Abstract

We present a novel color fringe projection system to obtain absolute 3D shape and color of objects simultaneously. Optimum 3-frequency interferometry is used to produce time efficient analysis of the projected fringes by encoding three fringe sets of different pitch into the primary colors of a digital light projector and recording the information on a 3-chip color CCD camera. Phase shifting analysis is used to retrieve sub-wavelength phase information. Absolute phase across the field is calculated using the 3-frequency method independently at each pixel. Concurrent color data is also captured via the RGB channels of the CCD. Thus full-field absolute shape (XYZ) and color (RGB) can be obtained. In this paper we present the basis of the technique and preliminary results having addressed the issue of crosstalk between the color channels.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Chen, G. M. Brown, and M. Song, "Overview of three-dimensional shape measurement using optical methods," Opt. Eng. 39, 10-22 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Petrov, A. Talapov, T. Robertson, A. Lebedev, A. Zhilyaev, and L. Polonskiy, "Optical 3D digitizers: bringing life to the virtual world," IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 18, 28-37 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Blais, "Review of 20 years of range sensor development," J. Electron Imaging 13, 231-240 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Creath, "Phase measurement interferometry techniques," in Progress in Optics XXVI, E. Wolf, Ed. (North Holland Publ., Amsterdam, 1988).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. X. Y. Su and W. J. Chen, "Reliability-guided phase unwrapping algorithm: a review," Opt. Lasers Eng. 42, 245-261 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. M. Huntley and H. O. Saldner, "Error-reduction methods for shape measurement by temporal phase unwrapping," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 3188-3196 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. P. Towers, C. E. Towers, and J. D. C. Jones, "Phase Measuring Method and Apparatus for Multi-Frequency Interferometry," International Patent Application Number PCT/GB2003/003744.
  13. C. E. Towers, D. P. Towers, and J. D.C. Jones, "Generalized frequency selection in multifrequency interferometry," Opt. Lett. 29, 1348-1450 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. E. Towers, D. P. Towers, and J. D. C. Jones, "Absolute fringe order calculation using optimised multi-frequency selection in full-field porfilometry," Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 788-800 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Hausler and D. Ritter, "Parallel three-dimensional sensing by color-coded triangulation," Appl. Opt. 32, 7164-7169 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. S. Huang, Q. Y. Hu, F. Jin, and F. P. Chiang, "Color-encoded digital fringe projection technique for high-speed three-dimensional surface contouring," Opt. Eng. 38, 1065-1071 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. O. A. Skydan, M. J. Lalor, and D. R. Burton, "Technique for phase measurement and surface reconstruction by use colored structured light," Appl. Opt. 41, 6104-6117 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. Kakunai, T. Sakamoto, and K. Iwata, "Profile measurement taken with liquid-crystal gratings," Appl. Opt. 38, 2824-2828 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Pfortner and J. Schwider, "Red-green-blue interferometer for the metrology of discontinuous structures," Appl. Opt. 42, 667-673 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. M. Younse, "Mirrors on a chip," IEEE Spectrum 30, 27-31 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. S. Huang, C. P. Zhang, and F. P. Chiang, "High-speed 3-D shape measurement based on digital fringe projection," Opt. Eng. 42, 163-168 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

C. E. Towers, D. P. Towers, and J. D. C. Jones, "Absolute fringe order calculation using optimised multi-frequency selection in full-field porfilometry," Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 788-800 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

F. Blais, "Review of 20 years of range sensor development," J. Electron Imaging 13, 231-240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Y. Su and W. J. Chen, "Reliability-guided phase unwrapping algorithm: a review," Opt. Lasers Eng. 42, 245-261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Towers, D. P. Towers, and J. D.C. Jones, "Generalized frequency selection in multifrequency interferometry," Opt. Lett. 29, 1348-1450 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, and M. Song, "Overview of three-dimensional shape measurement using optical methods," Opt. Eng. 39, 10-22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

P. S. Huang, Q. Y. Hu, F. Jin, and F. P. Chiang, "Color-encoded digital fringe projection technique for high-speed three-dimensional surface contouring," Opt. Eng. 38, 1065-1071 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Kakunai, T. Sakamoto, and K. Iwata, "Profile measurement taken with liquid-crystal gratings," Appl. Opt. 38, 2824-2828 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. Petrov, A. Talapov, T. Robertson, A. Lebedev, A. Zhilyaev, and L. Polonskiy, "Optical 3D digitizers: bringing life to the virtual world," IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 18, 28-37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

1993 (3)

1983 (1)

Blais, F.

