraction," Phys. Rev. B 71, 04511(2005)
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, Z.F. Ren, and K. Kempa, "Improved superlensing in two-dimensional photonic crystals with a basis,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 061105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, " Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. B 71, 085106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Schonbrun, M. Tinker, W. Park, and J.-B. Lee, "Negative refraction on a Si-Polymer photonic crystal membrane," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1196-1198 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez and J. Marti, "Negative refraction in two-dimensional photonic crystals: role of lattice orientation and interface termination," Phys. Rev. B 71, 235115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Foteinopoulou and C.M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic wave propagation in two-dimentional photonic crystals: a study of anomalous refractive effects," Phys. Rev. B 72, 165112(2005)
[CrossRef]

J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, and A. Scherer, "Hybrid superprism with low insertion losses and suppressed cross-talk," Phys. Rev. E 71, 026604 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lu, S. Shi, C. Schuetz, and D. Prather, "Experimental demonstration of negative refraction imaging in both amplitude and phase," Opt. Express 13, 2007-2012 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Lombardet, L. A. Dunbar, R. Ferrini, and R. Houdré, "Fourier analysis of Bloch wave propagation in photonic crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1179-1190 (2005)
[CrossRef]

A. Martínez, H. Míguez, J. Sánchez-Dehesa, and J. Martí, "Analysis of wave propagation in a twodimensional photonic crystal with negative index of refraction: plane wave decomposition of the Bloch modes," Opt. Express 13, 4160-4174 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zengerla and P.C. Hoang, "Wide-angle beam refocusing using negative refraction in non-uniform photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 5719-5730 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Gajić, R. Meisels, F. Kuchar, and K. Hingerl, "Refraction and rightness in photonic crystals," Opt. Express 13, 8596-8605 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

S. Xiao, Z. Ruan, M. Qiu, L. Shen, S. He, "Theoretical investigation on point imaging by photonic crystal slab using negative refraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4269-4271(2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, Z.F. Ren, and K. Kempa, "Unrestricted superlensing in a triangular two dimensional photonic crystal," Opt. Express 12, 2919-2924(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liu and S. He, "Near-field optical storage system using a solid immersion lens with a left-handed material slab," Opt. Express 12, 4835-4840 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. He, Z. Ruan, L. Chen, and J. Shen, "Focusing properties of a photonic crystal slab with negative refraction, " Phys. Rev. B 70, 115113, (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylen, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative Refraction at Infrared Wavelengths in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopolou1 and C.M. Soukoulis, "Subwavelength Resolution in a Two-Dimensional Photonic-Crystal-Based Superlens, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ponti and C. Oldano, "Open problems in the optics of crystals: The role of multiple scattering," Phys. Rev. E 67, 036616 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, and B. Gralak, "The richness of the dispersion relation of electromagnetic bandgap materials," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2659-2666 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z.-Y. Li and L.-L. Lin, "Evaluation of lensing in photonic crystal slabs exhibiting negative refraction," Phys. Rev. B 68, 245110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. B. Pendry, " Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 68, 045115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. B. Pendry and S.A. Ramakrishna, "Near-field lenses in two dimensions," J. Phys: Condens. Matter 14, 8463-8479, 2002
[CrossRef]

C. Luo, S.G. Johnson, J.D. Joannopoulos, and J.B. Pendry, "All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index," Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

J.B. Pentry, "Negative Refraction Makes a Perfect Lens," Phys. Rev.Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D.R. Smith, W.J. Padina, D.C. Vier, S.C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "A composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys.Rev.Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Notomi, "Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystals: refractionlike behavior in the vicinity of the photonic band gap," Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696-10705 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Gralak, S. Enoch, and G. Tayeb, "Anomalous refractive properties of photonic crystals, "J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1012-2020 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 58,10096-10099 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

A.J. den Dekker and A. van den Bos, "Resolution: a survey," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A14, 547-557, (1997)
[CrossRef]

Anand, S.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylen, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative Refraction at Infrared Wavelengths in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aydin, K.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopolou1 and C.M. Soukoulis, "Subwavelength Resolution in a Two-Dimensional Photonic-Crystal-Based Superlens, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baehr-Jones, T.

J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, and A. Scherer, "Hybrid superprism with low insertion losses and suppressed cross-talk," Phys. Rev. E 71, 026604 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Berrier, A.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylen, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative Refraction at Infrared Wavelengths in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

S. He, Z. Ruan, L. Chen, and J. Shen, "Focusing properties of a photonic crystal slab with negative refraction, " Phys. Rev. B 70, 115113, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, B.

