Abstract

We show that the photonic confinement induced by a photonic crystal can be exploited to trap nanoparticles. As demonstrated by the recent advances in the design and fabrication of photonic crystals slab structures, total internal reflection and multiple scattering can be combined to confine photons very efficiently. A consequence of this confinement is the existence of strong gradients of electromagnetic intensity in the near-field of the photonic structure. Hence, a nanoparticle placed in the vicinity of the crystal would experience an optical force which, with a proper design of the near-field optical landscape, can lead to trapping.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  32. L. Salomon, F. Grillot, A. V. Zayats, and F. de Fornel, "Near-field distribution of optical transmission of periodic subwavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1110-1113 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2006 (8)

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, "Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404-4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Chang, W. Y. Chen, H. S. Chang, T. P. Hsieh, J. I. Chyi, and T. M. Hsu, "Efficient single-photon sources based on low-density quantum dots in photonic-crystal nanocavities," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 117401-4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Dholakia and P. Reece, "Optical micromanipulation takes hold," Nanotoday 1, 18 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Asano, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, "Analysis of the experimental Q factors (_ 1 million) of photonic crystal nanocavities," Opt. Express 14, 1996-2002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, "Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Garcés-Chávez, R. Quidant, P. J. Reece, G. Badenes, L. Torner, and K. Dholakia, "Extended organization of colloidal microparticles by surface plasmon polariton excitation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 085417-5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. van der Heijden, C. F. Carlström, J. A. P. Snijders, R. W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. N¨otzel, H. W. M. Salemink, B. K. C. Kjellander, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, and E. van der Drift, "InP-based twodimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161112-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lu, J. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, G. J. Schneider, J. P. Samluk, and D.W. Prather, "Perfect lens makes a perfect trap," Opt. Express 14, 2228-2235 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

H. Altug and J. Vuckovíc, "Photonic crystal nanocavity array laser," Opt. Express 13, 8819-8828 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Koenderink, M. Kafesaki, B. C. Buchler, and V. Sandoghdar, "Controlling the resonance of a photonic crystal microcavity by a near-field probe," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153904-4 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Chaumet, A. Rahmani, and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, "Photonic force spectroscopy on metallic and absorbing nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. B 71, 045425-7 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "Fine-tuned high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Opt. Express 13, 1202-1214 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vu˘ckovi´c, "Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a 2D photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904-4 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Neuman, and S. M. Block, "Optical trapping," Rev. Sci. Instr. 75, 2787-2809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Nieto-Vesperinas, P. C. Chaumet, and A. Rahmani, "Near-field photonic forces," Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 362, 719-737 (2004).

2003 (1)

D. G. Grier, "A revolution in optical manipulation," Nature 424, 810-816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

A. Rahmani and G. W. Bryant, "Spontaneous emission in microcavity electrodynamics," Phys. Rev. A 65, 033817-12 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Chaumet, A. Rahmani, and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, "Optical trapping and manipulation of nano-objects with an apertureless probe," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 123601-4 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Chaumet, A. Rahmani, and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, "Selective nanomanipulation using optical forces," Phys. Rev. B 66, 195405-11 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

L. Salomon, F. Grillot, A. V. Zayats, and F. de Fornel, "Near-field distribution of optical transmission of periodic subwavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1110-1113 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Toader, S. John, and K. Busch, "Optical trapping, Field enhancement and Laser cooling in photonic crystals," Opt. Express 8, 217-222 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

K. Okamoto and S. Kawata, " Radiation force exerted on subwavelength particles near a nanoaperture," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4534-4537 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

L. Novotny, R. X. Bian, and X. Sunney Xie, "Theory of nanometric optical tweezers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 645-648 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, "Optical trapping and manipulation of neutral particles using lasers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4853 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

A. Aspect, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, P. Vignolo, and C. I. Westbrook, "Nondestructive detection of atoms bouncing on an evanescent wave," Phys. Rev. A 52, 4704-4708 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

B. T. Draine, "The discrete dipole approximation and its application to interstellar graphite grains," Astrophys. J. 333, 848-872 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

E. M. Purcell and C. R. Pennypacker, "Scattering and absorption of light by nonspherical dielectric grains," Astrophys. J. 186, 705-714 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Akahane, Y.

Altug, H.

Andreani, L. C.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, "Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404-4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arakawa, Y.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vu˘ckovi´c, "Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a 2D photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904-4 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asano, T.