F. Blais, "Review of 20 years of range sensor development," J. Electron Imaging 13, 231-240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brown, G. M.

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, and M. Song, "Overview of three-dimensional shape measurement using optical methods," Opt. Eng. 39, 10-22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Burton, D. R.

Chen, F.

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, and M. Song, "Overview of three-dimensional shape measurement using optical methods," Opt. Eng. 39, 10-22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. J.

X. Y. Su and W. J. Chen, "Reliability-guided phase unwrapping algorithm: a review," Opt. Lasers Eng. 42, 245-261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, F. P.

P. S. Huang, C. P. Zhang, and F. P. Chiang, "High-speed 3-D shape measurement based on digital fringe projection," Opt. Eng. 42, 163-168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Huang, Q. Y. Hu, F. Jin, and F. P. Chiang, "Color-encoded digital fringe projection technique for high-speed three-dimensional surface contouring," Opt. Eng. 38, 1065-1071 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hausler, G.

Hu, Q. Y.

P. S. Huang, Q. Y. Hu, F. Jin, and F. P. Chiang, "Color-encoded digital fringe projection technique for high-speed three-dimensional surface contouring," Opt. Eng. 38, 1065-1071 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, P. S.

P. S. Huang, C. P. Zhang, and F. P. Chiang, "High-speed 3-D shape measurement based on digital fringe projection," Opt. Eng. 42, 163-168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Huang, Q. Y. Hu, F. Jin, and F. P. Chiang, "Color-encoded digital fringe projection technique for high-speed three-dimensional surface contouring," Opt. Eng. 38, 1065-1071 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huntley, J. M.

Iwata, K.

Jin, F.

P. S. Huang, Q. Y. Hu, F. Jin, and F. P. Chiang, "Color-encoded digital fringe projection technique for high-speed three-dimensional surface contouring," Opt. Eng. 38, 1065-1071 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jones, J. D. C.

C. E. Towers, D. P. Towers, and J. D. C. Jones, "Absolute fringe order calculation using optimised multi-frequency selection in full-field porfilometry," Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 788-800 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Towers, D. P. Towers, and J. D. C. Jones, "Optimum frequency selection in multifrequency interferometry," Opt. Lett. 28, 887-889 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, J. D.C.

Kakunai, S.

Lalor, M. J.

Lebedev, A.

M. Petrov, A. Talapov, T. Robertson, A. Lebedev, A. Zhilyaev, and L. Polonskiy, "Optical 3D digitizers: bringing life to the virtual world," IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 18, 28-37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mutoh, K.

Petrov, M.

M. Petrov, A. Talapov, T. Robertson, A. Lebedev, A. Zhilyaev, and L. Polonskiy, "Optical 3D digitizers: bringing life to the virtual world," IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 18, 28-37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pfortner, A.

Polonskiy, L.

M. Petrov, A. Talapov, T. Robertson, A. Lebedev, A. Zhilyaev, and L. Polonskiy, "Optical 3D digitizers: bringing life to the virtual world," IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 18, 28-37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ritter, D.

Robertson, T.

M. Petrov, A. Talapov, T. Robertson, A. Lebedev, A. Zhilyaev, and L. Polonskiy, "Optical 3D digitizers: bringing life to the virtual world," IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 18, 28-37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, T.

Saldner, H. O.

Schwider, J.

Skydan, O. A.

Song, M.

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, and M. Song, "Overview of three-dimensional shape measurement using optical methods," Opt. Eng. 39, 10-22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Su, X. Y.

X. Y. Su and W. J. Chen, "Reliability-guided phase unwrapping algorithm: a review," Opt. Lasers Eng. 42, 245-261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, M.

Talapov, A.

M. Petrov, A. Talapov, T. Robertson, A. Lebedev, A. Zhilyaev, and L. Polonskiy, "Optical 3D digitizers: bringing life to the virtual world," IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 18, 28-37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Towers, C. E.

Towers, D. P.

Younse, J. M.

J. M. Younse, "Mirrors on a chip," IEEE Spectrum 30, 27-31 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C. P.

P. S. Huang, C. P. Zhang, and F. P. Chiang, "High-speed 3-D shape measurement based on digital fringe projection," Opt. Eng. 42, 163-168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhilyaev, A.

