Abstract

We studied microcavity organic light-emitting devices with a microlens system. A microcavity for organic light-emitting devices (OLED) was fabricated by stacks of SiO2 and SiNx layers and a metal cathode together with the microlens array. Electroluminescence of the devices showed that color variation under the viewing angle due to the microcavity is suppressed remarkably by microlens arrays, which makes the use of devices acceptable in many applications. It was also demonstrated that the external out-coupling factor of the devise increases by a factor of ~1.8 with wide viewing angles compared to conventional OLEDs.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. W. Tang and S. A. Van Slyke, "Organic electroluminescent diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913-915 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, "Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1243-1245 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. J. Matterson, J.M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov,M. G. Salt,W. L. Barnes, and I. D.W. Samuel, "Increased Efficiency and Controlled Light Output from a Microstructured Light-Emitting Diode," Adv. Mater. 13, 123-127 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, "Surface Plasmon Mediated Emission from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes," Adv. Mater. 14, 1393-1396 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Moller and S. R. Forrest, "Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324-3327 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. J. Peng, Y. L. Ho, C. F. Qiu, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, "Coupling Efficiency Enhancement of Organic Light Emitting Devices with Refractive Microlens Array on High Index Glass Substrate," SID 04 Digest, 158 (2004).
  7. M.-K. Wei and I-L. Su, "Method to evaluate the enhancement of luminance efficiency in planar OLED light emitting devices for microlens array," Opt. Express 12, 5777-5782 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, and J. C. Strurm, "Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1650-1652 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. Takada, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, "Control of emission characteristics in organic thin-film electroluminescent diodes using an optical-microcavity structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2032-2034 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, T. Miller, and E. W. Kwock, "Microcavity effects in organic semiconductors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2486-2488 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Nakayama, Y. Itoh, and A. Kakuta, "Organic photo- and electroluminescent devices with double mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 594-595 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Tsutsui, N. Takada, S. Saito, and E. Ogino, "Sharply directed emission in organic electroluminescent diodes with an optical-microcavity structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1868-1870 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, and T. Miller, "Color variation with electroluminescent organic semiconductors in multimode resonant cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2308-2310 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Tokito, K. Noda, and Y. Taga, "Strongly directed single mode emission from organic electroluminescent diode with a microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2633-2635 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, "Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997-1999 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. J. Peng, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, "Design and Characterization of Organic Light Emitting Diodes with Microcavity Structure," SID 03 Digest, 516 (2003).
  17. Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779-3781 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, "Doubling Coupling-Out Efficiency in Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using a Thin Silica Aerogel Layer," Adv. Mater. 13, 1149-1152 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. Gu, D. Z. Garbuzov, P. E. Burrows, S. Venkatesh, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, "High-externalquantum-efficiency organic light-emitting devices," Opt. Lett. 22, 396-398 (1997).
  20. S. Okamoto, K. Tanaka, Y. Izumi, H. Adachi, T. Yamaji, and T. Suzuki, "Simple Measurement of Quantum Efficiency in Organic Electroluminescent Devices," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 783-784 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779-3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, "Surface Plasmon Mediated Emission from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes," Adv. Mater. 14, 1393-1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Moller and S. R. Forrest, "Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324-3327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

S. Okamoto, K. Tanaka, Y. Izumi, H. Adachi, T. Yamaji, and T. Suzuki, "Simple Measurement of Quantum Efficiency in Organic Electroluminescent Devices," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 783-784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, "Doubling Coupling-Out Efficiency in Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using a Thin Silica Aerogel Layer," Adv. Mater. 13, 1149-1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Matterson, J.M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov,M. G. Salt,W. L. Barnes, and I. D.W. Samuel, "Increased Efficiency and Controlled Light Output from a Microstructured Light-Emitting Diode," Adv. Mater. 13, 123-127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, "Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1243-1245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, and J. C. Strurm, "Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1650-1652 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

S. Tokito, K. Noda, and Y. Taga, "Strongly directed single mode emission from organic electroluminescent diode with a microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2633-2635 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, "Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997-1999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

T. Tsutsui, N. Takada, S. Saito, and E. Ogino, "Sharply directed emission in organic electroluminescent diodes with an optical-microcavity structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1868-1870 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, and T. Miller, "Color variation with electroluminescent organic semiconductors in multimode resonant cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2308-2310 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, T. Miller, and E. W. Kwock, "Microcavity effects in organic semiconductors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2486-2488 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

T. Nakayama, Y. Itoh, and A. Kakuta, "Organic photo- and electroluminescent devices with double mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 594-595 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. Takada, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, "Control of emission characteristics in organic thin-film electroluminescent diodes using an optical-microcavity structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2032-2034 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

C. W. Tang and S. A. Van Slyke, "Organic electroluminescent diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913-915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, H.

S. Okamoto, K. Tanaka, Y. Izumi, H. Adachi, T. Yamaji, and T. Suzuki, "Simple Measurement of Quantum Efficiency in Organic Electroluminescent Devices," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 783-784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, "Surface Plasmon Mediated Emission from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes," Adv. Mater. 14, 1393-1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Matterson, J.M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov,M. G. Salt,W. L. Barnes, and I. D.W. Samuel, "Increased Efficiency and Controlled Light Output from a Microstructured Light-Emitting Diode," Adv. Mater. 13, 123-127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, P. E.