Z. Feng, X. Zhang, K. Ren, S. Feng, Z.-Y. Li, B. Cheng, and D. Zhang, "Experimental demonstration of non-near-field image formed by negative refraction," Phys. Rev. B 73, 075118 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Cubukcu, E.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopolou1 and C.M. Soukoulis, "Subwavelength Resolution in a Two-Dimensional Photonic-Crystal-Based Superlens, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

den Dekker, A.J.

A.J. den Dekker and A. van den Bos, "Resolution: a survey," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A14, 547-557, (1997)
[CrossRef]

Dunbar, L. A.

Enoch, S.

S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, and B. Gralak, "The richness of the dispersion relation of electromagnetic bandgap materials," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2659-2666 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Gralak, S. Enoch, and G. Tayeb, "Anomalous refractive properties of photonic crystals, "J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1012-2020 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Feng, S.

Z. Feng, X. Zhang, K. Ren, S. Feng, Z.-Y. Li, B. Cheng, and D. Zhang, "Experimental demonstration of non-near-field image formed by negative refraction," Phys. Rev. B 73, 075118 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Feng, Z.

Z. Feng, X. Zhang, K. Ren, S. Feng, Z.-Y. Li, B. Cheng, and D. Zhang, "Experimental demonstration of non-near-field image formed by negative refraction," Phys. Rev. B 73, 075118 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Ferrini, R.

Foteinopolou, S.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopolou1 and C.M. Soukoulis, "Subwavelength Resolution in a Two-Dimensional Photonic-Crystal-Based Superlens, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foteinopoulou, S.

S. Foteinopoulou and C.M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic wave propagation in two-dimentional photonic crystals: a study of anomalous refractive effects," Phys. Rev. B 72, 165112(2005)
[CrossRef]

R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, " Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. B 71, 085106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gajic, R.

Gralak, B.

S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, and B. Gralak, "The richness of the dispersion relation of electromagnetic bandgap materials," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2659-2666 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Gralak, S. Enoch, and G. Tayeb, "Anomalous refractive properties of photonic crystals, "J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1012-2020 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Guven, K.

R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, " Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. B 71, 085106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

Z. Ruan, M. Qiu, S. Xiao, S. He and L. Thylen, "Coupling between plane wave and Bloch waves in photonics in photonics crystals with negative refraction," Phys. Rev. B 71, 04511(2005)
[CrossRef]

S. He, Z. Ruan, L. Chen, and J. Shen, "Focusing properties of a photonic crystal slab with negative refraction, " Phys. Rev. B 70, 115113, (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu and S. He, "Near-field optical storage system using a solid immersion lens with a left-handed material slab," Opt. Express 12, 4835-4840 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Xiao, Z. Ruan, M. Qiu, L. Shen, S. He, "Theoretical investigation on point imaging by photonic crystal slab using negative refraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4269-4271(2004).
[CrossRef]

Hingerl, K.

Hoang, P.C.

Houdré, R.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. B. Pendry, " Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 68, 045115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J.D.

C. Luo, S.G. Johnson, J.D. Joannopoulos, and J.B. Pendry, "All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index," Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. B. Pendry, " Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 68, 045115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S.G.

C. Luo, S.G. Johnson, J.D. Joannopoulos, and J.B. Pendry, "All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index," Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, S.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 58,10096-10099 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kawashima, T.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 58,10096-10099 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kempa, K.

X. Wang, Z.F. Ren, and K. Kempa, "Improved superlensing in two-dimensional photonic crystals with a basis,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 061105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, Z.F. Ren, and K. Kempa, "Unrestricted superlensing in a triangular two dimensional photonic crystal," Opt. Express 12, 2919-2924(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kosaka, H.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 58,10096-10099 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kuchar, F.

Lee, J.-B.

E. Schonbrun, M. Tinker, W. Park, and J.-B. Lee, "Negative refraction on a Si-Polymer photonic crystal membrane," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1196-1198 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.-Y.

Z. Feng, X. Zhang, K. Ren, S. Feng, Z.-Y. Li, B. Cheng, and D. Zhang, "Experimental demonstration of non-near-field image formed by negative refraction," Phys. Rev. B 73, 075118 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Z.-Y. Li and L.-L. Lin, "Evaluation of lensing in photonic crystal slabs exhibiting negative refraction," Phys. Rev. B 68, 245110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L.-L.

Z.-Y. Li and L.-L. Lin, "Evaluation of lensing in photonic crystal slabs exhibiting negative refraction," Phys. Rev. B 68, 245110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

Lombardet, B.

