Abstract

A novel basis for beam steering with electrowetting microprisms (EMPs) is reported. EMPs utilize electrowetting modulation of liquid contact angle in order to mimic the refractive behavior for various classical prism geometries. Continuous beam steering through an angle of 14° (±7°) has been demonstrated with a liquid index of n=1.359. Experimental results are well-matched to theoretical behavior up to the point of electrowetting contact-angle saturation. Projections show that use of higher index liquids (n~1.6) will result in steering through ~30° (±15°). Fundamental factors defining achievable deflection range, and issues for Ladar use, are reviewed. This approach is capable of good switching speed (~ms), polarization independent operation, modulation of beam field-of-view (lensing), and high steering efficiency that is independent of deflection angle.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2006 (1)

P. F. McManamon, "Agile Nonmechanical Beam Steering," Opt. and Phot. News,  17, 25-29 (2006).

2005 (4)

O. Pishnyak, L. Kreminska, O. D. Lavrentovich, J. J. Pouch, F. A. Miranda, B. K. Winker, "Liquid crystal digital beam steering device based on decoupled birefringent deflector and polarization rotator," Mol. Crys. and Liq. Crys. 433, 279-295 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Mugele and J. C. Baret, "Electrowetting: From basics to applications," J. Phy. Condens. Matter 17, R705-R774 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Heikenfeld and A. J. Steckl, "Intense switchable fluorescence in light wave coupled electrowetting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Chen, A. Kutana, C. P. Collier, and K. P. Giapis, "Electrowetting in Carbon Nanotubes," Science 310, 1480-1483 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, L. J. Huijbregts, A. M. Hirschberg, C. A. Renders, M. A. J. van As, "Variable-focus liquid lens for portable applications," Proc. SPIE 5523, 100-109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, "Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Gibson, B. D. Duncan, E. A. Watson and J. S. Loomis, "Wide-angle decentered lens beam steering for infrared countermeasures applications," Opt. Eng. 43, 2312-2321 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

B. D. Duncan, P. J. Bos and V. Sergan, "Wide-angle achromatic prism beam steering for infrared countermeasures," Opt. Eng. 42, 1038-1047 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Hayes and B. J. Feenstra, "Video-speed electronic paper based on electrowetting," Nature 425, 383-385 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

L. Sun, J. H. Kim, C. H. Jang, D. C. An, X. J. Lu, Q. J. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. N. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, "Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector," Opt. Eng. 40, 1217-1222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

B. Berge and J. Peseux, "Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: An application of electrowetting," Euro. Phys. J. E 3, 159-163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, "Optical Phased Array Technology," Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

G. Kaminski, "Micromachining of silicon mechanical structures," J. Vacuum Sci. and Technol. B. 3, 1015-1024 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

An, D. C.

L. Sun, J. H. Kim, C. H. Jang, D. C. An, X. J. Lu, Q. J. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. N. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, "Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector," Opt. Eng. 40, 1217-1222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baret, J. C.

F. Mugele and J. C. Baret, "Electrowetting: From basics to applications," J. Phy. Condens. Matter 17, R705-R774 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Berge, B.

B. Berge and J. Peseux, "Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: An application of electrowetting," Euro. Phys. J. E 3, 159-163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bos, P. J.

B. D. Duncan, P. J. Bos and V. Sergan, "Wide-angle achromatic prism beam steering for infrared countermeasures," Opt. Eng. 42, 1038-1047 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. Y.

J. Y. Chen, A. Kutana, C. P. Collier, and K. P. Giapis, "Electrowetting in Carbon Nanotubes," Science 310, 1480-1483 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, R. T.

L. Sun, J. H. Kim, C. H. Jang, D. C. An, X. J. Lu, Q. J. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. N. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, "Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector," Opt. Eng. 40, 1217-1222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Collier, C. P.

J. Y. Chen, A. Kutana, C. P. Collier, and K. P. Giapis, "Electrowetting in Carbon Nanotubes," Science 310, 1480-1483 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, D. L.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, "Optical Phased Array Technology," Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

L. Sun, J. H. Kim, C. H. Jang, D. C. An, X. J. Lu, Q. J. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. N. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, "Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector," Opt. Eng. 40, 1217-1222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dorschner, T. A.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, "Optical Phased Array Technology," Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Duncan, B. D.

J. L. Gibson, B. D. Duncan, E. A. Watson and J. S. Loomis, "Wide-angle decentered lens beam steering for infrared countermeasures applications," Opt. Eng. 43, 2312-2321 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Duncan, P. J. Bos and V. Sergan, "Wide-angle achromatic prism beam steering for infrared countermeasures," Opt. Eng. 42, 1038-1047 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feenstra, B. J.

