Abstract

We present experimental and numerical results demonstrating the existence of polarization instability of femtosecond solitons in small core photonic crystal fibers. The frequency of the solitons in our setup shifts rapidly with propagation along the dispersion curve due to the Raman effect. This process can cause initially stable solitons to become unstable, or vice versa depending on the parameters.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J.C. Knight, W.J. Wadsworth, P.St.J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Dudley, X. Gu, L. Xu, M. Kimmel, E. Zeek, P. O’Shea, R. Trebino, S. Coen, and R. Windeler, "Crosscorrelation frequency resolved optical gating analysis of broadband continuum generation in photonic crystal fiber: simulations and experiments," Opt. Express 10, 1215-1221 (2002).
  3. L.F. Mollenauer, "Nonlinear optics in fibers," Science 302, 996-997 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D.V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J.C. Knight, and P.St.J. Russell, "Soliton self-frequency shift cancellation in photonic crystal fibers," Science 301, 1705-1708 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, "Interaction of an optical soliton with a dispersive wave," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213902 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J.R. Salgueiro, Y.S. Kivshar, D.E. Pelinovsky, V. Simon, and H. Michinel, "Spatial vector solitons in nonlinear photonic crystal fibers," Studies in Appl. Math. 115, 157-171 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Hu, C. Wang, Y. Song, Y. Li, L. Chai, E. Serebryannikov, and A. Zheltikov, "Mode-selective mapping and control of vectorial nonlinear-optical processes in multimode photonic-crystal fibers," Opt. Express 14, 1189- 1198 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Biancalana and D.V. Skryabin, "Vector modulational instabilities in ultra-small core optical fibres," J. Opt. A 6, 301-306 (2004).
  9. F. Lu, Q. Lin, W. H. Knox, and G. P. Agrawal, "Vector Soliton Fission," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183901 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Blow, N. Doran, and D. Wood, "Polarization instabilities for solitons in birefringent fibers," Opt. Lett. 12, 202-204 (1987).
  11. N. Akhmediev, A. Buryak, J. Soto-Crespo, and D. Andersen, "Phase-locked stationary soliton states in birefringent nonlinear optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 434-439 (1995).
  12. D. Hutchings and J. Arnold, "Polarization stability of solitons in birefringent optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 513-518 (1999).
  13. D. Mihalache, D. Mazilu, and L.-C. Crasovan, "Linear stability analysis of walking vector solitons," Phys. Rev. E 60, 007504 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Barad and Y. Silberberg, "Polarization evolution and polarization instability of solitons in a birefringent optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 003290 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Malendevich, L. Friedrich, G. Stegeman, J. Soto-Crespo, N. Akhmediev, and J. Aitchison, "Radiation-related polarization instability of Kerr spatial vector solitons," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 695-702 (2002).
  16. J.C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T.A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W.J. Wadsworth, and P.S. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. X. Liu, C. Xu, W.H. Knox, J.K. Chandalia, B.J. Eggleton, S.G. Kosinski, and B.S. Windeler, "Soliton selffrequency shift in a short tapered air-silica microstructure fiber," Opt. Lett. 26, 358-360 (2001).

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, "Interaction of an optical soliton with a dispersive wave," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.R. Salgueiro, Y.S. Kivshar, D.E. Pelinovsky, V. Simon, and H. Michinel, "Spatial vector solitons in nonlinear photonic crystal fibers," Studies in Appl. Math. 115, 157-171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

F. Biancalana and D.V. Skryabin, "Vector modulational instabilities in ultra-small core optical fibres," J. Opt. A 6, 301-306 (2004).

F. Lu, Q. Lin, W. H. Knox, and G. P. Agrawal, "Vector Soliton Fission," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

L.F. Mollenauer, "Nonlinear optics in fibers," Science 302, 996-997 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D.V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J.C. Knight, and P.St.J. Russell, "Soliton self-frequency shift cancellation in photonic crystal fibers," Science 301, 1705-1708 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

J.C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T.A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W.J. Wadsworth, and P.S. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

D. Hutchings and J. Arnold, "Polarization stability of solitons in birefringent optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 513-518 (1999).

D. Mihalache, D. Mazilu, and L.-C. Crasovan, "Linear stability analysis of walking vector solitons," Phys. Rev. E 60, 007504 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Y. Barad and Y. Silberberg, "Polarization evolution and polarization instability of solitons in a birefringent optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 003290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1987 (1)

Agrawal, G. P.

F. Lu, Q. Lin, W. H. Knox, and G. P. Agrawal, "Vector Soliton Fission," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J.

Akhmediev, N.

Andersen, D.

Arnold, J.

Arriaga, J.

J.C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T.A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W.J. Wadsworth, and P.S. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barad, Y.

Y. Barad and Y. Silberberg, "Polarization evolution and polarization instability of solitons in a birefringent optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 003290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Biancalana, F.

F. Biancalana and D.V. Skryabin, "Vector modulational instabilities in ultra-small core optical fibres," J. Opt. A 6, 301-306 (2004).

Birks, T.A.

J.C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T.A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W.J. Wadsworth, and P.S. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Blow, K.

Buryak, A.

Chai, L.

Chandalia, J.K.

Coen, S.

Crasovan, L.-C.

D. Mihalache, D. Mazilu, and L.-C. Crasovan, "Linear stability analysis of walking vector solitons," Phys. Rev. E 60, 007504 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Doran, N.

Dudley, J.

Efimov, A.

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, "Interaction of an optical soliton with a dispersive wave," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B.J.

Friedrich, L.

Griebner, U.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J.C. Knight, W.J. Wadsworth, P.St.J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gu, X.

Herrmann, J.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J.C. Knight, W.J. Wadsworth, P.St.J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hu, M.

Husakou, A.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J.C. Knight, W.J. Wadsworth, P.St.J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hutchings, D.

Joly, N.

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, "Interaction of an optical soliton with a dispersive wave," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kimmel, M.

Kivshar, Y.S.

J.R. Salgueiro, Y.S. Kivshar, D.E. Pelinovsky, V. Simon, and H. Michinel, "Spatial vector solitons in nonlinear photonic crystal fibers," Studies in Appl. Math. 115, 157-171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, "Interaction of an optical soliton with a dispersive wave," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J.C.

D.V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J.C. Knight, and P.St.J. Russell, "Soliton self-frequency shift cancellation in photonic crystal fibers," Science 301, 1705-1708 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J.C. Knight, W.J. Wadsworth, P.St.J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T.A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W.J. Wadsworth, and P.S. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Knox, W. H.

F. Lu, Q. Lin, W. H. Knox, and G. P. Agrawal, "Vector Soliton Fission," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Knox, W.H.

Korn, G.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J.C. Knight, W.J. Wadsworth, P.St.J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kosinski, S.G.

Li, Y.

Lin, Q.

F. Lu, Q. Lin, W. H. Knox, and G. P. Agrawal, "Vector Soliton Fission," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Lu, F.

F. Lu, Q. Lin, W. H. Knox, and G. P. Agrawal, "Vector Soliton Fission," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luan, F.

D.V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J.C. Knight, and P.St.J. Russell, "Soliton self-frequency shift cancellation in photonic crystal fibers," Science 301, 1705-1708 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Malendevich, R.

Mazilu, D.

D. Mihalache, D. Mazilu, and L.-C. Crasovan, "Linear stability analysis of walking vector solitons," Phys. Rev. E 60, 007504 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Michinel, H.

J.R. Salgueiro, Y.S. Kivshar, D.E. Pelinovsky, V. Simon, and H. Michinel, "Spatial vector solitons in nonlinear photonic crystal fibers," Studies in Appl. Math. 115, 157-171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mihalache, D.

D. Mihalache, D. Mazilu, and L.-C. Crasovan, "Linear stability analysis of walking vector solitons," Phys. Rev. E 60, 007504 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mollenauer, L.F.