Lu, Z.

Luo, C.

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. B. Pendry, " Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 68, 045115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Luo, S.G. Johnson, J.D. Joannopoulos, and J.B. Pendry, "All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index," Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marti, J.

A. Martinez and J. Marti, "Negative refraction in two-dimensional photonic crystals: role of lattice orientation and interface termination," Phys. Rev. B 71, 235115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martí, J.

Martinez, A.

A. Martinez and J. Marti, "Negative refraction in two-dimensional photonic crystals: role of lattice orientation and interface termination," Phys. Rev. B 71, 235115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martínez, A.

Meisels, R.

Míguez, H.

Moussa, R.

R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, " Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. B 71, 085106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mulot, M.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylen, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative Refraction at Infrared Wavelengths in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nemat-Nasser, S.C.

D.R. Smith, W.J. Padina, D.C. Vier, S.C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "A composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys.Rev.Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi, "Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystals: refractionlike behavior in the vicinity of the photonic band gap," Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696-10705 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 58,10096-10099 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oldano, C.

S. Ponti and C. Oldano, "Open problems in the optics of crystals: The role of multiple scattering," Phys. Rev. E 67, 036616 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, " Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. B 71, 085106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopolou1 and C.M. Soukoulis, "Subwavelength Resolution in a Two-Dimensional Photonic-Crystal-Based Superlens, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padina, W.J.

D.R. Smith, W.J. Padina, D.C. Vier, S.C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "A composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys.Rev.Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, W.

E. Schonbrun, M. Tinker, W. Park, and J.-B. Lee, "Negative refraction on a Si-Polymer photonic crystal membrane," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1196-1198 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. B. Pendry, " Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 68, 045115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry and S.A. Ramakrishna, "Near-field lenses in two dimensions," J. Phys: Condens. Matter 14, 8463-8479, 2002
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J.B.

C. Luo, S.G. Johnson, J.D. Joannopoulos, and J.B. Pendry, "All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index," Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pentry, J.B.

J.B. Pentry, "Negative Refraction Makes a Perfect Lens," Phys. Rev.Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ponti, S.

S. Ponti and C. Oldano, "Open problems in the optics of crystals: The role of multiple scattering," Phys. Rev. E 67, 036616 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Prather, D.

Qiu, M.

Z. Ruan, M. Qiu, S. Xiao, S. He and L. Thylen, "Coupling between plane wave and Bloch waves in photonics in photonics crystals with negative refraction," Phys. Rev. B 71, 04511(2005)
[CrossRef]

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylen, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative Refraction at Infrared Wavelengths in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Xiao, Z. Ruan, M. Qiu, L. Shen, S. He, "Theoretical investigation on point imaging by photonic crystal slab using negative refraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4269-4271(2004).
[CrossRef]

Ramakrishna, S.A.

J. B. Pendry and S.A. Ramakrishna, "Near-field lenses in two dimensions," J. Phys: Condens. Matter 14, 8463-8479, 2002
[CrossRef]

Ren, K.

Z. Feng, X. Zhang, K. Ren, S. Feng, Z.-Y. Li, B. Cheng, and D. Zhang, "Experimental demonstration of non-near-field image formed by negative refraction," Phys. Rev. B 73, 075118 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Ren, Z.F.

X. Wang, Z.F. Ren, and K. Kempa, "Improved superlensing in two-dimensional photonic crystals with a basis,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 061105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, Z.F. Ren, and K. Kempa, "Unrestricted superlensing in a triangular two dimensional photonic crystal," Opt. Express 12, 2919-2924(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruan, Z.

Z. Ruan, M. Qiu, S. Xiao, S. He and L. Thylen, "Coupling between plane wave and Bloch waves in photonics in photonics crystals with negative refraction," Phys. Rev. B 71, 04511(2005)
[CrossRef]

S. He, Z. Ruan, L. Chen, and J. Shen, "Focusing properties of a photonic crystal slab with negative refraction, " Phys. Rev. B 70, 115113, (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Xiao, Z. Ruan, M. Qiu, L. Shen, S. He, "Theoretical investigation on point imaging by photonic crystal slab using negative refraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4269-4271(2004).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez-Dehesa, J.

Sato, T.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 58,10096-10099 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, and A. Scherer, "Hybrid superprism with low insertion losses and suppressed cross-talk," Phys. Rev. E 71, 026604 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schonbrun, E.