R. A. Hayes and B. J. Feenstra, "Video-speed electronic paper based on electrowetting," Nature 425, 383-385 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friedman, L. J.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, "Optical Phased Array Technology," Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Giapis, K. P.

J. Y. Chen, A. Kutana, C. P. Collier, and K. P. Giapis, "Electrowetting in Carbon Nanotubes," Science 310, 1480-1483 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, J. L.

J. L. Gibson, B. D. Duncan, E. A. Watson and J. S. Loomis, "Wide-angle decentered lens beam steering for infrared countermeasures applications," Opt. Eng. 43, 2312-2321 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hayes, R. A.

R. A. Hayes and B. J. Feenstra, "Video-speed electronic paper based on electrowetting," Nature 425, 383-385 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heikenfeld, J.

J. Heikenfeld and A. J. Steckl, "Intense switchable fluorescence in light wave coupled electrowetting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hendriks, B. H. W.

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, "Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, L. J. Huijbregts, A. M. Hirschberg, C. A. Renders, M. A. J. van As, "Variable-focus liquid lens for portable applications," Proc. SPIE 5523, 100-109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hirschberg, A. M.

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, L. J. Huijbregts, A. M. Hirschberg, C. A. Renders, M. A. J. van As, "Variable-focus liquid lens for portable applications," Proc. SPIE 5523, 100-109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hobbs, D. S.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, "Optical Phased Array Technology," Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Holz, M.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, "Optical Phased Array Technology," Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huijbregts, L. J.

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, L. J. Huijbregts, A. M. Hirschberg, C. A. Renders, M. A. J. van As, "Variable-focus liquid lens for portable applications," Proc. SPIE 5523, 100-109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jang, C. H.

L. Sun, J. H. Kim, C. H. Jang, D. C. An, X. J. Lu, Q. J. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. N. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, "Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector," Opt. Eng. 40, 1217-1222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kaminski, G.

G. Kaminski, "Micromachining of silicon mechanical structures," J. Vacuum Sci. and Technol. B. 3, 1015-1024 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. H.

L. Sun, J. H. Kim, C. H. Jang, D. C. An, X. J. Lu, Q. J. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. N. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, "Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector," Opt. Eng. 40, 1217-1222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kreminska, L.

O. Pishnyak, L. Kreminska, O. D. Lavrentovich, J. J. Pouch, F. A. Miranda, B. K. Winker, "Liquid crystal digital beam steering device based on decoupled birefringent deflector and polarization rotator," Mol. Crys. and Liq. Crys. 433, 279-295 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuiper, S.

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, "Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, L. J. Huijbregts, A. M. Hirschberg, C. A. Renders, M. A. J. van As, "Variable-focus liquid lens for portable applications," Proc. SPIE 5523, 100-109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kutana, A.

J. Y. Chen, A. Kutana, C. P. Collier, and K. P. Giapis, "Electrowetting in Carbon Nanotubes," Science 310, 1480-1483 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lavrentovich, O. D.

O. Pishnyak, L. Kreminska, O. D. Lavrentovich, J. J. Pouch, F. A. Miranda, B. K. Winker, "Liquid crystal digital beam steering device based on decoupled birefringent deflector and polarization rotator," Mol. Crys. and Liq. Crys. 433, 279-295 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liberman, S.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, "Optical Phased Array Technology," Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Loomis, J. S.

J. L. Gibson, B. D. Duncan, E. A. Watson and J. S. Loomis, "Wide-angle decentered lens beam steering for infrared countermeasures applications," Opt. Eng. 43, 2312-2321 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X. J.

L. Sun, J. H. Kim, C. H. Jang, D. C. An, X. J. Lu, Q. J. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. N. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, "Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector," Opt. Eng. 40, 1217-1222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maki, J. J.

L. Sun, J. H. Kim, C. H. Jang, D. C. An, X. J. Lu, Q. J. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. N. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, "Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector," Opt. Eng. 40, 1217-1222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McManamon, P. F.

P. F. McManamon, "Agile Nonmechanical Beam Steering," Opt. and Phot. News,  17, 25-29 (2006).

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, "Optical Phased Array Technology," Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Miranda, F. A.

O. Pishnyak, L. Kreminska, O. D. Lavrentovich, J. J. Pouch, F. A. Miranda, B. K. Winker, "Liquid crystal digital beam steering device based on decoupled birefringent deflector and polarization rotator," Mol. Crys. and Liq. Crys. 433, 279-295 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mugele, F.

