Abstract

Transmission characteristics are measured as a function of film thickness on metallic hole array samples which are prepared with varied hole periodicity, size and shape on a silica substrate. We have determined that the transmission efficiency for 130 nm gold thickness is about 40 % less than that of a gold film of 60 nm thickness with the triangular hole structure. The peak positions are also moved significantly as a function of metal thickness due to the coupling of the localized surface plasmon inside the hole. Additionally, under certain conditions of the hole periodicity and size, the transmission efficiency is increased near 750 nm wavelength although the metal thickness is thicker.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, "Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films," Langmuir 20, 4813-4815 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, "Launching and decoupling surface plasmons via micro-gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4936-4938 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Fujikata, T. Ishi, H. Yokota, K. Kato, M. Yanagisawa, M. Nakada, K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Thio, and R. A. Linke, "Surface plasmon enhancement effect and its application to near-field optical recording," Trans. Magn. Soc. Japan 4, 255-259 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. X. Luo, and T. Ishihara, "Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4780-4782 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. R. Maldonado, S. T. Coyle, J. K. Varner, R. C. Moore, P. R. H. Stark, and D. N. Larson, "Preliminary evaluation of surface plasmon enhanced light transmission with a scanning 257 nm ultraviolet microscope," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3552-3556 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Miyamaru, and M. Hangyo, "Strong enhancement of terahertz transmission for a three-layer heterostructure of metal hole arrays," Phys. Rev. B 72, 035429 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Shinada, J. Hashizume, and F. Koyama, "Surface plasmon resonance on microaperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with metal grating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 836-838 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Winnewisser, F. T. Lewen, M. Schall, M. Walther, and H. Helm, "Characterization and application of dichroic filters in the 0.1-3-THz region," IEEE Trans. Micro. Theory and Tech. 48, 744-749 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. J. Kim, T. Thio, T. W. Ebbesen, D. E. Grupp, and H. J. Lezec, "Control of optical transmission through metals perforated with subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 24, 256-258 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. J. Lezec, and T. Thio, "Diffracted evanescent wave model for enhanced and suppressed optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Express 12, 3629-3651 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Z. B. Li, J. G. Tian, Z. B. Liu, W. Y. Zhou, and C. P. Zhang, "Enhanced light transmission through a single subwavelength aperture in layered films consisting of metal and dielectric," Opt. Express 13, 9071-9077 (2005).
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  13. H. Raether, in Surface plamons on smooth and rough surfaces and on gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).
  14. H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779-6782 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. A. Darmanyan, and A. V. Zayats, "Light tunneling via resonant surface plasmon polariton states and the enhanced transmission of periodically nanostructured metal films: An analytical study," Phys. Rev. B 67, 035424 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Degiron and T. W. Ebbesen, "Analysis of the transmission process through single apertures surrounded by periodic corrugations," Opt. Express 12, 3694-3700 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Degiron, H. J. Lezec, N. Yamamoto, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Optical transmission properties of a single subwavelength aperture in a real metal," Opt. Commun. 239, 61-66 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. J. Lockyear, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles and C. R. Lawrence, "Enhanced microwave transmission through a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by concentric grooves," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S152-S158 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. L. van der Molen, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Influence of hole size on the extraordinary transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4316-4318 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, "The hole of localized surface plasmon modes in the enhanced transmission of periodic subwavelength apertures," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S90-S96 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. L. van der Molen, K. J. K. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Role of shape and localized resonances in extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes: Experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. B 72, 045421 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. J. K. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183901 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A. Mooradian, "Photoluminescence of metals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 185-187 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  24. G. T. Boyd, Z. H. Yu, and Y. R. Shen, "Photoinduced luminescence from the noble metals and its enhancement on roughened surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 33, 7923-7936 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Xiao, and N. Rakov, "Surface propagation with a large spectral red-shift on a gold thin film containing subwavelength holes," Phys. Lett. A 309, 452-456 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  26. L. Khriachtchev, L. Heikkila, and T. Kuusela, "Red photoluminescence of gold island films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1994-1996 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (5)