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, "Optical trapping and manipulation of neutral particles using lasers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4853 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aspect, A.

A. Aspect, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, P. Vignolo, and C. I. Westbrook, "Nondestructive detection of atoms bouncing on an evanescent wave," Phys. Rev. A 52, 4704-4708 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badenes, G.

V. Garcés-Chávez, R. Quidant, P. J. Reece, G. Badenes, L. Torner, and K. Dholakia, "Extended organization of colloidal microparticles by surface plasmon polariton excitation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 085417-5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Badolato, A.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, "Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404-4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bian, R. X.

L. Novotny, R. X. Bian, and X. Sunney Xie, "Theory of nanometric optical tweezers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 645-648 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Block, S. M.

K. C. Neuman, and S. M. Block, "Optical trapping," Rev. Sci. Instr. 75, 2787-2809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bordas, F.

F. Bordas, N. Louvion. S. Callard, P. C. Chaumet, and A. Rahmani, "Coupled dipole method for radiation dynamics in finite photonic crystal structures," Phys. Rev. E (in press).

Bouwmeester, D.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, "Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404-4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bryant, G. W.

A. Rahmani and G. W. Bryant, "Spontaneous emission in microcavity electrodynamics," Phys. Rev. A 65, 033817-12 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Buchler, B. C.

A. F. Koenderink, M. Kafesaki, B. C. Buchler, and V. Sandoghdar, "Controlling the resonance of a photonic crystal microcavity by a near-field probe," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153904-4 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Busch, K.

Carlström, C. F.

R. van der Heijden, C. F. Carlström, J. A. P. Snijders, R. W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. N¨otzel, H. W. M. Salemink, B. K. C. Kjellander, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, and E. van der Drift, "InP-based twodimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161112-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H. S.

W. H. Chang, W. Y. Chen, H. S. Chang, T. P. Hsieh, J. I. Chyi, and T. M. Hsu, "Efficient single-photon sources based on low-density quantum dots in photonic-crystal nanocavities," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 117401-4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W. H.

W. H. Chang, W. Y. Chen, H. S. Chang, T. P. Hsieh, J. I. Chyi, and T. M. Hsu, "Efficient single-photon sources based on low-density quantum dots in photonic-crystal nanocavities," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 117401-4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaumet, P. C.

P. C. Chaumet, A. Rahmani, and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, "Photonic force spectroscopy on metallic and absorbing nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. B 71, 045425-7 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Nieto-Vesperinas, P. C. Chaumet, and A. Rahmani, "Near-field photonic forces," Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 362, 719-737 (2004).

P. C. Chaumet, A. Rahmani, and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, "Selective nanomanipulation using optical forces," Phys. Rev. B 66, 195405-11 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Chaumet, A. Rahmani, and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, "Optical trapping and manipulation of nano-objects with an apertureless probe," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 123601-4 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Chaumet and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, "Time-averaged total force on a dipolar sphere in an electromagnetic field," Opt. Lett. 25, 1065-1067 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. Y.

W. H. Chang, W. Y. Chen, H. S. Chang, T. P. Hsieh, J. I. Chyi, and T. M. Hsu, "Efficient single-photon sources based on low-density quantum dots in photonic-crystal nanocavities," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 117401-4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, Y.-S.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, "Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404-4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chyi, J. I.

W. H. Chang, W. Y. Chen, H. S. Chang, T. P. Hsieh, J. I. Chyi, and T. M. Hsu, "Efficient single-photon sources based on low-density quantum dots in photonic-crystal nanocavities," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 117401-4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Fornel, F.

L. Salomon, F. Grillot, A. V. Zayats, and F. de Fornel, "Near-field distribution of optical transmission of periodic subwavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1110-1113 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deppe, D. G.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dholakia, K.

V. Garcés-Chávez, R. Quidant, P. J. Reece, G. Badenes, L. Torner, and K. Dholakia, "Extended organization of colloidal microparticles by surface plasmon polariton excitation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 085417-5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Dholakia and P. Reece, "Optical micromanipulation takes hold," Nanotoday 1, 18 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Draine, B. T.

B. T. Draine, "The discrete dipole approximation and its application to interstellar graphite grains," Astrophys. J. 333, 848-872 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ell, C.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Englund, D.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vu˘ckovi´c, "Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a 2D photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904-4 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fattal, D.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vu˘ckovi´c, "Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a 2D photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904-4 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcés-Chávez, V.

V. Garcés-Chávez, R. Quidant, P. J. Reece, G. Badenes, L. Torner, and K. Dholakia, "Extended organization of colloidal microparticles by surface plasmon polariton excitation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 085417-5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gibbs, H. M.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grier, D. G.

D. G. Grier, "A revolution in optical manipulation," Nature 424, 810-816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grillot, F.

L. Salomon, F. Grillot, A. V. Zayats, and F. de Fornel, "Near-field distribution of optical transmission of periodic subwavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1110-1113 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendrickson, J.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hennessy, K.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, "Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404-4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsieh, T. P.

W. H. Chang, W. Y. Chen, H. S. Chang, T. P. Hsieh, J. I. Chyi, and T. M. Hsu, "Efficient single-photon sources based on low-density quantum dots in photonic-crystal nanocavities," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 117401-4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, T. M.

W. H. Chang, W. Y. Chen, H. S. Chang, T. P. Hsieh, J. I. Chyi, and T. M. Hsu, "Efficient single-photon sources based on low-density quantum dots in photonic-crystal nanocavities," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 117401-4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, E. L.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, "Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404-4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

John, S.

Kafesaki, M.

A. F. Koenderink, M. Kafesaki, B. C. Buchler, and V. Sandoghdar, "Controlling the resonance of a photonic crystal microcavity by a near-field probe," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153904-4 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaiser, R.

A. Aspect, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, P. Vignolo, and C. I. Westbrook, "Nondestructive detection of atoms bouncing on an evanescent wave," Phys. Rev. A 52, 4704-4708 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karouta, F.

R. van der Heijden, C. F. Carlström, J. A. P. Snijders, R. W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. N¨otzel, H. W. M. Salemink, B. K. C. Kjellander, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, and E. van der Drift, "InP-based twodimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161112-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

K. Okamoto and S. Kawata, " Radiation force exerted on subwavelength particles near a nanoaperture," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4534-4537 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Khitrova, G.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koenderink, A. F.

A. F. Koenderink, M. Kafesaki, B. C. Buchler, and V. Sandoghdar, "Controlling the resonance of a photonic crystal microcavity by a near-field probe," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153904-4 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuramochi, E.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, "Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Louvion, N.

F. Bordas, N. Louvion. S. Callard, P. C. Chaumet, and A. Rahmani, "Coupled dipole method for radiation dynamics in finite photonic crystal structures," Phys. Rev. E (in press).

Lu, Z.

Mitsugi, S.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, "Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Murakowski, J.

Nakaoka, T.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vu˘ckovi´c, "Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a 2D photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904-4 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuman, K. C.

K. C. Neuman, and S. M. Block, "Optical trapping," Rev. Sci. Instr. 75, 2787-2809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nieto-Vesperinas, M.

P. C. Chaumet, A. Rahmani, and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, "Photonic force spectroscopy on metallic and absorbing nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. B 71, 045425-7 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Nieto-Vesperinas, P. C. Chaumet, and A. Rahmani, "Near-field photonic forces," Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 362, 719-737 (2004).

P. C. Chaumet, A. Rahmani, and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, "Selective nanomanipulation using optical forces," Phys. Rev. B 66, 195405-11 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Chaumet, A. Rahmani, and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, "Optical trapping and manipulation of nano-objects with an apertureless probe," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 123601-4 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Chaumet and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, "Time-averaged total force on a dipolar sphere in an electromagnetic field," Opt. Lett. 25, 1065-1067 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

Notomi, M.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, "Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

L. Novotny, R. X. Bian, and X. Sunney Xie, "Theory of nanometric optical tweezers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 645-648 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto and S. Kawata, " Radiation force exerted on subwavelength particles near a nanoaperture," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4534-4537 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pennypacker, C. R.

E. M. Purcell and C. R. Pennypacker, "Scattering and absorption of light by nonspherical dielectric grains," Astrophys. J. 186, 705-714 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Petroff, P. M.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, "Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404-4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prather, D.W.

Purcell, E. M.

E. M. Purcell and C. R. Pennypacker, "Scattering and absorption of light by nonspherical dielectric grains," Astrophys. J. 186, 705-714 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Quidant, R.

V. Garcés-Chávez, R. Quidant, P. J. Reece, G. Badenes, L. Torner, and K. Dholakia, "Extended organization of colloidal microparticles by surface plasmon polariton excitation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 085417-5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rahmani, A.

P. C. Chaumet, A. Rahmani, and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, "Photonic force spectroscopy on metallic and absorbing nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. B 71, 045425-7 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Nieto-Vesperinas, P. C. Chaumet, and A. Rahmani, "Near-field photonic forces," Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 362, 719-737 (2004).

P. C. Chaumet, A. Rahmani, and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, "Optical trapping and manipulation of nano-objects with an apertureless probe," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 123601-4 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Chaumet, A. Rahmani, and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, "Selective nanomanipulation using optical forces," Phys. Rev. B 66, 195405-11 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Rahmani and G. W. Bryant, "Spontaneous emission in microcavity electrodynamics," Phys. Rev. A 65, 033817-12 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rakher, M. T.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, "Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404-4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reece, P.

K. Dholakia and P. Reece, "Optical micromanipulation takes hold," Nanotoday 1, 18 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reece, P. J.

V. Garcés-Chávez, R. Quidant, P. J. Reece, G. Badenes, L. Torner, and K. Dholakia, "Extended organization of colloidal microparticles by surface plasmon polariton excitation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 085417-5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rupper, G.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salomon, L.

L. Salomon, F. Grillot, A. V. Zayats, and F. de Fornel, "Near-field distribution of optical transmission of periodic subwavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1110-1113 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samluk, J. P.

Sandoghdar, V.

A. F. Koenderink, M. Kafesaki, B. C. Buchler, and V. Sandoghdar, "Controlling the resonance of a photonic crystal microcavity by a near-field probe," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153904-4 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scherer, A.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneider, G. J.

Schuetz, C. A.

Shchekin, O. B.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, S.

Shinya, A.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, "Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Snijders, J. A. P.

R. van der Heijden, C. F. Carlström, J. A. P. Snijders, R. W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. N¨otzel, H. W. M. Salemink, B. K. C. Kjellander, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, and E. van der Drift, "InP-based twodimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161112-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Solomon, G.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vu˘ckovi´c, "Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a 2D photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904-4 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, B. S.

Song, B.-S.

Strauf, S.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, "Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404-4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sunney Xie, X.

L. Novotny, R. X. Bian, and X. Sunney Xie, "Theory of nanometric optical tweezers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 645-648 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tanabe, T.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, "Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Toader, O.

Torner, L.

V. Garcés-Chávez, R. Quidant, P. J. Reece, G. Badenes, L. Torner, and K. Dholakia, "Extended organization of colloidal microparticles by surface plasmon polariton excitation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 085417-5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van der Heijden, R.

R. van der Heijden, C. F. Carlström, J. A. P. Snijders, R. W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. N¨otzel, H. W. M. Salemink, B. K. C. Kjellander, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, and E. van der Drift, "InP-based twodimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161112-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van der Heijden, R. W.

R. van der Heijden, C. F. Carlström, J. A. P. Snijders, R. W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. N¨otzel, H. W. M. Salemink, B. K. C. Kjellander, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, and E. van der Drift, "InP-based twodimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161112-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vansteenkiste, N.

A. Aspect, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, P. Vignolo, and C. I. Westbrook, "Nondestructive detection of atoms bouncing on an evanescent wave," Phys. Rev. A 52, 4704-4708 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vignolo, P.

A. Aspect, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, P. Vignolo, and C. I. Westbrook, "Nondestructive detection of atoms bouncing on an evanescent wave," Phys. Rev. A 52, 4704-4708 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vu?ckovi´c, J.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vu˘ckovi´c, "Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a 2D photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904-4 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vuckovíc, J.

Waks, E.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vu˘ckovi´c, "Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a 2D photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904-4 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, T.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, "Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Westbrook, C. I.

A. Aspect, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, P. Vignolo, and C. I. Westbrook, "Nondestructive detection of atoms bouncing on an evanescent wave," Phys. Rev. A 52, 4704-4708 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, Y.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vu˘ckovi´c, "Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a 2D photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904-4 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshie, T.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zayats, A. V.

L. Salomon, F. Grillot, A. V. Zayats, and F. de Fornel, "Near-field distribution of optical transmission of periodic subwavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1110-1113 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, B.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vu˘ckovi´c, "Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a 2D photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904-4 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, "Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. van der Heijden, C. F. Carlström, J. A. P. Snijders, R. W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. N¨otzel, H. W. M. Salemink, B. K. C. Kjellander, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, and E. van der Drift, "InP-based twodimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161112-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. (2)

E. M. Purcell and C. R. Pennypacker, "Scattering and absorption of light by nonspherical dielectric grains," Astrophys. J. 186, 705-714 (1973).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Draine, "The discrete dipole approximation and its application to interstellar graphite grains," Astrophys. J. 333, 848-872 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nanotoday (1)

K. Dholakia and P. Reece, "Optical micromanipulation takes hold," Nanotoday 1, 18 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

D. G. Grier, "A revolution in optical manipulation," Nature 424, 810-816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. A (1)

M. Nieto-Vesperinas, P. C. Chaumet, and A. Rahmani, "Near-field photonic forces," Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 362, 719-737 (2004).

Phys. Rev. A (2)

A. Rahmani and G. W. Bryant, "Spontaneous emission in microcavity electrodynamics," Phys. Rev. A 65, 033817-12 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Aspect, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, P. Vignolo, and C. I. Westbrook, "Nondestructive detection of atoms bouncing on an evanescent wave," Phys. Rev. A 52, 4704-4708 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

P. C. Chaumet, A. Rahmani, and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, "Photonic force spectroscopy on metallic and absorbing nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. B 71, 045425-7 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Garcés-Chávez, R. Quidant, P. J. Reece, G. Badenes, L. Torner, and K. Dholakia, "Extended organization of colloidal microparticles by surface plasmon polariton excitation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 085417-5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Chaumet, A. Rahmani, and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, "Selective nanomanipulation using optical forces," Phys. Rev. B 66, 195405-11 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

F. Bordas, N. Louvion. S. Callard, P. C. Chaumet, and A. Rahmani, "Coupled dipole method for radiation dynamics in finite photonic crystal structures," Phys. Rev. E (in press).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (9)

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vu˘ckovi´c, "Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a 2D photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904-4 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, "Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404-4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Chang, W. Y. Chen, H. S. Chang, T. P. Hsieh, J. I. Chyi, and T. M. Hsu, "Efficient single-photon sources based on low-density quantum dots in photonic-crystal nanocavities," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 117401-4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Koenderink, M. Kafesaki, B. C. Buchler, and V. Sandoghdar, "Controlling the resonance of a photonic crystal microcavity by a near-field probe," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153904-4 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Chaumet, A. Rahmani, and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, "Optical trapping and manipulation of nano-objects with an apertureless probe," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 123601-4 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Novotny, R. X. Bian, and X. Sunney Xie, "Theory of nanometric optical tweezers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 645-648 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto and S. Kawata, " Radiation force exerted on subwavelength particles near a nanoaperture," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4534-4537 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Salomon, F. Grillot, A. V. Zayats, and F. de Fornel, "Near-field distribution of optical transmission of periodic subwavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1110-1113 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

A. Ashkin, "Optical trapping and manipulation of neutral particles using lasers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4853 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instr. (1)

K. C. Neuman, and S. M. Block, "Optical trapping," Rev. Sci. Instr. 75, 2787-2809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic crystals: molding the flow of light, (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1995).

K. Sakoda, Optical properties of photonic crystals, 2nd edition (Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 2004).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the finite photonic crystal microcavity used in the computation (left). Cavity spectrum (right). The wavelength is in units of a the lattice period of the PC.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Near-field maps of the optical trapping potential U for a nanoparticle with radius R part=0.039λ 0 in a plane located at z=R part above the photonic crystal. The lateral axes are normalized to the wavelength. Left: optical potential at the resonance wavelength λ 0. Right: optical potential off resonance at 1.09λ 0.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Profile cuts along directions x and y over the center of the near-field maps of the optical trapping potential shown in Fig. 2. The distances are normalized to λ 0. Plotted in red solid lines are the trapping potential profiles for when the cavity is on-resonance, whereas the black dashed curves pertain to the off-resonance case.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Vertical dependence of the optical trapping potential U for a nanoparticle with radius R part=0.039λ 0 in a plane located at height z above the cavity, as a function of the lateral position of the particle along direction x (left) and y (right). All distances are normalized to λ 0, the resonance wavelength of the cavity.

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