F. Mugele and J. C. Baret, "Electrowetting: From basics to applications," J. Phy. Condens. Matter 17, R705-R774 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. Q.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, "Optical Phased Array Technology," Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Peseux, J.

B. Berge and J. Peseux, "Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: An application of electrowetting," Euro. Phys. J. E 3, 159-163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pishnyak, O.

O. Pishnyak, L. Kreminska, O. D. Lavrentovich, J. J. Pouch, F. A. Miranda, B. K. Winker, "Liquid crystal digital beam steering device based on decoupled birefringent deflector and polarization rotator," Mol. Crys. and Liq. Crys. 433, 279-295 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pouch, J. J.

O. Pishnyak, L. Kreminska, O. D. Lavrentovich, J. J. Pouch, F. A. Miranda, B. K. Winker, "Liquid crystal digital beam steering device based on decoupled birefringent deflector and polarization rotator," Mol. Crys. and Liq. Crys. 433, 279-295 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Renders, C. A.

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, L. J. Huijbregts, A. M. Hirschberg, C. A. Renders, M. A. J. van As, "Variable-focus liquid lens for portable applications," Proc. SPIE 5523, 100-109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Resler, D. P.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, "Optical Phased Array Technology," Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sergan, V.

B. D. Duncan, P. J. Bos and V. Sergan, "Wide-angle achromatic prism beam steering for infrared countermeasures," Opt. Eng. 42, 1038-1047 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, R. C.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, "Optical Phased Array Technology," Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Steckl, A. J.

J. Heikenfeld and A. J. Steckl, "Intense switchable fluorescence in light wave coupled electrowetting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

L. Sun, J. H. Kim, C. H. Jang, D. C. An, X. J. Lu, Q. J. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. N. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, "Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector," Opt. Eng. 40, 1217-1222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sun, L.

L. Sun, J. H. Kim, C. H. Jang, D. C. An, X. J. Lu, Q. J. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. N. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, "Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector," Opt. Eng. 40, 1217-1222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Taboada, J. M.

L. Sun, J. H. Kim, C. H. Jang, D. C. An, X. J. Lu, Q. J. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. N. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, "Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector," Opt. Eng. 40, 1217-1222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tang, S. N.

L. Sun, J. H. Kim, C. H. Jang, D. C. An, X. J. Lu, Q. J. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. N. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, "Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector," Opt. Eng. 40, 1217-1222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

van As, M. A. J.

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, L. J. Huijbregts, A. M. Hirschberg, C. A. Renders, M. A. J. van As, "Variable-focus liquid lens for portable applications," Proc. SPIE 5523, 100-109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Watson, E. A.

J. L. Gibson, B. D. Duncan, E. A. Watson and J. S. Loomis, "Wide-angle decentered lens beam steering for infrared countermeasures applications," Opt. Eng. 43, 2312-2321 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, "Optical Phased Array Technology," Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Winker, B. K.

O. Pishnyak, L. Kreminska, O. D. Lavrentovich, J. J. Pouch, F. A. Miranda, B. K. Winker, "Liquid crystal digital beam steering device based on decoupled birefringent deflector and polarization rotator," Mol. Crys. and Liq. Crys. 433, 279-295 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

L. Sun, J. H. Kim, C. H. Jang, D. C. An, X. J. Lu, Q. J. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. N. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, "Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector," Opt. Eng. 40, 1217-1222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

L. Sun, J. H. Kim, C. H. Jang, D. C. An, X. J. Lu, Q. J. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. N. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, "Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector," Opt. Eng. 40, 1217-1222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Q. J.

L. Sun, J. H. Kim, C. H. Jang, D. C. An, X. J. Lu, Q. J. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. N. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, "Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector," Opt. Eng. 40, 1217-1222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zook, J. D.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, "Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Heikenfeld and A. J. Steckl, "Intense switchable fluorescence in light wave coupled electrowetting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Euro. Phys. J. E (1)

B. Berge and J. Peseux, "Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: An application of electrowetting," Euro. Phys. J. E 3, 159-163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Phy. Condens. Matter (1)

F. Mugele and J. C. Baret, "Electrowetting: From basics to applications," J. Phy. Condens. Matter 17, R705-R774 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Vacuum Sci. and Technol. B. (1)

G. Kaminski, "Micromachining of silicon mechanical structures," J. Vacuum Sci. and Technol. B. 3, 1015-1024 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Crys. and Liq. Crys. (1)