E. Schonbrun, M. Tinker, W. Park, and J.-B. Lee, "Negative refraction on a Si-Polymer photonic crystal membrane," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1196-1198 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schuetz, C.

Schultz, S.

D.R. Smith, W.J. Padina, D.C. Vier, S.C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "A composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys.Rev.Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, J.

S. He, Z. Ruan, L. Chen, and J. Shen, "Focusing properties of a photonic crystal slab with negative refraction, " Phys. Rev. B 70, 115113, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shen, L.

S. Xiao, Z. Ruan, M. Qiu, L. Shen, S. He, "Theoretical investigation on point imaging by photonic crystal slab using negative refraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4269-4271(2004).
[CrossRef]

Shi, S.

Smith, D.R.

D.R. Smith, W.J. Padina, D.C. Vier, S.C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "A composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys.Rev.Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, " Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. B 71, 085106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C.M.

S. Foteinopoulou and C.M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic wave propagation in two-dimentional photonic crystals: a study of anomalous refractive effects," Phys. Rev. B 72, 165112(2005)
[CrossRef]

Swillo, M.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylen, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative Refraction at Infrared Wavelengths in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Talneau, A.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylen, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative Refraction at Infrared Wavelengths in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamamura, T.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 58,10096-10099 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tayeb, G.

S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, and B. Gralak, "The richness of the dispersion relation of electromagnetic bandgap materials," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2659-2666 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Gralak, S. Enoch, and G. Tayeb, "Anomalous refractive properties of photonic crystals, "J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1012-2020 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thylen, L.

Z. Ruan, M. Qiu, S. Xiao, S. He and L. Thylen, "Coupling between plane wave and Bloch waves in photonics in photonics crystals with negative refraction," Phys. Rev. B 71, 04511(2005)
[CrossRef]

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylen, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative Refraction at Infrared Wavelengths in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tinker, M.

E. Schonbrun, M. Tinker, W. Park, and J.-B. Lee, "Negative refraction on a Si-Polymer photonic crystal membrane," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1196-1198 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tomita, A.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 58,10096-10099 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tuttle, G.

R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, " Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. B 71, 085106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van den Bos, A.

A.J. den Dekker and A. van den Bos, "Resolution: a survey," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A14, 547-557, (1997)
[CrossRef]

Vier, D.C.

D.R. Smith, W.J. Padina, D.C. Vier, S.C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "A composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys.Rev.Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, Z.F. Ren, and K. Kempa, "Improved superlensing in two-dimensional photonic crystals with a basis,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 061105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, Z.F. Ren, and K. Kempa, "Unrestricted superlensing in a triangular two dimensional photonic crystal," Opt. Express 12, 2919-2924(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witzens, J.

J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, and A. Scherer, "Hybrid superprism with low insertion losses and suppressed cross-talk," Phys. Rev. E 71, 026604 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, S.

Z. Ruan, M. Qiu, S. Xiao, S. He and L. Thylen, "Coupling between plane wave and Bloch waves in photonics in photonics crystals with negative refraction," Phys. Rev. B 71, 04511(2005)
[CrossRef]

S. Xiao, Z. Ruan, M. Qiu, L. Shen, S. He, "Theoretical investigation on point imaging by photonic crystal slab using negative refraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4269-4271(2004).
[CrossRef]

Zengerla, R.

Zhang, D.

Z. Feng, X. Zhang, K. Ren, S. Feng, Z.-Y. Li, B. Cheng, and D. Zhang, "Experimental demonstration of non-near-field image formed by negative refraction," Phys. Rev. B 73, 075118 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, " Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. B 71, 085106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Z. Feng, X. Zhang, K. Ren, S. Feng, Z.-Y. Li, B. Cheng, and D. Zhang, "Experimental demonstration of non-near-field image formed by negative refraction," Phys. Rev. B 73, 075118 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Xiao, Z. Ruan, M. Qiu, L. Shen, S. He, "Theoretical investigation on point imaging by photonic crystal slab using negative refraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4269-4271(2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, Z.F. Ren, and K. Kempa, "Improved superlensing in two-dimensional photonic crystals with a basis,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 061105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

E. Schonbrun, M. Tinker, W. Park, and J.-B. Lee, "Negative refraction on a Si-Polymer photonic crystal membrane," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1196-1198 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.