F. Miyamaru, and M. Hangyo, "Strong enhancement of terahertz transmission for a three-layer heterostructure of metal hole arrays," Phys. Rev. B 72, 035429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Li, J. G. Tian, Z. B. Liu, W. Y. Zhou, and C. P. Zhang, "Enhanced light transmission through a single subwavelength aperture in layered films consisting of metal and dielectric," Opt. Express 13, 9071-9077 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Lockyear, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles and C. R. Lawrence, "Enhanced microwave transmission through a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by concentric grooves," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S152-S158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, "The hole of localized surface plasmon modes in the enhanced transmission of periodic subwavelength apertures," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S90-S96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. L. van der Molen, K. J. K. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Role of shape and localized resonances in extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes: Experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. B 72, 045421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (9)

K. J. K. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. van der Molen, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Influence of hole size on the extraordinary transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4316-4318 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Degiron and T. W. Ebbesen, "Analysis of the transmission process through single apertures surrounded by periodic corrugations," Opt. Express 12, 3694-3700 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Degiron, H. J. Lezec, N. Yamamoto, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Optical transmission properties of a single subwavelength aperture in a real metal," Opt. Commun. 239, 61-66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, and T. Thio, "Diffracted evanescent wave model for enhanced and suppressed optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Express 12, 3629-3651 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, "Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films," Langmuir 20, 4813-4815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Fujikata, T. Ishi, H. Yokota, K. Kato, M. Yanagisawa, M. Nakada, K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Thio, and R. A. Linke, "Surface plasmon enhancement effect and its application to near-field optical recording," Trans. Magn. Soc. Japan 4, 255-259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Luo, and T. Ishihara, "Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4780-4782 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Maldonado, S. T. Coyle, J. K. Varner, R. C. Moore, P. R. H. Stark, and D. N. Larson, "Preliminary evaluation of surface plasmon enhanced light transmission with a scanning 257 nm ultraviolet microscope," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3552-3556 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, "Launching and decoupling surface plasmons via micro-gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4936-4938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Shinada, J. Hashizume, and F. Koyama, "Surface plasmon resonance on microaperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with metal grating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 836-838 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Darmanyan, and A. V. Zayats, "Light tunneling via resonant surface plasmon polariton states and the enhanced transmission of periodically nanostructured metal films: An analytical study," Phys. Rev. B 67, 035424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Xiao, and N. Rakov, "Surface propagation with a large spectral red-shift on a gold thin film containing subwavelength holes," Phys. Lett. A 309, 452-456 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

L. Khriachtchev, L. Heikkila, and T. Kuusela, "Red photoluminescence of gold island films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1994-1996 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

C. Winnewisser, F. T. Lewen, M. Schall, M. Walther, and H. Helm, "Characterization and application of dichroic filters in the 0.1-3-THz region," IEEE Trans. Micro. Theory and Tech. 48, 744-749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779-6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

G. T. Boyd, Z. H. Yu, and Y. R. Shen, "Photoinduced luminescence from the noble metals and its enhancement on roughened surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 33, 7923-7936 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

A. Mooradian, "Photoluminescence of metals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 185-187 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. T.

G. T. Boyd, Z. H. Yu, and Y. R. Shen, "Photoinduced luminescence from the noble metals and its enhancement on roughened surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 33, 7923-7936 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Brolo, A. G.

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, "Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films," Langmuir 20, 4813-4815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Coyle, S. T.

J. R. Maldonado, S. T. Coyle, J. K. Varner, R. C. Moore, P. R. H. Stark, and D. N. Larson, "Preliminary evaluation of surface plasmon enhanced light transmission with a scanning 257 nm ultraviolet microscope," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3552-3556 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Darmanyan, S. A.

S. A. Darmanyan, and A. V. Zayats, "Light tunneling via resonant surface plasmon polariton states and the enhanced transmission of periodically nanostructured metal films: An analytical study," Phys. Rev. B 67, 035424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Degiron, A.

