Abstract

A novel photonic microwave notch filter with both negative and positive coefficients is proposed and demonstrated using a single optical source. These coefficients are generated in a highly nonlinear fiber by cross polarization modulation effect and guided through a high birefringence fiber, and finally detected. Due to the orthogonal polarity between the two coefficients, the proposed filter has a stable transfer response and no resonance peaks at baseband. The experimental results showed a stable notch filter characteristic with the free spectral range of 3.97 GHz over the range of 15 GHz.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Capmany, B. Otrega, D. Pastor, and S. Sales, "Discrete-time optical processing of microwave signals," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 702-723 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Moslehi, J. W. Goodman, M. Tur, and H. J. Shaw, "Fiber-optic lattice signal processing," Proc. IEEE 72, 909-930 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Sasayama, M. Okuno, and K. Habara, "Coherent optical transversal filter using silica-based waveguides for high-speed signal processing," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1225-1230 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, "Optical fiber delay line filter free of limitation imposed by optical coherence," Electron. Lett. 35, 2133-2134 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Sales, J. Capmany, J. Marti, and D. Pastor, "Experimental demonstration of fiber-optic delay line filters with negative coefficients," Electron. Lett. 31, 1095-1096 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Coppinger, S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, and B. Jalali, "All-optical incoherent negative taps for photonic signal processing," Electron. Lett. 33, 973-975 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. B. Hunter, "Incoherent bipolar tap microwave photonic filter based on balanced bridge electro-optic modulator," Electron. Lett. 40, 856-857 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Moller, S. Yikai, L. Xiang, J. Leuthold, and X. Chongjin, "Ultrahigh-speed optical phase correlated data signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1597-1599 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear fiber optics, 3rd ed., pp. 210-216 (Jamestown Road, UK:Academic Press, 2001).
  10. J. C. Fan, C. L. Lu, and L. G. Kazovsky, "Dynamic range requirements for microcellular personal communication systems using analog fiber-optic links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1390-1397 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. H. Lee, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, and K. Kikuchi, "Wide-band tunable wavelength conversion of 10-Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero signal using cross-phase-modulation-induced polarization rotation in 1-m bismuth oxide-based nonlinear optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 298-300 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. -H. Kim and J. Kang, "Sagnac loop interferometer based on polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber with reduced temperature sensitivity," Opt. Express 12, 4490-4495 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

J. H. Lee, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, and K. Kikuchi, "Wide-band tunable wavelength conversion of 10-Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero signal using cross-phase-modulation-induced polarization rotation in 1-m bismuth oxide-based nonlinear optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 298-300 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

D. -H. Kim and J. Kang, "Sagnac loop interferometer based on polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber with reduced temperature sensitivity," Opt. Express 12, 4490-4495 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Hunter, "Incoherent bipolar tap microwave photonic filter based on balanced bridge electro-optic modulator," Electron. Lett. 40, 856-857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

L. Moller, S. Yikai, L. Xiang, J. Leuthold, and X. Chongjin, "Ultrahigh-speed optical phase correlated data signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1597-1599 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

W. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, "Optical fiber delay line filter free of limitation imposed by optical coherence," Electron. Lett. 35, 2133-2134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

J. C. Fan, C. L. Lu, and L. G. Kazovsky, "Dynamic range requirements for microcellular personal communication systems using analog fiber-optic links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1390-1397 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Coppinger, S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, and B. Jalali, "All-optical incoherent negative taps for photonic signal processing," Electron. Lett. 33, 973-975 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. Sales, J. Capmany, J. Marti, and D. Pastor, "Experimental demonstration of fiber-optic delay line filters with negative coefficients," Electron. Lett. 31, 1095-1096 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

K. Sasayama, M. Okuno, and K. Habara, "Coherent optical transversal filter using silica-based waveguides for high-speed signal processing," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1225-1230 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

B. Moslehi, J. W. Goodman, M. Tur, and H. J. Shaw, "Fiber-optic lattice signal processing," Proc. IEEE 72, 909-930 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

W. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, "Optical fiber delay line filter free of limitation imposed by optical coherence," Electron. Lett. 35, 2133-2134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Capmany, J.

J. Capmany, B. Otrega, D. Pastor, and S. Sales, "Discrete-time optical processing of microwave signals," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 702-723 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Sales, J. Capmany, J. Marti, and D. Pastor, "Experimental demonstration of fiber-optic delay line filters with negative coefficients," Electron. Lett. 31, 1095-1096 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chongjin, X.