M. Petrov, A. Talapov, T. Robertson, A. Lebedev, A. Zhilyaev, and L. Polonskiy, "Optical 3D digitizers: bringing life to the virtual world," IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 18, 28-37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (7)

IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. (1)

M. Petrov, A. Talapov, T. Robertson, A. Lebedev, A. Zhilyaev, and L. Polonskiy, "Optical 3D digitizers: bringing life to the virtual world," IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 18, 28-37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Spectrum (1)

J. M. Younse, "Mirrors on a chip," IEEE Spectrum 30, 27-31 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron Imaging (1)

F. Blais, "Review of 20 years of range sensor development," J. Electron Imaging 13, 231-240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

H. O. Saldner and J. M. Huntley, "Shape measurement by temporal phase unwrapping: comparison of unwrapping algorithms," Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 986-992 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (3)

P. S. Huang, Q. Y. Hu, F. Jin, and F. P. Chiang, "Color-encoded digital fringe projection technique for high-speed three-dimensional surface contouring," Opt. Eng. 38, 1065-1071 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, and M. Song, "Overview of three-dimensional shape measurement using optical methods," Opt. Eng. 39, 10-22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Huang, C. P. Zhang, and F. P. Chiang, "High-speed 3-D shape measurement based on digital fringe projection," Opt. Eng. 42, 163-168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng. (2)

X. Y. Su and W. J. Chen, "Reliability-guided phase unwrapping algorithm: a review," Opt. Lasers Eng. 42, 245-261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Towers, D. P. Towers, and J. D. C. Jones, "Absolute fringe order calculation using optimised multi-frequency selection in full-field porfilometry," Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 788-800 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (2)

D. P. Towers, C. E. Towers, and J. D. C. Jones, "Phase Measuring Method and Apparatus for Multi-Frequency Interferometry," International Patent Application Number PCT/GB2003/003744.

K. Creath, "Phase measurement interferometry techniques," in Progress in Optics XXVI, E. Wolf, Ed. (North Holland Publ., Amsterdam, 1988).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Layout and principle of the measuring system. The system includes a DLP video projector, a 3-chip color CCD camera, and a personal computer. F: Firewire port

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The central part of the captured composite fringe pattern with fringe numbers as 90, 99 and 100 in red, green and blue channels, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The relationship between input gray and projected intensity for the red, green, and blue channels.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The relationship between input and captured gray for the red, green, and blue channels. (a) Before compensation and (b) after compensation.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Coupling effects between color channels using the standard DLP and camera. The three rows correspond to the coupling effects of the red, green, and blue channels, respectively. For each row, the first is the captured color image and the other three are the red, green, and blue components of the first.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Coupling effects between color channels with a filter in front of the camera, but without the built-in color filter wheel in the projector. The same illustrations are used as in Fig. 5.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Four captured color images of a plastic statue and their corresponding red, green, and blue channels. The red, green, and blue channels correspond to the second, third, and fourth columns, respectively. For each channel, the four gray images have π/2 phase shift in turn.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

The wrapped phase and phase-unwrapped maps of the measured statue. (a) red channel, (b) green channel, (c) blue channel, and (d) the absolute phase map.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

The modulation maps in the three channels of the measured statue and the back plate. (a) red channel, (b) green channel, and (c) blue channel.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

3D representation of the shape and color information captured. point cloud of statue and back plate, (b) gradient shaded view of statue shape from a single view

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. The phase resolution in the three color channels. For separate projection, the fringe numbers are 100 for all the three channels. For composite situation, the fringe numbers for the R, G and B channels are 90, 99 and 100, respectively.

Equations (8)

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N fi = N f 0 ( N f 0 ) ( i 1 ) / ( n 1 ) , for i = 1 , , n 1 ,
I c ( x , y ) = D C c + M c ( 2 π x p c + φ ) ,
I c ( m , n ) = D C c ( m , n ) + M c ( m , n ) [ ϕ c ( m , n ) + φ ] ,
R rc = M c ( m , n ) M r ( m , n ) , c = g , b .
[ C rr C rg C rb C gr C gg C gb C br C bg C bb ] ,
[ 100.0 17.5 6.8 29.1 100.0 15.7 7.7 21.1 100.0 ] ,
[ 100.0 1.5 1.4 18.2 100.0 3.5 7.4 3.2 100.0 ] .
[ 100.0 5.7 6.1 22.0 100.0 5.3 7.0 3.0 100.0 ] .

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