Dodabalapur, A.

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, "Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997-1999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, and T. Miller, "Color variation with electroluminescent organic semiconductors in multimode resonant cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2308-2310 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, T. Miller, and E. W. Kwock, "Microcavity effects in organic semiconductors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2486-2488 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

S. Moller and S. R. Forrest, "Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324-3327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Gu, D. Z. Garbuzov, P. E. Burrows, S. Venkatesh, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, "High-externalquantum-efficiency organic light-emitting devices," Opt. Lett. 22, 396-398 (1997).

Garbuzov, D. Z.

Gu, G.

Hobson, P. A.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, "Surface Plasmon Mediated Emission from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes," Adv. Mater. 14, 1393-1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huh, J.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779-3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, Y.

T. Nakayama, Y. Itoh, and A. Kakuta, "Organic photo- and electroluminescent devices with double mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 594-595 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Izumi, Y.

S. Okamoto, K. Tanaka, Y. Izumi, H. Adachi, T. Yamaji, and T. Suzuki, "Simple Measurement of Quantum Efficiency in Organic Electroluminescent Devices," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 783-784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, R. H.

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, "Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997-1999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kakuta, A.

T. Nakayama, Y. Itoh, and A. Kakuta, "Organic photo- and electroluminescent devices with double mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 594-595 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kawano, K.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, "Doubling Coupling-Out Efficiency in Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using a Thin Silica Aerogel Layer," Adv. Mater. 13, 1149-1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G. H.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779-3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779-3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kwock, E. W.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, T. Miller, and E. W. Kwock, "Microcavity effects in organic semiconductors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2486-2488 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779-3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. J.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779-3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M.-H.

C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, and J. C. Strurm, "Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1650-1652 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lupton, J.M.

B. J. Matterson, J.M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov,M. G. Salt,W. L. Barnes, and I. D.W. Samuel, "Increased Efficiency and Controlled Light Output from a Microstructured Light-Emitting Diode," Adv. Mater. 13, 123-127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Madigan, C. F.

C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, and J. C. Strurm, "Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1650-1652 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matterson, B. J.

B. J. Matterson, J.M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov,M. G. Salt,W. L. Barnes, and I. D.W. Samuel, "Increased Efficiency and Controlled Light Output from a Microstructured Light-Emitting Diode," Adv. Mater. 13, 123-127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miller, T.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, T. Miller, and E. W. Kwock, "Microcavity effects in organic semiconductors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2486-2488 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, and T. Miller, "Color variation with electroluminescent organic semiconductors in multimode resonant cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2308-2310 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moller, S.

S. Moller and S. R. Forrest, "Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324-3327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, T.

T. Nakayama, Y. Itoh, and A. Kakuta, "Organic photo- and electroluminescent devices with double mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 594-595 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Noda, K.

S. Tokito, K. Noda, and Y. Taga, "Strongly directed single mode emission from organic electroluminescent diode with a microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2633-2635 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ogino, E.

T. Tsutsui, N. Takada, S. Saito, and E. Ogino, "Sharply directed emission in organic electroluminescent diodes with an optical-microcavity structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1868-1870 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, S.

S. Okamoto, K. Tanaka, Y. Izumi, H. Adachi, T. Yamaji, and T. Suzuki, "Simple Measurement of Quantum Efficiency in Organic Electroluminescent Devices," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 783-784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rothberg, L. J.

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, "Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997-1999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, and T. Miller, "Color variation with electroluminescent organic semiconductors in multimode resonant cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2308-2310 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, T. Miller, and E. W. Kwock, "Microcavity effects in organic semiconductors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2486-2488 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Safonov, A. F.

B. J. Matterson, J.M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov,M. G. Salt,W. L. Barnes, and I. D.W. Samuel, "Increased Efficiency and Controlled Light Output from a Microstructured Light-Emitting Diode," Adv. Mater. 13, 123-127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sage, I.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, "Surface Plasmon Mediated Emission from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes," Adv. Mater. 14, 1393-1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Saito, S.

T. Tsutsui, N. Takada, S. Saito, and E. Ogino, "Sharply directed emission in organic electroluminescent diodes with an optical-microcavity structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1868-1870 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. Takada, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, "Control of emission characteristics in organic thin-film electroluminescent diodes using an optical-microcavity structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2032-2034 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Salt, M. G.

B. J. Matterson, J.M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov,M. G. Salt,W. L. Barnes, and I. D.W. Samuel, "Increased Efficiency and Controlled Light Output from a Microstructured Light-Emitting Diode," Adv. Mater. 13, 123-127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Samuel, I. D.W.

B. J. Matterson, J.M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov,M. G. Salt,W. L. Barnes, and I. D.W. Samuel, "Increased Efficiency and Controlled Light Output from a Microstructured Light-Emitting Diode," Adv. Mater. 13, 123-127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, "Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997-1999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Strurm, J. C.

