Abstract

By controlling the fibre geometry, the fraction of optical field within the holes and the inserted material of a photonic crystal fibre, we demonstrate that it is possible to engineer any arbitrary wavelength-dependent thermo-optic coefficient. The possibility of making a fibre with a zero temperature dependent thermo-optic coefficient, ideal for packaging of structured fibre gratings, is proposed and explored.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E.A.J. Marcatili, "Air clad optical fiber waveguide," US patent 3,712,705 (1973).
  2. A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, A.S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibres, (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003)
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Canning, "Diffraction-free mode generation and propagation in optical waveguides," Opt. Commun.  207 (1-6) 35-39 (2002)
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Martelli, J. Canning, N. Groothoff and K. Lyytikainen, "Strain and temperature characterization of photonic crystal fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Lett. 30, 1785, (2005)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G.P. Agrawal, "Fiber-Optic Communication systems 2nd editionn," (Wiley-Interscience 1997)
  6. S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell's equations in a planewave basis," Opt. Express 8, 173-190 (2001)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Handbook of Physic and Chemistry, (CRC Press 1984)
  8. H. R. Sørensen, J. B. Jensen, J. Bo Jensen, F. Bruyere, K. P. Hansen, "Practical Hydrogen Loading of Air Silica Fibres," Conf. on Bragg Gratings, Poling and Photosensitivity BGPP2005, Sydney Australia (2005)
  9. A. Ito, A. Goto, "Measurements of refractive index for several liquid and its dependence on temperature," Trans. Jpn. Soc. Mechanical Eng.  60 (576).2875-2881, (1994).</jrn>
    [CrossRef]

2005

2001

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

G.P. Agrawal, "Fiber-Optic Communication systems 2nd editionn," (Wiley-Interscience 1997)

E.A.J. Marcatili, "Air clad optical fiber waveguide," US patent 3,712,705 (1973).

A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, A.S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibres, (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003)
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, "Diffraction-free mode generation and propagation in optical waveguides," Opt. Commun.  207 (1-6) 35-39 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Handbook of Physic and Chemistry, (CRC Press 1984)

H. R. Sørensen, J. B. Jensen, J. Bo Jensen, F. Bruyere, K. P. Hansen, "Practical Hydrogen Loading of Air Silica Fibres," Conf. on Bragg Gratings, Poling and Photosensitivity BGPP2005, Sydney Australia (2005)

A. Ito, A. Goto, "Measurements of refractive index for several liquid and its dependence on temperature," Trans. Jpn. Soc. Mechanical Eng.  60 (576).2875-2881, (1994).</jrn>
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical micrograph of cross-section of photonic crystal fibre. The germanium doping is in the centre rod, placed there during preform stacking.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Fraction of λ=1.5µm light in the holes versus the index of the material within the holes.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Bragg grating transmission spectra within the photonic crystal fibre containing air and the two organic liquid samples. Clearly, when the index of the holes goes up the effective index of the grating goes up, resulting in a higher Bragg-wavelength for otherwise similar gratings.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Change in effective index, determined from the shift in Bragg wavelength as a function of temperature, for the photonic crystal fibre with three sample materials within its holes.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Properties of n-heptane and perfluoroheptane. Values obtained from [6]. No value of absorbance for perfluoroheptane was found. However, generally fluorine displacement of hydrogen in simple organic molecules tends to increase UV transmissivity substantially.

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Table 2. ∂n eff/∂T for various composite fibre systems.

Equations (4)

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2 ψ ( r ) + k 0 2 ε ( r ) ψ ( r ) = β 2 ψ ( r )
ψ ( r ) 2 = A ψ ( r ) ψ ( r ) d r = 1
n eff 2 = ( λ 2 π ) 2 ψ ( r ) 2 d r + ε ( r ) ψ 2 ( r ) d r .
( n eff T ) = ( 1 η h ) ( n S i O 2 T ) + η h ( n h T )

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