A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, "The hole of localized surface plasmon modes in the enhanced transmission of periodic subwavelength apertures," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S90-S96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Degiron and T. W. Ebbesen, "Analysis of the transmission process through single apertures surrounded by periodic corrugations," Opt. Express 12, 3694-3700 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Degiron, H. J. Lezec, N. Yamamoto, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Optical transmission properties of a single subwavelength aperture in a real metal," Opt. Commun. 239, 61-66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, "Launching and decoupling surface plasmons via micro-gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4936-4938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, "Launching and decoupling surface plasmons via micro-gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4936-4938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, "The hole of localized surface plasmon modes in the enhanced transmission of periodic subwavelength apertures," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S90-S96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Degiron and T. W. Ebbesen, "Analysis of the transmission process through single apertures surrounded by periodic corrugations," Opt. Express 12, 3694-3700 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Degiron, H. J. Lezec, N. Yamamoto, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Optical transmission properties of a single subwavelength aperture in a real metal," Opt. Commun. 239, 61-66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, "Launching and decoupling surface plasmons via micro-gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4936-4938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kim, T. Thio, T. W. Ebbesen, D. E. Grupp, and H. J. Lezec, "Control of optical transmission through metals perforated with subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 24, 256-258 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779-6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Enoch, S.

K. L. van der Molen, K. J. K. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Role of shape and localized resonances in extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes: Experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. B 72, 045421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. J. K. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujikata, J.

J. Fujikata, T. Ishi, H. Yokota, K. Kato, M. Yanagisawa, M. Nakada, K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Thio, and R. A. Linke, "Surface plasmon enhancement effect and its application to near-field optical recording," Trans. Magn. Soc. Japan 4, 255-259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ghaemi, H. F.

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779-6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, R.

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, "Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films," Langmuir 20, 4813-4815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grupp, D. E.

T. J. Kim, T. Thio, T. W. Ebbesen, D. E. Grupp, and H. J. Lezec, "Control of optical transmission through metals perforated with subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 24, 256-258 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779-6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hangyo, M.

F. Miyamaru, and M. Hangyo, "Strong enhancement of terahertz transmission for a three-layer heterostructure of metal hole arrays," Phys. Rev. B 72, 035429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hashizume, J.

S. Shinada, J. Hashizume, and F. Koyama, "Surface plasmon resonance on microaperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with metal grating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 836-838 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Heikkila, L.

L. Khriachtchev, L. Heikkila, and T. Kuusela, "Red photoluminescence of gold island films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1994-1996 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Helm, H.

C. Winnewisser, F. T. Lewen, M. Schall, M. Walther, and H. Helm, "Characterization and application of dichroic filters in the 0.1-3-THz region," IEEE Trans. Micro. Theory and Tech. 48, 744-749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hibbins, A. P.

M. J. Lockyear, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles and C. R. Lawrence, "Enhanced microwave transmission through a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by concentric grooves," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S152-S158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ishi, T.

J. Fujikata, T. Ishi, H. Yokota, K. Kato, M. Yanagisawa, M. Nakada, K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Thio, and R. A. Linke, "Surface plasmon enhancement effect and its application to near-field optical recording," Trans. Magn. Soc. Japan 4, 255-259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, K.

J. Fujikata, T. Ishi, H. Yokota, K. Kato, M. Yanagisawa, M. Nakada, K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Thio, and R. A. Linke, "Surface plasmon enhancement effect and its application to near-field optical recording," Trans. Magn. Soc. Japan 4, 255-259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, T.

X. Luo, and T. Ishihara, "Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4780-4782 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kato, K.

J. Fujikata, T. Ishi, H. Yokota, K. Kato, M. Yanagisawa, M. Nakada, K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Thio, and R. A. Linke, "Surface plasmon enhancement effect and its application to near-field optical recording," Trans. Magn. Soc. Japan 4, 255-259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kavanagh, K. L.

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, "Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films," Langmuir 20, 4813-4815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Khriachtchev, L.

L. Khriachtchev, L. Heikkila, and T. Kuusela, "Red photoluminescence of gold island films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1994-1996 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. J.

Koerkamp, K. J. K.

K. L. van der Molen, K. J. K. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Role of shape and localized resonances in extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes: Experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. B 72, 045421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. J. K. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koyama, F.

S. Shinada, J. Hashizume, and F. Koyama, "Surface plasmon resonance on microaperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with metal grating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 836-838 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuipers, L.

K. L. van der Molen, K. J. K. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Role of shape and localized resonances in extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes: Experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. B 72, 045421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. L. van der Molen, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Influence of hole size on the extraordinary transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4316-4318 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. J. K. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuusela, T.

L. Khriachtchev, L. Heikkila, and T. Kuusela, "Red photoluminescence of gold island films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1994-1996 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Larson, D. N.

J. R. Maldonado, S. T. Coyle, J. K. Varner, R. C. Moore, P. R. H. Stark, and D. N. Larson, "Preliminary evaluation of surface plasmon enhanced light transmission with a scanning 257 nm ultraviolet microscope," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3552-3556 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, C. R.

M. J. Lockyear, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles and C. R. Lawrence, "Enhanced microwave transmission through a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by concentric grooves," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S152-S158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leathem, B.

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, "Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films," Langmuir 20, 4813-4815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lewen, F. T.

C. Winnewisser, F. T. Lewen, M. Schall, M. Walther, and H. Helm, "Characterization and application of dichroic filters in the 0.1-3-THz region," IEEE Trans. Micro. Theory and Tech. 48, 744-749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

A. Degiron, H. J. Lezec, N. Yamamoto, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Optical transmission properties of a single subwavelength aperture in a real metal," Opt. Commun. 239, 61-66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, and T. Thio, "Diffracted evanescent wave model for enhanced and suppressed optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Express 12, 3629-3651 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kim, T. Thio, T. W. Ebbesen, D. E. Grupp, and H. J. Lezec, "Control of optical transmission through metals perforated with subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 24, 256-258 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779-6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. B.

Linke, R. A.

J. Fujikata, T. Ishi, H. Yokota, K. Kato, M. Yanagisawa, M. Nakada, K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Thio, and R. A. Linke, "Surface plasmon enhancement effect and its application to near-field optical recording," Trans. Magn. Soc. Japan 4, 255-259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. B.

Lockyear, M. J.

M. J. Lockyear, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles and C. R. Lawrence, "Enhanced microwave transmission through a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by concentric grooves," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S152-S158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X.

X. Luo, and T. Ishihara, "Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4780-4782 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maldonado, J. R.

J. R. Maldonado, S. T. Coyle, J. K. Varner, R. C. Moore, P. R. H. Stark, and D. N. Larson, "Preliminary evaluation of surface plasmon enhanced light transmission with a scanning 257 nm ultraviolet microscope," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3552-3556 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miyamaru, F.

F. Miyamaru, and M. Hangyo, "Strong enhancement of terahertz transmission for a three-layer heterostructure of metal hole arrays," Phys. Rev. B 72, 035429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mooradian, A.

A. Mooradian, "Photoluminescence of metals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 185-187 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Moore, R. C.

J. R. Maldonado, S. T. Coyle, J. K. Varner, R. C. Moore, P. R. H. Stark, and D. N. Larson, "Preliminary evaluation of surface plasmon enhanced light transmission with a scanning 257 nm ultraviolet microscope," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3552-3556 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakada, M.

J. Fujikata, T. Ishi, H. Yokota, K. Kato, M. Yanagisawa, M. Nakada, K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Thio, and R. A. Linke, "Surface plasmon enhancement effect and its application to near-field optical recording," Trans. Magn. Soc. Japan 4, 255-259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ohashi, K.

J. Fujikata, T. Ishi, H. Yokota, K. Kato, M. Yanagisawa, M. Nakada, K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Thio, and R. A. Linke, "Surface plasmon enhancement effect and its application to near-field optical recording," Trans. Magn. Soc. Japan 4, 255-259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rakov, N.

M. Xiao, and N. Rakov, "Surface propagation with a large spectral red-shift on a gold thin film containing subwavelength holes," Phys. Lett. A 309, 452-456 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, J. R.

M. J. Lockyear, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles and C. R. Lawrence, "Enhanced microwave transmission through a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by concentric grooves," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S152-S158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schall, M.

C. Winnewisser, F. T. Lewen, M. Schall, M. Walther, and H. Helm, "Characterization and application of dichroic filters in the 0.1-3-THz region," IEEE Trans. Micro. Theory and Tech. 48, 744-749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Segerink, F. B.

K. L. van der Molen, K. J. K. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Role of shape and localized resonances in extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes: Experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. B 72, 045421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. L. van der Molen, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Influence of hole size on the extraordinary transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4316-4318 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. J. K. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Y. R.

G. T. Boyd, Z. H. Yu, and Y. R. Shen, "Photoinduced luminescence from the noble metals and its enhancement on roughened surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 33, 7923-7936 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Shinada, S.

S. Shinada, J. Hashizume, and F. Koyama, "Surface plasmon resonance on microaperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with metal grating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 836-838 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stark, P. R. H.

J. R. Maldonado, S. T. Coyle, J. K. Varner, R. C. Moore, P. R. H. Stark, and D. N. Larson, "Preliminary evaluation of surface plasmon enhanced light transmission with a scanning 257 nm ultraviolet microscope," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3552-3556 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thio, T.

J. Fujikata, T. Ishi, H. Yokota, K. Kato, M. Yanagisawa, M. Nakada, K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Thio, and R. A. Linke, "Surface plasmon enhancement effect and its application to near-field optical recording," Trans. Magn. Soc. Japan 4, 255-259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, and T. Thio, "Diffracted evanescent wave model for enhanced and suppressed optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Express 12, 3629-3651 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kim, T. Thio, T. W. Ebbesen, D. E. Grupp, and H. J. Lezec, "Control of optical transmission through metals perforated with subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 24, 256-258 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779-6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tian, J. G.

van der Molen, K. L.

K. L. van der Molen, K. J. K. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Role of shape and localized resonances in extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes: Experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. B 72, 045421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. L. van der Molen, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Influence of hole size on the extraordinary transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4316-4318 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van Hulst, N. F.

K. L. van der Molen, K. J. K. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Role of shape and localized resonances in extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes: Experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. B 72, 045421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. L. van der Molen, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Influence of hole size on the extraordinary transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4316-4318 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. J. K. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Varner, J. K.

J. R. Maldonado, S. T. Coyle, J. K. Varner, R. C. Moore, P. R. H. Stark, and D. N. Larson, "Preliminary evaluation of surface plasmon enhanced light transmission with a scanning 257 nm ultraviolet microscope," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3552-3556 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Walther, M.

C. Winnewisser, F. T. Lewen, M. Schall, M. Walther, and H. Helm, "Characterization and application of dichroic filters in the 0.1-3-THz region," IEEE Trans. Micro. Theory and Tech. 48, 744-749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weeber, J. C.

E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, "Launching and decoupling surface plasmons via micro-gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4936-4938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Winnewisser, C.

C. Winnewisser, F. T. Lewen, M. Schall, M. Walther, and H. Helm, "Characterization and application of dichroic filters in the 0.1-3-THz region," IEEE Trans. Micro. Theory and Tech. 48, 744-749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, M.

M. Xiao, and N. Rakov, "Surface propagation with a large spectral red-shift on a gold thin film containing subwavelength holes," Phys. Lett. A 309, 452-456 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, N.

A. Degiron, H. J. Lezec, N. Yamamoto, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Optical transmission properties of a single subwavelength aperture in a real metal," Opt. Commun. 239, 61-66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yanagisawa, M.

J. Fujikata, T. Ishi, H. Yokota, K. Kato, M. Yanagisawa, M. Nakada, K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Thio, and R. A. Linke, "Surface plasmon enhancement effect and its application to near-field optical recording," Trans. Magn. Soc. Japan 4, 255-259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yokota, H.

J. Fujikata, T. Ishi, H. Yokota, K. Kato, M. Yanagisawa, M. Nakada, K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Thio, and R. A. Linke, "Surface plasmon enhancement effect and its application to near-field optical recording," Trans. Magn. Soc. Japan 4, 255-259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z. H.

G. T. Boyd, Z. H. Yu, and Y. R. Shen, "Photoinduced luminescence from the noble metals and its enhancement on roughened surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 33, 7923-7936 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A. V.

S. A. Darmanyan, and A. V. Zayats, "Light tunneling via resonant surface plasmon polariton states and the enhanced transmission of periodically nanostructured metal films: An analytical study," Phys. Rev. B 67, 035424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C. P.

Zhou, W. Y.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, "Launching and decoupling surface plasmons via micro-gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4936-4938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Luo, and T. Ishihara, "Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4780-4782 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Shinada, J. Hashizume, and F. Koyama, "Surface plasmon resonance on microaperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with metal grating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 836-838 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. L. van der Molen, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Influence of hole size on the extraordinary transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4316-4318 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Khriachtchev, L. Heikkila, and T. Kuusela, "Red photoluminescence of gold island films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1994-1996 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Micro. Theory and Tech. (1)

C. Winnewisser, F. T. Lewen, M. Schall, M. Walther, and H. Helm, "Characterization and application of dichroic filters in the 0.1-3-THz region," IEEE Trans. Micro. Theory and Tech. 48, 744-749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (2)

M. J. Lockyear, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles and C. R. Lawrence, "Enhanced microwave transmission through a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by concentric grooves," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S152-S158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, "The hole of localized surface plasmon modes in the enhanced transmission of periodic subwavelength apertures," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S90-S96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

J. R. Maldonado, S. T. Coyle, J. K. Varner, R. C. Moore, P. R. H. Stark, and D. N. Larson, "Preliminary evaluation of surface plasmon enhanced light transmission with a scanning 257 nm ultraviolet microscope," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 3552-3556 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, "Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films," Langmuir 20, 4813-4815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Degiron, H. J. Lezec, N. Yamamoto, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Optical transmission properties of a single subwavelength aperture in a real metal," Opt. Commun. 239, 61-66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

M. Xiao, and N. Rakov, "Surface propagation with a large spectral red-shift on a gold thin film containing subwavelength holes," Phys. Lett. A 309, 452-456 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (5)

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779-6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Darmanyan, and A. V. Zayats, "Light tunneling via resonant surface plasmon polariton states and the enhanced transmission of periodically nanostructured metal films: An analytical study," Phys. Rev. B 67, 035424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Miyamaru, and M. Hangyo, "Strong enhancement of terahertz transmission for a three-layer heterostructure of metal hole arrays," Phys. Rev. B 72, 035429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. L. van der Molen, K. J. K. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Role of shape and localized resonances in extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes: Experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. B 72, 045421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Boyd, Z. H. Yu, and Y. R. Shen, "Photoinduced luminescence from the noble metals and its enhancement on roughened surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 33, 7923-7936 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

K. J. K. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mooradian, "Photoluminescence of metals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 185-187 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Magn. Soc. Japan (1)

J. Fujikata, T. Ishi, H. Yokota, K. Kato, M. Yanagisawa, M. Nakada, K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Thio, and R. A. Linke, "Surface plasmon enhancement effect and its application to near-field optical recording," Trans. Magn. Soc. Japan 4, 255-259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. Raether, in Surface plamons on smooth and rough surfaces and on gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

AFM and SEM images of rectangular, circular and triangular subwavelength hole arrays for our experimental characterization. The scale bar in each image indicates 3 um. The periodicity and widths of the holes are, (a) and (b) a0=600 nm, drec=230 nm, (c) a0=600 nm, dcir=360 nm, (d) a0=600 nm, dtri=150 nm

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic diagram of the optical system used for the optical transmission spectral measurements.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Optical transmission spectra normalized to the transmission of a glass substrate for planar thin Au films. The maximum intensity occurs at the wavelength of 500 nm that is consistent with the photon energy 2.5 eV, the bandgap energy between the Fermi level and d-band in gold.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Transmission intensity change near the wavelength of 500 nm as a function of the fraction of the open hole surface (tmetal=60 nm). The transmission efficiency decays exponentially as the fraction increases for all different hole shapes. Fraction of hole area is defined as 0.0 being no hole at all in the metal film and 1.0 being no metal remaining between holes.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The normalized transmission spectra for the triangular hole shape arrays with different hole width (a0=400 nm and tmetal=60 nm). The hole width is the length of one side for a triangle. When the pitch is 400 nm the transmission efficiency in the optical wavelength range from 700 nm to 850 nm is highly enhanced. Further, the peak positions are shifted to the longer wavelength as the hole size increases.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The normalized transmission spectra for triangular hole shape arrays with different hole width (a0=400 nm and tmetal=130 nm). The transmission characteristics of the peak near the wavelength from 700 nm to 850 nm are similar to the tmetal=60 nm except the enhancement factor due to the optical loss of the waveguide mode.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The peak wavelength characterization for different metal thicknesses (a0=400 nm)

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

The normalized transmission spectra for the square hole shape with different metal thicknesses (a0=800 nm). The transmission feature occurs similarly for the circle and triangular hole shape on condition that a0=800 nm and dhole>200 nm.

Equations (1)

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η ( λ ) exp ( α t )

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