C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, and J. C. Strurm, "Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1650-1652 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Su, I-L.

Sumioka, K.

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, "Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1243-1245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

S. Okamoto, K. Tanaka, Y. Izumi, H. Adachi, T. Yamaji, and T. Suzuki, "Simple Measurement of Quantum Efficiency in Organic Electroluminescent Devices," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 783-784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Taga, Y.

S. Tokito, K. Noda, and Y. Taga, "Strongly directed single mode emission from organic electroluminescent diode with a microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2633-2635 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Takada, N.

T. Tsutsui, N. Takada, S. Saito, and E. Ogino, "Sharply directed emission in organic electroluminescent diodes with an optical-microcavity structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1868-1870 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. Takada, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, "Control of emission characteristics in organic thin-film electroluminescent diodes using an optical-microcavity structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2032-2034 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

S. Okamoto, K. Tanaka, Y. Izumi, H. Adachi, T. Yamaji, and T. Suzuki, "Simple Measurement of Quantum Efficiency in Organic Electroluminescent Devices," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 783-784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. W.

C. W. Tang and S. A. Van Slyke, "Organic electroluminescent diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913-915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, M. E.

Tokito, S.

S. Tokito, K. Noda, and Y. Taga, "Strongly directed single mode emission from organic electroluminescent diode with a microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2633-2635 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsui, T.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, "Doubling Coupling-Out Efficiency in Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using a Thin Silica Aerogel Layer," Adv. Mater. 13, 1149-1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, "Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1243-1245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsutsui, N. Takada, S. Saito, and E. Ogino, "Sharply directed emission in organic electroluminescent diodes with an optical-microcavity structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1868-1870 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. Takada, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, "Control of emission characteristics in organic thin-film electroluminescent diodes using an optical-microcavity structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2032-2034 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Van Slyke, S. A.

C. W. Tang and S. A. Van Slyke, "Organic electroluminescent diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913-915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Venkatesh, S.

Wasey, J. A. E.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, "Surface Plasmon Mediated Emission from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes," Adv. Mater. 14, 1393-1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wedge, S.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, "Surface Plasmon Mediated Emission from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes," Adv. Mater. 14, 1393-1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wei, M.-K.

Yahiro, M.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, "Doubling Coupling-Out Efficiency in Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using a Thin Silica Aerogel Layer," Adv. Mater. 13, 1149-1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamaji, T.

S. Okamoto, K. Tanaka, Y. Izumi, H. Adachi, T. Yamaji, and T. Suzuki, "Simple Measurement of Quantum Efficiency in Organic Electroluminescent Devices," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 783-784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamasaki, T.

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, "Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1243-1245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yokogawa, H.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, "Doubling Coupling-Out Efficiency in Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using a Thin Silica Aerogel Layer," Adv. Mater. 13, 1149-1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, M.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, "Doubling Coupling-Out Efficiency in Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using a Thin Silica Aerogel Layer," Adv. Mater. 13, 1149-1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (3)

B. J. Matterson, J.M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov,M. G. Salt,W. L. Barnes, and I. D.W. Samuel, "Increased Efficiency and Controlled Light Output from a Microstructured Light-Emitting Diode," Adv. Mater. 13, 123-127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, "Surface Plasmon Mediated Emission from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes," Adv. Mater. 14, 1393-1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, "Doubling Coupling-Out Efficiency in Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using a Thin Silica Aerogel Layer," Adv. Mater. 13, 1149-1152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (11)

C. W. Tang and S. A. Van Slyke, "Organic electroluminescent diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913-915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, "Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1243-1245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, and J. C. Strurm, "Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1650-1652 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Takada, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, "Control of emission characteristics in organic thin-film electroluminescent diodes using an optical-microcavity structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2032-2034 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, T. Miller, and E. W. Kwock, "Microcavity effects in organic semiconductors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2486-2488 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakayama, Y. Itoh, and A. Kakuta, "Organic photo- and electroluminescent devices with double mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 594-595 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsutsui, N. Takada, S. Saito, and E. Ogino, "Sharply directed emission in organic electroluminescent diodes with an optical-microcavity structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1868-1870 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, and T. Miller, "Color variation with electroluminescent organic semiconductors in multimode resonant cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2308-2310 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Tokito, K. Noda, and Y. Taga, "Strongly directed single mode emission from organic electroluminescent diode with a microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2633-2635 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, "Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997-1999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3779-3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Moller and S. R. Forrest, "Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324-3327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Okamoto, K. Tanaka, Y. Izumi, H. Adachi, T. Yamaji, and T. Suzuki, "Simple Measurement of Quantum Efficiency in Organic Electroluminescent Devices," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 783-784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (2)

H. J. Peng, Y. L. Ho, C. F. Qiu, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, "Coupling Efficiency Enhancement of Organic Light Emitting Devices with Refractive Microlens Array on High Index Glass Substrate," SID 04 Digest, 158 (2004).

H. J. Peng, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, "Design and Characterization of Organic Light Emitting Diodes with Microcavity Structure," SID 03 Digest, 516 (2003).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics