Abstract

Plasmon-resonant gold nanorods are demonstrated as low back-scattering albedo contrast agents for optical coherence tomography (OCT). We define the backscattering albedo, a′, as the ratio of the backscattering to extinction coefficient. Contrast agents which modify a′ within the host tissue phantoms are detected with greater sensitivity by the differential OCT measurement of both a′ and extinction. Optimum sensitivity is achieved by maximizing the difference between contrast agents and tissue, |a′ca - a′tiss|. Low backscattering albedo gold nanorods (14 × 44 nm; λmax = 780 nm) within a high backscattering albedo tissue phantom with an uncertainty in concentration of 20% (randomized 2±0.4% intralipid) were readily detected at 82 ppm (by weight) in a regime where extinction alone could not discriminate nanorods. The estimated threshold of detection was 30 ppm.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2006 (4)

H. Takahashi, Y. Niidome, T. Niidome, K. Kaneko, H. Kawasaki, and S. Yamada, "Modification of gold nanorods using phosphatidylcholine to reduce cytotoxicity," Langmuir 22, 2-5 (2006).
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X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, "Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 2115-2120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. B. Huff, M. H. Hansen, Y. Zhao, J.-X. Cheng, and A. Wei, "CTAB-mediated cell uptake of gold nanorods," Manuscriptsubmitted (2006).

A. Nel, T. Xia, L. Madler, and N. Li, "Toxic potential of materials at the nanolevel," Science 311, 622-627 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (12)

M. Liu and P. Guyot-Sionnest, "Mechanism of silver(I)-assisted growth of gold nanorods and bipyramids," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 22192-22200 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Chou, C.-D. Chen, and C. R. C. Wang, "Highly efficient, wavelength-tunable, gold nanoparitcle based optothermal nanoconvertors," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 11135-11138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Liao and J. H. Hafner, "Gold nanorod bioconjugates," Chem. Mater. 17, 4636-4641 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, W. Perez-Segarra, Q. Shi, and A. Wei, "Dithiocarbamate assembly on gold," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 7328-7329 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Connor, J. Mwamuka, A. Gole, C. J. Murphy, and M. D. Wyatt, "Gold nanoparticles are taken up by human cells but do not cause acute cytotoxicity," Small 1, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, B. Wiley, Z.-Y. Li, D. Campbell, F. Saeki, H. Cang, L. Au, J. Lee, X. Li, and Y. Xia, "Gold nanocages: engineering their structure for biomedical applications," Adv. Mater. 17, 2255-2261 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Burda, X. Chen, R. Narayanan, and M. A. El-Sayed, "Chemistry and properties of nanocrystals of different shapes," Chem. Rev. 105, 1025-1102 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Perez-Juste, I. Pastoriza-Santos, L. M. Liz-Marzan, and P. Mulvaney, "Gold nanorods: Synthesis, characterization and applicatons," Coord. Chem. Rev. 249, 1870-1901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, T. B. Huff, D. A. Zweifel, W. He, P. S. Low, A. Wei, and J.-X. Cheng, "In vitro and in vivo two-photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 15752-15756 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Oldenburg, F. J.-J. Toublan, K. S. Suslick, A. Wei, and S. A. Boppart, "Magnetomotive contrast for in vivo optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 13, 6597-6614 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cang, T. Sun, Z.-Y. Li, J. Chen, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, and X. Li, "Gold nanocages as contrast agents for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 30, 3048-3050 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Zweifel and A. Wei, "Sulfide-arrested growth of gold nanorods," Chem. Mater. 17, 4256-4261 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (8)

Y. Zhao, B. Sadtler, M. Lin, G. H. Hockerman, and A. Wei, "Nanoprobe implantation into mammalian cells by cationic transfection," Chem. Commun. pp. 784-785 (2004).

C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M.-H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, "Nanoshell-enabled photonicsbased imaging and therapy of cancer," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 33-40 (2004).
[PubMed]