L. Moller, S. Yikai, L. Xiang, J. Leuthold, and X. Chongjin, "Ultrahigh-speed optical phase correlated data signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1597-1599 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Coppinger, F.

F. Coppinger, S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, and B. Jalali, "All-optical incoherent negative taps for photonic signal processing," Electron. Lett. 33, 973-975 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fan, J. C.

J. C. Fan, C. L. Lu, and L. G. Kazovsky, "Dynamic range requirements for microcellular personal communication systems using analog fiber-optic links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1390-1397 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

B. Moslehi, J. W. Goodman, M. Tur, and H. J. Shaw, "Fiber-optic lattice signal processing," Proc. IEEE 72, 909-930 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Habara, K.

K. Sasayama, M. Okuno, and K. Habara, "Coherent optical transversal filter using silica-based waveguides for high-speed signal processing," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1225-1230 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, T.

J. H. Lee, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, and K. Kikuchi, "Wide-band tunable wavelength conversion of 10-Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero signal using cross-phase-modulation-induced polarization rotation in 1-m bismuth oxide-based nonlinear optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 298-300 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, D. B.

D. B. Hunter, "Incoherent bipolar tap microwave photonic filter based on balanced bridge electro-optic modulator," Electron. Lett. 40, 856-857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

F. Coppinger, S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, and B. Jalali, "All-optical incoherent negative taps for photonic signal processing," Electron. Lett. 33, 973-975 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J.

Kazovsky, L. G.

J. C. Fan, C. L. Lu, and L. G. Kazovsky, "Dynamic range requirements for microcellular personal communication systems using analog fiber-optic links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1390-1397 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, K.

J. H. Lee, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, and K. Kikuchi, "Wide-band tunable wavelength conversion of 10-Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero signal using cross-phase-modulation-induced polarization rotation in 1-m bismuth oxide-based nonlinear optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 298-300 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. -H.

Lee, J. H.

J. H. Lee, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, and K. Kikuchi, "Wide-band tunable wavelength conversion of 10-Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero signal using cross-phase-modulation-induced polarization rotation in 1-m bismuth oxide-based nonlinear optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 298-300 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leuthold, J.

L. Moller, S. Yikai, L. Xiang, J. Leuthold, and X. Chongjin, "Ultrahigh-speed optical phase correlated data signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1597-1599 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C. L.

J. C. Fan, C. L. Lu, and L. G. Kazovsky, "Dynamic range requirements for microcellular personal communication systems using analog fiber-optic links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1390-1397 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Marti, J.

S. Sales, J. Capmany, J. Marti, and D. Pastor, "Experimental demonstration of fiber-optic delay line filters with negative coefficients," Electron. Lett. 31, 1095-1096 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Moller, L.

L. Moller, S. Yikai, L. Xiang, J. Leuthold, and X. Chongjin, "Ultrahigh-speed optical phase correlated data signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1597-1599 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moslehi, B.

B. Moslehi, J. W. Goodman, M. Tur, and H. J. Shaw, "Fiber-optic lattice signal processing," Proc. IEEE 72, 909-930 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Nagashima, T.

J. H. Lee, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, and K. Kikuchi, "Wide-band tunable wavelength conversion of 10-Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero signal using cross-phase-modulation-induced polarization rotation in 1-m bismuth oxide-based nonlinear optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 298-300 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ohara, S.

J. H. Lee, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, and K. Kikuchi, "Wide-band tunable wavelength conversion of 10-Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero signal using cross-phase-modulation-induced polarization rotation in 1-m bismuth oxide-based nonlinear optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 298-300 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Okuno, M.

K. Sasayama, M. Okuno, and K. Habara, "Coherent optical transversal filter using silica-based waveguides for high-speed signal processing," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1225-1230 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Otrega, B.

Pastor, D.

J. Capmany, B. Otrega, D. Pastor, and S. Sales, "Discrete-time optical processing of microwave signals," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 702-723 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Sales, J. Capmany, J. Marti, and D. Pastor, "Experimental demonstration of fiber-optic delay line filters with negative coefficients," Electron. Lett. 31, 1095-1096 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sales, S.