S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, and B. Gralak, "The richness of the dispersion relation of electromagnetic bandgap materials," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2659-2666 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

A.J. den Dekker and A. van den Bos, "Resolution: a survey," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A14, 547-557, (1997)
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys: Condens. Matter

J. B. Pendry and S.A. Ramakrishna, "Near-field lenses in two dimensions," J. Phys: Condens. Matter 14, 8463-8479, 2002
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

Z. Feng, X. Zhang, K. Ren, S. Feng, Z.-Y. Li, B. Cheng, and D. Zhang, "Experimental demonstration of non-near-field image formed by negative refraction," Phys. Rev. B 73, 075118 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Z. Ruan, M. Qiu, S. Xiao, S. He and L. Thylen, "Coupling between plane wave and Bloch waves in photonics in photonics crystals with negative refraction," Phys. Rev. B 71, 04511(2005)
[CrossRef]

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. B. Pendry, " Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 68, 045115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, " Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. B 71, 085106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. He, Z. Ruan, L. Chen, and J. Shen, "Focusing properties of a photonic crystal slab with negative refraction, " Phys. Rev. B 70, 115113, (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez and J. Marti, "Negative refraction in two-dimensional photonic crystals: role of lattice orientation and interface termination," Phys. Rev. B 71, 235115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Foteinopoulou and C.M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic wave propagation in two-dimentional photonic crystals: a study of anomalous refractive effects," Phys. Rev. B 72, 165112(2005)
[CrossRef]

C. Luo, S.G. Johnson, J.D. Joannopoulos, and J.B. Pendry, "All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index," Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z.-Y. Li and L.-L. Lin, "Evaluation of lensing in photonic crystal slabs exhibiting negative refraction," Phys. Rev. B 68, 245110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 58,10096-10099 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, "Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystals: refractionlike behavior in the vicinity of the photonic band gap," Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696-10705 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

S. Ponti and C. Oldano, "Open problems in the optics of crystals: The role of multiple scattering," Phys. Rev. E 67, 036616 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, and A. Scherer, "Hybrid superprism with low insertion losses and suppressed cross-talk," Phys. Rev. E 71, 026604 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopolou1 and C.M. Soukoulis, "Subwavelength Resolution in a Two-Dimensional Photonic-Crystal-Based Superlens, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylen, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative Refraction at Infrared Wavelengths in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev.Lett.

J.B. Pentry, "Negative Refraction Makes a Perfect Lens," Phys. Rev.Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys.Rev.Lett.

D.R. Smith, W.J. Padina, D.C. Vier, S.C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "A composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys.Rev.Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

K. Sakoda, Optical properties of photonic crystals, (2nd ed., Springer-Verlag, New York, (2005)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of optics electromagnetic theory of propagation, interference and diffraction of light, 7th Ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1999.

V. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of epsilon and mu, " Soviet Phys.Uspekhi 10, 509-514 (1968, in Russian,1964).
[CrossRef]

G. Sun, A. S. Jugessur, and A. G. Kirk, "Saturated super-resolution imaging of photonic crystal with negative refraction," in Proceedings of Optical Data Storage Topical Meeting, IEEE-LEOS, SPIE and OSA, 73-75, (2006).

S. Mimouni, Y. Desieres, S. Gidon, L. Poupinet, P. Chaton, and P. Royer, "Near-field optical storage system including evanescent wave amplifier metamaterial based on photonic crystal," in Photonic Crystal Materials and Devices III, R. M. De La Rue, P. Viktorovitch, C. Lopez, and M. Midrio, eds., Proc. SPIE, 6182, 61821L1-9, (2006)
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (14)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Calculated effective refractive index for the hexagonal PhC (holes) with r/a=0.4 and refractive index of 3.6

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The 3-row PhC flat slab

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) The instantaneous electric field after 12,500 time steps at the Courant time step size for an object distance of 0.1d, for the 3-row PhC slab.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(b) The phase distribution for the field of Fig. 3(a)

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) The instantaneous electric field after 12,500 time steps at the Courant time step size for an object distance of 1.0d

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(b) The phase distribution for the field of Fig. 4(a)

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The relation between normalized object and image distances for slabs with 3 rows, 6 rows, 7 rows and 10 rows of holes.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The transversal distribution of the electric field intensity at the image locations for different object distances of 3-row slab.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The transversal distribution of the electric field intensity at the image locations for different object distances of 10-row slab.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Intensity distribution of 3-row slab for an object distance of 0.1d

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Intensity distribution of 3-row slab for an object distance of 1.6d

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Intensity distribution of 10-row slab for an object distance of 1.5d

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

The angular frequency spectra of the image intensities shown in Fig. 6 for the 3-row slab

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Longitudinal amplitudes along y=0 for different object distances of the 3-row slab

Metrics