D. Levitz, L. Thrane, M. H. Frosz, P. E. Andersen, C. B. Andersen, J. Valanciunaite, J. Swartling, S. Andersson-Engels, and P. R. Hansen, "Determination of optical scattering properties of highlyscattering media in optical coherence tomography images," Opt. Express 12, 249-259 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hermann, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, L. Schmetterer, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, "Precision of extracting absorption profiles from weakly scattering media with spectrosocpic time-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 1677-1688 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Thrane, M. H. Frosz, T. M. Jorgensen, A. Tycho, H. T. Yura, and P. E. Andersen, "Extraction of optical scattering parameters and attenuation compensation in optical coherence tomography images of multilayered tissue structures," Opt. Lett. 29, 1641-1643 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xu, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, "Near-infrared dyes as contrast-enhancing agents for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 1647-1649 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yang, L. E. L. McGuckin, J. D. Simon, M. A. Choma, B. E. Applegate, and J. A. Izatt, "Spectral triangulation molecular contrast optical coherence tomography with indocyanine green as the contrast agent," Opt. Lett. 29, 2016-2018 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Faber, F. J. van der Meer, and M. C. G. Aalders, "Quantitative measurement of attenuation coefficients of weakly scattering media using optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 4353-4365 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (5)

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, "Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 13549-13554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. van Leeuwen, D. J. Faber, and M. C. Aalders, "Measurement of the axial point spread function in scattering media using single-mode fiber-based optical coherence tomography," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 227-233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Rao, M. A. Choma, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, "Molecular contrast in optical coherence tomography by use of a pump-probe technique," Opt. Lett. 28, 340-341 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. I. Kholodnykh, I. Y. Petrova, K. V. Larin, M. Motamedi, and R. O. Esenaliev, "Precision of measurement of tissue optical properties with optical coherence tomography," Appl. Opt. 42, 3027-3037 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zaccanti, S. D. Bianco, and F. Marelli, "Measurements of optical properties of high-density media," Appl. Opt. 42, 4023-4030 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

J. K. Barton, J. B. Hoying, and C. J. Sullivan, "Use of microbubbles as an optical coherence tomography contrast agent," Acad. Radiol. 9, S52-S55 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

T. L. Troy and S. N. Thennadil, "Optical properties of human skin in the near infrared wavelength range of 1000 to 2200 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 167-176 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

S. Link, M. B. Mohamed, and M. A. El-Sayed, "Simulation of the optical absorption spectra of gold nanorods as a function of their aspect ratio and the effect of the medium dielectric constant," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 3073-3077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

J. Yguerabide and E. E. Yguerabide, "Light-scattering submicroscopic particles as highly fluorescent analogs and their use as tracer labels in clinical and biological applications," Anal. Biochem. 262, 137-156 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Oldenburg, R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, "Nanoengineering of optical resonances," Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 243-247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, "Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering," Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705-1720 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "A review of the optical properties of biological tissues," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166-2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Aalders, M. C.

T. G. van Leeuwen, D. J. Faber, and M. C. Aalders, "Measurement of the axial point spread function in scattering media using single-mode fiber-based optical coherence tomography," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 227-233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Aalders, M. C. G.

Andersen, C. B.

Andersen, P. E.

Andersson-Engels, S.

Applegate, B. E.

Au, L.

J. Chen, B. Wiley, Z.-Y. Li, D. Campbell, F. Saeki, H. Cang, L. Au, J. Lee, X. Li, and Y. Xia, "Gold nanocages: engineering their structure for biomedical applications," Adv. Mater. 17, 2255-2261 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

S. J. Oldenburg, R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, "Nanoengineering of optical resonances," Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 243-247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bankson, J. A.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, "Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 13549-13554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barton, J.

C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M.-H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, "Nanoshell-enabled photonicsbased imaging and therapy of cancer," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 33-40 (2004).
[PubMed]

Barton, J. K.

J. K. Barton, J. B. Hoying, and C. J. Sullivan, "Use of microbubbles as an optical coherence tomography contrast agent," Acad. Radiol. 9, S52-S55 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beek, J. F.

Bianco, S. D.

Bizheva, K.

Bonner, R. F.

Boppart, S. A.

Burda, C.

C. Burda, X. Chen, R. Narayanan, and M. A. El-Sayed, "Chemistry and properties of nanocrystals of different shapes," Chem. Rev. 105, 1025-1102 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, D.

J. Chen, B. Wiley, Z.-Y. Li, D. Campbell, F. Saeki, H. Cang, L. Au, J. Lee, X. Li, and Y. Xia, "Gold nanocages: engineering their structure for biomedical applications," Adv. Mater. 17, 2255-2261 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cang, H.

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H. Wang, T. B. Huff, D. A. Zweifel, W. He, P. S. Low, A. Wei, and J.-X. Cheng, "In vitro and in vivo two-photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 15752-15756 (2005).
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J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, "Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering," Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705-1720 (1994).
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X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, "Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 2115-2120 (2006).
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X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, "Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 2115-2120 (2006).
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S. Link, M. B. Mohamed, and M. A. El-Sayed, "Simulation of the optical absorption spectra of gold nanorods as a function of their aspect ratio and the effect of the medium dielectric constant," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 3073-3077 (1999).
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Faber, D. J.

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Fujimoto, J. G.

U. Morgner, W. Drexler, F. X. Kartner, X. D. Li, C. Pitris, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Spectroscopic optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 25, 111-113 (2000).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
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E. E. Connor, J. Mwamuka, A. Gole, C. J. Murphy, and M. D. Wyatt, "Gold nanoparticles are taken up by human cells but do not cause acute cytotoxicity," Small 1, 325-327 (2005).
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Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
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M. Liu and P. Guyot-Sionnest, "Mechanism of silver(I)-assisted growth of gold nanorods and bipyramids," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 22192-22200 (2005).
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H. Liao and J. H. Hafner, "Gold nanorod bioconjugates," Chem. Mater. 17, 4636-4641 (2005).
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C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M.-H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, "Nanoshell-enabled photonicsbased imaging and therapy of cancer," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 33-40 (2004).
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L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, "Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 13549-13554 (2003).
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T. B. Huff, M. H. Hansen, Y. Zhao, J.-X. Cheng, and A. Wei, "CTAB-mediated cell uptake of gold nanorods," Manuscriptsubmitted (2006).

Hansen, P. R.

Hazle, J. D.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, "Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 13549-13554 (2003).
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H. Wang, T. B. Huff, D. A. Zweifel, W. He, P. S. Low, A. Wei, and J.-X. Cheng, "In vitro and in vivo two-photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 15752-15756 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
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Hermann, B.

Hirsch, L.

C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M.-H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, "Nanoshell-enabled photonicsbased imaging and therapy of cancer," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 33-40 (2004).
[PubMed]

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L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, "Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 13549-13554 (2003).
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Y. Zhao, B. Sadtler, M. Lin, G. H. Hockerman, and A. Wei, "Nanoprobe implantation into mammalian cells by cationic transfection," Chem. Commun. pp. 784-785 (2004).

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J. K. Barton, J. B. Hoying, and C. J. Sullivan, "Use of microbubbles as an optical coherence tomography contrast agent," Acad. Radiol. 9, S52-S55 (2002).
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Huang, X.

X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, "Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 2115-2120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huff, T. B.

T. B. Huff, M. H. Hansen, Y. Zhao, J.-X. Cheng, and A. Wei, "CTAB-mediated cell uptake of gold nanorods," Manuscriptsubmitted (2006).

H. Wang, T. B. Huff, D. A. Zweifel, W. He, P. S. Low, A. Wei, and J.-X. Cheng, "In vitro and in vivo two-photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 15752-15756 (2005).
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Izatt, J. A.

Jorgensen, T. M.

Kaneko, K.

H. Takahashi, Y. Niidome, T. Niidome, K. Kaneko, H. Kawasaki, and S. Yamada, "Modification of gold nanorods using phosphatidylcholine to reduce cytotoxicity," Langmuir 22, 2-5 (2006).
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Kawasaki, H.

H. Takahashi, Y. Niidome, T. Niidome, K. Kaneko, H. Kawasaki, and S. Yamada, "Modification of gold nanorods using phosphatidylcholine to reduce cytotoxicity," Langmuir 22, 2-5 (2006).
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Knuttel, A.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, "Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering," Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705-1720 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, and R. F. Bonner, "Measurement of optical properties of biological tissues by lowcoherence reflectometry," Appl. Opt. 32, 6032-6042 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larin, K. V.

Lee, J.

J. Chen, B. Wiley, Z.-Y. Li, D. Campbell, F. Saeki, H. Cang, L. Au, J. Lee, X. Li, and Y. Xia, "Gold nanocages: engineering their structure for biomedical applications," Adv. Mater. 17, 2255-2261 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.-H.

C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M.-H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, "Nanoshell-enabled photonicsbased imaging and therapy of cancer," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 33-40 (2004).
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Levitz, D.

Li, N.

A. Nel, T. Xia, L. Madler, and N. Li, "Toxic potential of materials at the nanolevel," Science 311, 622-627 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

J. Chen, B. Wiley, Z.-Y. Li, D. Campbell, F. Saeki, H. Cang, L. Au, J. Lee, X. Li, and Y. Xia, "Gold nanocages: engineering their structure for biomedical applications," Adv. Mater. 17, 2255-2261 (2005).
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H. Cang, T. Sun, Z.-Y. Li, J. Chen, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, and X. Li, "Gold nanocages as contrast agents for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 30, 3048-3050 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X. D.

Li, Z.-Y.

J. Chen, B. Wiley, Z.-Y. Li, D. Campbell, F. Saeki, H. Cang, L. Au, J. Lee, X. Li, and Y. Xia, "Gold nanocages: engineering their structure for biomedical applications," Adv. Mater. 17, 2255-2261 (2005).
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H. Cang, T. Sun, Z.-Y. Li, J. Chen, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, and X. Li, "Gold nanocages as contrast agents for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 30, 3048-3050 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, H.

H. Liao and J. H. Hafner, "Gold nanorod bioconjugates," Chem. Mater. 17, 4636-4641 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, A.

C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M.-H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, "Nanoshell-enabled photonicsbased imaging and therapy of cancer," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 33-40 (2004).
[PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, M.

Y. Zhao, B. Sadtler, M. Lin, G. H. Hockerman, and A. Wei, "Nanoprobe implantation into mammalian cells by cationic transfection," Chem. Commun. pp. 784-785 (2004).

Link, S.

S. Link, M. B. Mohamed, and M. A. El-Sayed, "Simulation of the optical absorption spectra of gold nanorods as a function of their aspect ratio and the effect of the medium dielectric constant," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 3073-3077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.

M. Liu and P. Guyot-Sionnest, "Mechanism of silver(I)-assisted growth of gold nanorods and bipyramids," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 22192-22200 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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J. Perez-Juste, I. Pastoriza-Santos, L. M. Liz-Marzan, and P. Mulvaney, "Gold nanorods: Synthesis, characterization and applicatons," Coord. Chem. Rev. 249, 1870-1901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M.-H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, "Nanoshell-enabled photonicsbased imaging and therapy of cancer," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 33-40 (2004).
[PubMed]

Low, P. S.

H. Wang, T. B. Huff, D. A. Zweifel, W. He, P. S. Low, A. Wei, and J.-X. Cheng, "In vitro and in vivo two-photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 15752-15756 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, W.

Madler, L.

A. Nel, T. Xia, L. Madler, and N. Li, "Toxic potential of materials at the nanolevel," Science 311, 622-627 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Marks, D. L.

McGuckin, L. E. L.

Milner, T. E.

Mohamed, M. B.

S. Link, M. B. Mohamed, and M. A. El-Sayed, "Simulation of the optical absorption spectra of gold nanorods as a function of their aspect ratio and the effect of the medium dielectric constant," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 3073-3077 (1999).
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Motamedi, M.

Mulvaney, P.

J. Perez-Juste, I. Pastoriza-Santos, L. M. Liz-Marzan, and P. Mulvaney, "Gold nanorods: Synthesis, characterization and applicatons," Coord. Chem. Rev. 249, 1870-1901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, C. J.

E. E. Connor, J. Mwamuka, A. Gole, C. J. Murphy, and M. D. Wyatt, "Gold nanoparticles are taken up by human cells but do not cause acute cytotoxicity," Small 1, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mwamuka, J.

E. E. Connor, J. Mwamuka, A. Gole, C. J. Murphy, and M. D. Wyatt, "Gold nanoparticles are taken up by human cells but do not cause acute cytotoxicity," Small 1, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Narayanan, R.

C. Burda, X. Chen, R. Narayanan, and M. A. El-Sayed, "Chemistry and properties of nanocrystals of different shapes," Chem. Rev. 105, 1025-1102 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nel, A.

A. Nel, T. Xia, L. Madler, and N. Li, "Toxic potential of materials at the nanolevel," Science 311, 622-627 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, J. S.

Niidome, T.

H. Takahashi, Y. Niidome, T. Niidome, K. Kaneko, H. Kawasaki, and S. Yamada, "Modification of gold nanorods using phosphatidylcholine to reduce cytotoxicity," Langmuir 22, 2-5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Niidome, Y.

H. Takahashi, Y. Niidome, T. Niidome, K. Kaneko, H. Kawasaki, and S. Yamada, "Modification of gold nanorods using phosphatidylcholine to reduce cytotoxicity," Langmuir 22, 2-5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oldenburg, A. L.

Oldenburg, S. J.

S. J. Oldenburg, R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, "Nanoengineering of optical resonances," Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 243-247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pastoriza-Santos, I.

J. Perez-Juste, I. Pastoriza-Santos, L. M. Liz-Marzan, and P. Mulvaney, "Gold nanorods: Synthesis, characterization and applicatons," Coord. Chem. Rev. 249, 1870-1901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Perez-Juste, J.

J. Perez-Juste, I. Pastoriza-Santos, L. M. Liz-Marzan, and P. Mulvaney, "Gold nanorods: Synthesis, characterization and applicatons," Coord. Chem. Rev. 249, 1870-1901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Perez-Segarra, W.

Y. Zhao, W. Perez-Segarra, Q. Shi, and A. Wei, "Dithiocarbamate assembly on gold," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 7328-7329 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrova, I. Y.

Pickering, J. W.

Pitris, C.

Povazay, B.

Prahl, S. A.

Price, R. E.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, "Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 13549-13554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, W.

X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, "Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 2115-2120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, K. D.

Rivera, B.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, "Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 13549-13554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

Sadtler, B.

Y. Zhao, B. Sadtler, M. Lin, G. H. Hockerman, and A. Wei, "Nanoprobe implantation into mammalian cells by cationic transfection," Chem. Commun. pp. 784-785 (2004).

Saeki, F.

J. Chen, B. Wiley, Z.-Y. Li, D. Campbell, F. Saeki, H. Cang, L. Au, J. Lee, X. Li, and Y. Xia, "Gold nanocages: engineering their structure for biomedical applications," Adv. Mater. 17, 2255-2261 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sattmann, H.

Schmetterer, L.

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, "Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering," Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705-1720 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, and R. F. Bonner, "Measurement of optical properties of biological tissues by lowcoherence reflectometry," Appl. Opt. 32, 6032-6042 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sershen, S. R.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, "Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 13549-13554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, Q.

Y. Zhao, W. Perez-Segarra, Q. Shi, and A. Wei, "Dithiocarbamate assembly on gold," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 7328-7329 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simon, J. D.

Sitafalwalla, S.

Stafford, R. J.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, "Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 13549-13554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sullivan, C. J.

J. K. Barton, J. B. Hoying, and C. J. Sullivan, "Use of microbubbles as an optical coherence tomography contrast agent," Acad. Radiol. 9, S52-S55 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, T.

Suslick, K. S.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swartling, J.

Takahashi, H.

H. Takahashi, Y. Niidome, T. Niidome, K. Kaneko, H. Kawasaki, and S. Yamada, "Modification of gold nanorods using phosphatidylcholine to reduce cytotoxicity," Langmuir 22, 2-5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thennadil, S. N.

T. L. Troy and S. N. Thennadil, "Optical properties of human skin in the near infrared wavelength range of 1000 to 2200 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 167-176 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thrane, L.

Toublan, F. J.-J.

Troy, T. L.

T. L. Troy and S. N. Thennadil, "Optical properties of human skin in the near infrared wavelength range of 1000 to 2200 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 167-176 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tycho, A.

Unterhuber, A.

Valanciunaite, J.

van der Meer, F. J.

van Gemert, M. J. C.

van Leeuwen, T. G.

T. G. van Leeuwen, D. J. Faber, and M. C. Aalders, "Measurement of the axial point spread function in scattering media using single-mode fiber-based optical coherence tomography," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 227-233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

van Wieringer, N.

Wang, C. R. C.

C.-H. Chou, C.-D. Chen, and C. R. C. Wang, "Highly efficient, wavelength-tunable, gold nanoparitcle based optothermal nanoconvertors," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 11135-11138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, T. B. Huff, D. A. Zweifel, W. He, P. S. Low, A. Wei, and J.-X. Cheng, "In vitro and in vivo two-photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 15752-15756 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, A.

T. B. Huff, M. H. Hansen, Y. Zhao, J.-X. Cheng, and A. Wei, "CTAB-mediated cell uptake of gold nanorods," Manuscriptsubmitted (2006).

Y. Zhao, W. Perez-Segarra, Q. Shi, and A. Wei, "Dithiocarbamate assembly on gold," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 7328-7329 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Zweifel and A. Wei, "Sulfide-arrested growth of gold nanorods," Chem. Mater. 17, 4256-4261 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, T. B. Huff, D. A. Zweifel, W. He, P. S. Low, A. Wei, and J.-X. Cheng, "In vitro and in vivo two-photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 15752-15756 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Oldenburg, F. J.-J. Toublan, K. S. Suslick, A. Wei, and S. A. Boppart, "Magnetomotive contrast for in vivo optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 13, 6597-6614 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, B. Sadtler, M. Lin, G. H. Hockerman, and A. Wei, "Nanoprobe implantation into mammalian cells by cationic transfection," Chem. Commun. pp. 784-785 (2004).

Welch, A. J.

W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "A review of the optical properties of biological tissues," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166-2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

West, J.

C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M.-H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, "Nanoshell-enabled photonicsbased imaging and therapy of cancer," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 33-40 (2004).
[PubMed]

West, J. L.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, "Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 13549-13554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westcott, S. L.

S. J. Oldenburg, R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, "Nanoengineering of optical resonances," Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 243-247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wiley, B.

J. Chen, B. Wiley, Z.-Y. Li, D. Campbell, F. Saeki, H. Cang, L. Au, J. Lee, X. Li, and Y. Xia, "Gold nanocages: engineering their structure for biomedical applications," Adv. Mater. 17, 2255-2261 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wiley, B. J.

Wyatt, M. D.

E. E. Connor, J. Mwamuka, A. Gole, C. J. Murphy, and M. D. Wyatt, "Gold nanoparticles are taken up by human cells but do not cause acute cytotoxicity," Small 1, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xia, T.

A. Nel, T. Xia, L. Madler, and N. Li, "Toxic potential of materials at the nanolevel," Science 311, 622-627 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, Y.

J. Chen, B. Wiley, Z.-Y. Li, D. Campbell, F. Saeki, H. Cang, L. Au, J. Lee, X. Li, and Y. Xia, "Gold nanocages: engineering their structure for biomedical applications," Adv. Mater. 17, 2255-2261 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Cang, T. Sun, Z.-Y. Li, J. Chen, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, and X. Li, "Gold nanocages as contrast agents for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 30, 3048-3050 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, C.

Yadlowsky, M.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, "Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering," Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705-1720 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, S.

H. Takahashi, Y. Niidome, T. Niidome, K. Kaneko, H. Kawasaki, and S. Yamada, "Modification of gold nanorods using phosphatidylcholine to reduce cytotoxicity," Langmuir 22, 2-5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

Yazdanfar, S.

Yguerabide, E. E.

J. Yguerabide and E. E. Yguerabide, "Light-scattering submicroscopic particles as highly fluorescent analogs and their use as tracer labels in clinical and biological applications," Anal. Biochem. 262, 137-156 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yguerabide, J.

J. Yguerabide and E. E. Yguerabide, "Light-scattering submicroscopic particles as highly fluorescent analogs and their use as tracer labels in clinical and biological applications," Anal. Biochem. 262, 137-156 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yura, H. T.

Zaccanti, G.

Zhao, Y.

T. B. Huff, M. H. Hansen, Y. Zhao, J.-X. Cheng, and A. Wei, "CTAB-mediated cell uptake of gold nanorods," Manuscriptsubmitted (2006).

Y. Zhao, W. Perez-Segarra, Q. Shi, and A. Wei, "Dithiocarbamate assembly on gold," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 7328-7329 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, B. Sadtler, M. Lin, G. H. Hockerman, and A. Wei, "Nanoprobe implantation into mammalian cells by cationic transfection," Chem. Commun. pp. 784-785 (2004).

Zweifel, D. A.

H. Wang, T. B. Huff, D. A. Zweifel, W. He, P. S. Low, A. Wei, and J.-X. Cheng, "In vitro and in vivo two-photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 15752-15756 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Zweifel and A. Wei, "Sulfide-arrested growth of gold nanorods," Chem. Mater. 17, 4256-4261 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Acad. Radiol. (1)

J. K. Barton, J. B. Hoying, and C. J. Sullivan, "Use of microbubbles as an optical coherence tomography contrast agent," Acad. Radiol. 9, S52-S55 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

J. Chen, B. Wiley, Z.-Y. Li, D. Campbell, F. Saeki, H. Cang, L. Au, J. Lee, X. Li, and Y. Xia, "Gold nanocages: engineering their structure for biomedical applications," Adv. Mater. 17, 2255-2261 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Biochem. (1)

J. Yguerabide and E. E. Yguerabide, "Light-scattering submicroscopic particles as highly fluorescent analogs and their use as tracer labels in clinical and biological applications," Anal. Biochem. 262, 137-156 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Chem. Commun (1)

Y. Zhao, B. Sadtler, M. Lin, G. H. Hockerman, and A. Wei, "Nanoprobe implantation into mammalian cells by cationic transfection," Chem. Commun. pp. 784-785 (2004).

Chem. Mater. (2)

H. Liao and J. H. Hafner, "Gold nanorod bioconjugates," Chem. Mater. 17, 4636-4641 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Zweifel and A. Wei, "Sulfide-arrested growth of gold nanorods," Chem. Mater. 17, 4256-4261 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. J. Oldenburg, R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, "Nanoengineering of optical resonances," Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 243-247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

C. Burda, X. Chen, R. Narayanan, and M. A. El-Sayed, "Chemistry and properties of nanocrystals of different shapes," Chem. Rev. 105, 1025-1102 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coord. Chem. Rev. (1)

J. Perez-Juste, I. Pastoriza-Santos, L. M. Liz-Marzan, and P. Mulvaney, "Gold nanorods: Synthesis, characterization and applicatons," Coord. Chem. Rev. 249, 1870-1901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "A review of the optical properties of biological tissues," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166-2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. G. van Leeuwen, D. J. Faber, and M. C. Aalders, "Measurement of the axial point spread function in scattering media using single-mode fiber-based optical coherence tomography," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 227-233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

Y. Zhao, W. Perez-Segarra, Q. Shi, and A. Wei, "Dithiocarbamate assembly on gold," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 7328-7329 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, "Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 2115-2120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

T. L. Troy and S. N. Thennadil, "Optical properties of human skin in the near infrared wavelength range of 1000 to 2200 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 167-176 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. B (3)

S. Link, M. B. Mohamed, and M. A. El-Sayed, "Simulation of the optical absorption spectra of gold nanorods as a function of their aspect ratio and the effect of the medium dielectric constant," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 3073-3077 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Liu and P. Guyot-Sionnest, "Mechanism of silver(I)-assisted growth of gold nanorods and bipyramids," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 22192-22200 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Chou, C.-D. Chen, and C. R. C. Wang, "Highly efficient, wavelength-tunable, gold nanoparitcle based optothermal nanoconvertors," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 11135-11138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

H. Takahashi, Y. Niidome, T. Niidome, K. Kaneko, H. Kawasaki, and S. Yamada, "Modification of gold nanorods using phosphatidylcholine to reduce cytotoxicity," Langmuir 22, 2-5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Manuscript (1)

T. B. Huff, M. H. Hansen, Y. Zhao, J.-X. Cheng, and A. Wei, "CTAB-mediated cell uptake of gold nanorods," Manuscriptsubmitted (2006).

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (8)

L. Thrane, M. H. Frosz, T. M. Jorgensen, A. Tycho, H. T. Yura, and P. E. Andersen, "Extraction of optical scattering parameters and attenuation compensation in optical coherence tomography images of multilayered tissue structures," Opt. Lett. 29, 1641-1643 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xu, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, "Near-infrared dyes as contrast-enhancing agents for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 1647-1649 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yang, L. E. L. McGuckin, J. D. Simon, M. A. Choma, B. E. Applegate, and J. A. Izatt, "Spectral triangulation molecular contrast optical coherence tomography with indocyanine green as the contrast agent," Opt. Lett. 29, 2016-2018 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cang, T. Sun, Z.-Y. Li, J. Chen, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, and X. Li, "Gold nanocages as contrast agents for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 30, 3048-3050 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Lee, A. L. Oldenburg, S. Sitafalwalla, D. L. Marks, W. Luo, F. J.-J. Toublan, K. S. Suslick, and S. A. Boppart, "Engineered microsphere contrast agents for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 1546-1548
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K. D. Rao, M. A. Choma, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, "Molecular contrast in optical coherence tomography by use of a pump-probe technique," Opt. Lett. 28, 340-341 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Morgner, W. Drexler, F. X. Kartner, X. D. Li, C. Pitris, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Spectroscopic optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 25, 111-113 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, "Two-dimensional birefringence imaging in biological tissue by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 22, 934-936 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, "Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering," Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705-1720 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2)

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, "Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 13549-13554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, T. B. Huff, D. A. Zweifel, W. He, P. S. Low, A. Wei, and J.-X. Cheng, "In vitro and in vivo two-photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 15752-15756 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Nel, T. Xia, L. Madler, and N. Li, "Toxic potential of materials at the nanolevel," Science 311, 622-627 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Small (1)

E. E. Connor, J. Mwamuka, A. Gole, C. J. Murphy, and M. D. Wyatt, "Gold nanoparticles are taken up by human cells but do not cause acute cytotoxicity," Small 1, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. (1)

C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M.-H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, "Nanoshell-enabled photonicsbased imaging and therapy of cancer," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 33-40 (2004).
[PubMed]

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K. Chen, Y. Liu, G. Ameer, and V. Backman, "Optimal design of structured nanospheres for ultrasharp lightscattering resonances as molecular imaging multilabels," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024005-1-6 (2005).
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S. A. Boppart, A. L. Oldenburg, C. Xu, and D. L. Marks, "Optical probes and techniques for molecular contrast enhancement in coherence imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 041208-1-14 (2005).
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D. L. Marks and S. A. Boppart, "Nonlinear interferometric vibrational imaging," Phys. Rev. Lett.  92, 123905- 1-4 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Sonnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, "Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402-1-4 (2002).
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A. L. Oldenburg, D. A. Zweifel, C. Xu, A. Wei, and S. A. Boppart, "Characterization of plasmon-resonant gold nanorods as near-infrared optical contrast agents investigated using a double-integrating sphere system," in Proceedings of SPIE: Plasmonics in biology and medicine II, vol. 5703, pp. 50-60 (2005).

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in Pascal, pp. 572-574 (Cambridge University Press, 1989).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Monte Carlo simulations of contrast agent detection with OCT. (a) Example depth-dependent OCT data with added shot noise (black) and corresponding least-squares line (red) fit to Eq.(6). (b) Scatter plot of the best fit values of ρ̃tiss and ρca for 1000 independent experiments. The value of σρca is taken to be half the 68% confidence interval.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Plots of uncertainty in measurement of contrast agent concentration σρca versus backscattering albedo a′ca . Results of Monte Carlo simulations (points) are plotted with their best-fit line according to Eq.(8) with fit parameters σ0 and ∆a′. The left plot shows results obtained while varying the degree of tissue fluctuations, and the right plot illustrates varying levels of OCT shot noise. All other parameters are specified in the text.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Left: TEM image of SPR nanorods. Right: Extinction spectra of nanorods in water at 136 ppm. TR, transverse resonance; LR, longitudinal resonance. An intermediate peak is produced by a small percentage of non-rodlike nanoparticles.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

OCT imaging while varying the concentration of the tissue phantom. Left: Example M-mode OCT image. Middle: Depth-dependent OCT data are plotted with their best-fit lines according to Eq.(6). Right: The extracted extinction coefficient μt and backscattering albedo a′ are plotted versus the tissue phantom concentration.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Dose-dependent changes in μt (top row) and a′ (bottom row) while mixing gold nanorods (left column) and silica spheres (right column) with 2% intralipid, as measured from OCT images. Best-fit lines according to Eq.(1) are plotted. Scales are uniform along rows and columns to aid in comparison.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Discrimination of nanorods within tissue phantoms of randomly chosen concentration, using backscattering albedo-based OCT contrast. Intralipid samples (2 ± 0.4%) without nanorods (open circles) are distinguished from those containing nanorods (82 ppm, filled squares) by the parameter a′.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Summary of measured optical properties of aqueous suspensions of gold nanorods (136 ppm ≈ 0.0007% v/v), silica spheres (~1% v/v), and intralipid (2% v/v). Values reported as mean ± standard deviation of sampled data.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

μ b = ε b , tiss ρ ˜ tiss + ε b , ca ρ ca
μ t = ε t , tiss ρ ˜ tiss + ε t , ca ρ ca
ρ ca = μ b ε t , tiss , μ t ε b , tiss ε b , ca ε t , tiss ε t , ca ε b , tiss = μ t ( a med ' a ' tiss ) ε t , ca ( a ' ca a ' tiss )
ρ ca = μ t ε t , tiss < ρ ˜ tiss > ε t , ca for a ' ca = a ' tiss
σ ρ ca σ OCT a ca a tiss for a ca a tiss
σ ρ ca ε t , tiss ε t , ca σ ρ ˜ tiss for a ca = a tiss
S OCT ( z ) = S 0 μ b ρ ˜ tiss ρ ca exp ( μ t ρ ˜ tiss ρ ca z ) f ( z z f , z R )
χ 2 = i = 1 N ( S i S OCT ρ ˜ tiss ρ ca σ OCT ) 2 + ( ρ ˜ tiss < ρ ˜ tiss > σ ρ ˜ tiss ) 2
σ ρ ca ( a ca ) = σ 0 ( ( a ca a tiss Δ a ' ) 2 + 1 ) 1 2
σ 0 Δ a ' a ca a tiss for a ca a tiss Δ a '

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