L.F. Mollenauer, "Nonlinear optics in fibers," Science 302, 996-997 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nickel, D.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J.C. Knight, W.J. Wadsworth, P.St.J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O’Shea, P.

Omenetto, F. G.

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, "Interaction of an optical soliton with a dispersive wave," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

J.C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T.A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W.J. Wadsworth, and P.S. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pelinovsky, D.E.

J.R. Salgueiro, Y.S. Kivshar, D.E. Pelinovsky, V. Simon, and H. Michinel, "Spatial vector solitons in nonlinear photonic crystal fibers," Studies in Appl. Math. 115, 157-171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P.

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, "Interaction of an optical soliton with a dispersive wave," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P.S.

J.C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T.A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W.J. Wadsworth, and P.S. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P.St.J.

D.V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J.C. Knight, and P.St.J. Russell, "Soliton self-frequency shift cancellation in photonic crystal fibers," Science 301, 1705-1708 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J.C. Knight, W.J. Wadsworth, P.St.J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Salgueiro, J.R.

J.R. Salgueiro, Y.S. Kivshar, D.E. Pelinovsky, V. Simon, and H. Michinel, "Spatial vector solitons in nonlinear photonic crystal fibers," Studies in Appl. Math. 115, 157-171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Serebryannikov, E.

Silberberg, Y.

Y. Barad and Y. Silberberg, "Polarization evolution and polarization instability of solitons in a birefringent optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 003290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Simon, V.

J.R. Salgueiro, Y.S. Kivshar, D.E. Pelinovsky, V. Simon, and H. Michinel, "Spatial vector solitons in nonlinear photonic crystal fibers," Studies in Appl. Math. 115, 157-171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Skryabin, D. V.

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, "Interaction of an optical soliton with a dispersive wave," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Skryabin, D.V.

F. Biancalana and D.V. Skryabin, "Vector modulational instabilities in ultra-small core optical fibres," J. Opt. A 6, 301-306 (2004).

D.V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J.C. Knight, and P.St.J. Russell, "Soliton self-frequency shift cancellation in photonic crystal fibers," Science 301, 1705-1708 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.

Soto-Crespo, J.

Stegeman, G.

Taylor, A. J.

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, "Interaction of an optical soliton with a dispersive wave," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Trebino, R.

Wadsworth, W.J.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J.C. Knight, W.J. Wadsworth, P.St.J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T.A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W.J. Wadsworth, and P.S. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

Windeler, B.S.

Windeler, R.

Wood, D.

Xu, C.

Xu, L.

Yulin, A. V.

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, "Interaction of an optical soliton with a dispersive wave," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zeek, E.

Zhavoronkov, N.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J.C. Knight, W.J. Wadsworth, P.St.J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zheltikov, A.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J.C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T.A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W.J. Wadsworth, and P.S. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

F. Biancalana and D.V. Skryabin, "Vector modulational instabilities in ultra-small core optical fibres," J. Opt. A 6, 301-306 (2004).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

D. Mihalache, D. Mazilu, and L.-C. Crasovan, "Linear stability analysis of walking vector solitons," Phys. Rev. E 60, 007504 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

Y. Barad and Y. Silberberg, "Polarization evolution and polarization instability of solitons in a birefringent optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 003290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, "Interaction of an optical soliton with a dispersive wave," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J.C. Knight, W.J. Wadsworth, P.St.J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Lu, Q. Lin, W. H. Knox, and G. P. Agrawal, "Vector Soliton Fission," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

L.F. Mollenauer, "Nonlinear optics in fibers," Science 302, 996-997 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D.V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J.C. Knight, and P.St.J. Russell, "Soliton self-frequency shift cancellation in photonic crystal fibers," Science 301, 1705-1708 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Studies in Appl. Math. (1)

J.R. Salgueiro, Y.S. Kivshar, D.E. Pelinovsky, V. Simon, and H. Michinel, "Spatial vector solitons in nonlinear photonic crystal fibers," Studies in Appl. Math. 115, 157-171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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