J. Capmany, B. Otrega, D. Pastor, and S. Sales, "Discrete-time optical processing of microwave signals," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 702-723 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Sales, J. Capmany, J. Marti, and D. Pastor, "Experimental demonstration of fiber-optic delay line filters with negative coefficients," Electron. Lett. 31, 1095-1096 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sasayama, K.

K. Sasayama, M. Okuno, and K. Habara, "Coherent optical transversal filter using silica-based waveguides for high-speed signal processing," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1225-1230 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, H. J.

B. Moslehi, J. W. Goodman, M. Tur, and H. J. Shaw, "Fiber-optic lattice signal processing," Proc. IEEE 72, 909-930 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

J. H. Lee, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, and K. Kikuchi, "Wide-band tunable wavelength conversion of 10-Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero signal using cross-phase-modulation-induced polarization rotation in 1-m bismuth oxide-based nonlinear optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 298-300 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Trinh, P. D.

F. Coppinger, S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, and B. Jalali, "All-optical incoherent negative taps for photonic signal processing," Electron. Lett. 33, 973-975 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tur, M.

B. Moslehi, J. W. Goodman, M. Tur, and H. J. Shaw, "Fiber-optic lattice signal processing," Proc. IEEE 72, 909-930 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Williams, J. A. R.

W. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, "Optical fiber delay line filter free of limitation imposed by optical coherence," Electron. Lett. 35, 2133-2134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xiang, L.

L. Moller, S. Yikai, L. Xiang, J. Leuthold, and X. Chongjin, "Ultrahigh-speed optical phase correlated data signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1597-1599 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yegnanarayanan, S.

F. Coppinger, S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, and B. Jalali, "All-optical incoherent negative taps for photonic signal processing," Electron. Lett. 33, 973-975 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yikai, S.

L. Moller, S. Yikai, L. Xiang, J. Leuthold, and X. Chongjin, "Ultrahigh-speed optical phase correlated data signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1597-1599 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, "Optical fiber delay line filter free of limitation imposed by optical coherence," Electron. Lett. 35, 2133-2134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (4)

W. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, "Optical fiber delay line filter free of limitation imposed by optical coherence," Electron. Lett. 35, 2133-2134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Sales, J. Capmany, J. Marti, and D. Pastor, "Experimental demonstration of fiber-optic delay line filters with negative coefficients," Electron. Lett. 31, 1095-1096 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Coppinger, S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, and B. Jalali, "All-optical incoherent negative taps for photonic signal processing," Electron. Lett. 33, 973-975 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Hunter, "Incoherent bipolar tap microwave photonic filter based on balanced bridge electro-optic modulator," Electron. Lett. 40, 856-857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

L. Moller, S. Yikai, L. Xiang, J. Leuthold, and X. Chongjin, "Ultrahigh-speed optical phase correlated data signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1597-1599 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, and K. Kikuchi, "Wide-band tunable wavelength conversion of 10-Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero signal using cross-phase-modulation-induced polarization rotation in 1-m bismuth oxide-based nonlinear optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 298-300 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

J. C. Fan, C. L. Lu, and L. G. Kazovsky, "Dynamic range requirements for microcellular personal communication systems using analog fiber-optic links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1390-1397 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Capmany, B. Otrega, D. Pastor, and S. Sales, "Discrete-time optical processing of microwave signals," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 702-723 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Sasayama, M. Okuno, and K. Habara, "Coherent optical transversal filter using silica-based waveguides for high-speed signal processing," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1225-1230 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

B. Moslehi, J. W. Goodman, M. Tur, and H. J. Shaw, "Fiber-optic lattice signal processing," Proc. IEEE 72, 909-930 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear fiber optics, 3rd ed., pp. 210-216 (Jamestown Road, UK:Academic Press, 2001).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A schematic to describe the photonic microwave notch filter with both coefficients, Inset: direct-form realization of a digital filter system. HNLF: highly nonlinear fiber, BPF: optical bandpass filter, PSD: polarization selective device, PD: photodetector.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup. TLS: tunable laser source, PC: polarization controller, AMP: broadband electrical amplifier, EOM: LiNbO3 electro-optic modulator, EDFA: erbium doped fiber amplifier, Hi-Bi: high birefringence fiber.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured inverted and non-inverted signals from the ‘10111100’ data patterns at 10-Gb/s.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured transfer response of the photonic microwave notch filter.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Variation of free spectral range with probe wavelength for 200-m-long Hi-Bi fiber.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measured spurious-free dynamic range for the proposed filter.

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