O. Pishnyak, L. Kreminska, O. D. Lavrentovich, J. J. Pouch, F. A. Miranda, B. K. Winker, "Liquid crystal digital beam steering device based on decoupled birefringent deflector and polarization rotator," Mol. Crys. and Liq. Crys. 433, 279-295 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

R. A. Hayes and B. J. Feenstra, "Video-speed electronic paper based on electrowetting," Nature 425, 383-385 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. and Phot. News (1)

P. F. McManamon, "Agile Nonmechanical Beam Steering," Opt. and Phot. News,  17, 25-29 (2006).

Opt. Eng. (3)

L. Sun, J. H. Kim, C. H. Jang, D. C. An, X. J. Lu, Q. J. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. N. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, "Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector," Opt. Eng. 40, 1217-1222 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Duncan, P. J. Bos and V. Sergan, "Wide-angle achromatic prism beam steering for infrared countermeasures," Opt. Eng. 42, 1038-1047 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Gibson, B. D. Duncan, E. A. Watson and J. S. Loomis, "Wide-angle decentered lens beam steering for infrared countermeasures applications," Opt. Eng. 43, 2312-2321 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, "Optical Phased Array Technology," Proc. IEEE 84, 268-298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, L. J. Huijbregts, A. M. Hirschberg, C. A. Renders, M. A. J. van As, "Variable-focus liquid lens for portable applications," Proc. SPIE 5523, 100-109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. Y. Chen, A. Kutana, C. P. Collier, and K. P. Giapis, "Electrowetting in Carbon Nanotubes," Science 310, 1480-1483 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

F. Mugele, "Electrowetting beyond Lippmann’s approximations: field-induced surface distortions and finite conductivity effects in capillary breakup" International Electrowetting Workshop, Rochester, (2006).

A. V. Jelalian, Laser Radar Systems, Artech House, Boston-London 1992.

J. Heikenfeld and A. J. Steckl, "Electrowetting Light Valves with Greater than 80% Transmission, Unlimited View Angle, and Video Response," Soc. Inf. Display Symposium Digest 36, 1674-1677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuiper, B. H. W. Hendriks, R. A. Hayes, B. J. Feenstra, and J. M. E. Baken, "Electrowetting-Based Optics," Proc. of SPIE 5908, 0R1-0R7 (2005).

B. Winker, M. Mahajan, M. Hunwardsen, "Liquid crystal beam directors for airborne free-space optical communications," in Proc. of IEEE Conf. on Aerospace 3, 1702-1709 (2004).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Side-view photographs of EMPs with (a) zero voltage and (b-d) various voltage/prism configurations. The liquid is electrically grounded and voltages are applied to the side-walls. For photographic purposes these open-channel EMPs lack top and end sealing plates.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Angled view diagram (a) of representative channel geometry for EMPs. Side view diagrams (b,c) of basic EMP materials, voltage connections, and angles for prism apex (φ), deflection (δ) and liquid-fluoropolymer contact (θ).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Plot of (a) theoretical contact angle vs. voltage for left (θVL) and right (θVR) EMP sidewalls and (b) experimentally measured contact angle vs. voltage. The diagrams and double-plot in (a) emphasize the need for symmetric contact angle inversion, and can be used to determine the applied voltages required for various EMP apex angles. Experimentally observed contact angle saturation at θ~70° is grey-shaded in the diagrams. This limits the steering capability of the EMP. Used only for descriptive purpose, the terms ‘left’ and ‘right’ voltages/walls can be referenced back to Fig. 2(a).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Plots of (a) apex angle and (b) beam deflection vs. voltage. Apex angle can be directly related to applied voltage using Eq.1. Deflection can then be related to apex angle using Eq. 2.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Plot of (a) total continuous beam deflection vs. voltage as measured by laser spot location, (b) theoretical total deflection predicted for liquid of n=1.36 (this work) and for n=1.60.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Diagrams of (a) proposed approach for fabricating arrayed EMP’s in Si-on-oxide substrates, and (b) use of arrayed EMPs in order to allow increased laser beam power by expanding the beam (reduced power density). As noted diagrammatically in (a), refraction at all interfaces should be considered when calculating the total beam deflection.

Equations (2)

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cos ( θ V ) = cos ( θ 0 ) + 1 2 · ε · V 2 γ · d
δ = α i ϕ + sin 1 [ ( n 2 sin 2 α i ) 1 2 sin ϕ cos ϕ sin α i ]

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