Abstract

We designed three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal (PC) waveguides by simultaneously introducing one acceptor-type and two donor-type line defects. The waveguides have an extremely large single-mode bandwidth, which covers more than 90% of the complete photonic band gap. The relatively large group velocity and the mode-field localization in the air core should prevent unintended nonlinear phenomena for ultra-short pulse propagation. These promising characteristics could only be achieved by using 3D PCs, which have the advantages of complete light confinement and no restrictions of the light cone.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751-5758 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Chutinan and S. Noda, "Waveguides and Waveguide bends in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 62, 4488-4492 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, "Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths," Science 289, 604-606 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, "A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects," Nature 429, 538-542 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Ogawa, M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto, M. Okano, and S. Noda, "Control of light emission by 3D photonic crystals," Science 305, 227-229 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Chutinan and S. Noda, "Highly confined waveguides and waveguide bends in three-dimensional photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3739-3741 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. L. Povinelli, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Emulation of two-dimensional photonic crystal defect modes in a photonic crystal with a three-dimensional photonic band gap," Phys. Rev. B 64, 075313 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Okano, S. Kako, and S. Noda, "Coupling between a point-defect cavity and a line-defect waveguide in three-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. B 68, 235110 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Lidorikis, M. L. Povinelli, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Polarization-independent linear waveguides in 3D photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 023902 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. Roundy and J. Joannopoulos, "Photonic crystal structure with square symmetry within each layer and a three-dimensional band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3835-3837 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Kawashima, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, M. Imada, and S. Noda, "Design of donor-type line-defect waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals," Optics Express 13, 9774-9781 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Bayindir and E. Ozbay, "Dropping of electromagnetic waves through localized modes in three-dimensional photonic band gap structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4514-4516 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Imada, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, S. Kawashima, and S. Noda, "Development of three-dimensional photonic-crystal waveguides at optical-communication wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171107 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. E. Özbay, E. Michel, G. Tuttle, R. Biswas, M. Sigalas, and K. M. Ho, "Micromachined millimeter-wave photonic band-gap crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2059-2061 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. K. M. Leung and Y. F. Liu, "Full vector wave calculation of photonic band structures in face-centered-cubic dielectric media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2646-2649 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Z. Zhang and S. Satpathy, "Electromagnetic wave propagation in periodic structures: Bloch wave solution of Maxwell’s equations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2650-2653 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Photonic band gaps and localization," in Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Science Institutes Series, C. M. Soukoulis, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1993), p. 235.

2006 (1)

M. Imada, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, S. Kawashima, and S. Noda, "Development of three-dimensional photonic-crystal waveguides at optical-communication wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

S. Kawashima, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, M. Imada, and S. Noda, "Design of donor-type line-defect waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals," Optics Express 13, 9774-9781 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, "A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects," Nature 429, 538-542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ogawa, M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto, M. Okano, and S. Noda, "Control of light emission by 3D photonic crystals," Science 305, 227-229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

M. Okano, S. Kako, and S. Noda, "Coupling between a point-defect cavity and a line-defect waveguide in three-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. B 68, 235110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Lidorikis, M. L. Povinelli, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Polarization-independent linear waveguides in 3D photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 023902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Roundy and J. Joannopoulos, "Photonic crystal structure with square symmetry within each layer and a three-dimensional band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3835-3837 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Bayindir and E. Ozbay, "Dropping of electromagnetic waves through localized modes in three-dimensional photonic band gap structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4514-4516 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. L. Povinelli, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Emulation of two-dimensional photonic crystal defect modes in a photonic crystal with a three-dimensional photonic band gap," Phys. Rev. B 64, 075313 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

A. Chutinan and S. Noda, "Waveguides and Waveguide bends in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 62, 4488-4492 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, "Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths," Science 289, 604-606 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751-5758 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Chutinan and S. Noda, "Highly confined waveguides and waveguide bends in three-dimensional photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3739-3741 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, "Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: new layer-by-layer periodic structures," Solid State Commun. 89, 413-416 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Özbay, E. Michel, G. Tuttle, R. Biswas, M. Sigalas, and K. M. Ho, "Micromachined millimeter-wave photonic band-gap crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2059-2061 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Sözüer and J. P. Dowling, "Photonic band calculations for woodpile structures," J. Mod. Opt. 41, 231-239 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

K. M. Leung and Y. F. Liu, "Full vector wave calculation of photonic band structures in face-centered-cubic dielectric media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2646-2649 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang and S. Satpathy, "Electromagnetic wave propagation in periodic structures: Bloch wave solution of Maxwell’s equations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2650-2653 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bayindir, M.

M. Bayindir and E. Ozbay, "Dropping of electromagnetic waves through localized modes in three-dimensional photonic band gap structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4514-4516 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Biswas, R.

E. Özbay, E. Michel, G. Tuttle, R. Biswas, M. Sigalas, and K. M. Ho, "Micromachined millimeter-wave photonic band-gap crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2059-2061 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, "Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: new layer-by-layer periodic structures," Solid State Commun. 89, 413-416 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. T.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, "Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: new layer-by-layer periodic structures," Solid State Commun. 89, 413-416 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chutinan, A.

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, "Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths," Science 289, 604-606 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Chutinan and S. Noda, "Waveguides and Waveguide bends in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 62, 4488-4492 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Chutinan and S. Noda, "Highly confined waveguides and waveguide bends in three-dimensional photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3739-3741 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dowling, J. P.

H. S. Sözüer and J. P. Dowling, "Photonic band calculations for woodpile structures," J. Mod. Opt. 41, 231-239 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

M. L. Povinelli, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Emulation of two-dimensional photonic crystal defect modes in a photonic crystal with a three-dimensional photonic band gap," Phys. Rev. B 64, 075313 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751-5758 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ho, K. M.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, "Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: new layer-by-layer periodic structures," Solid State Commun. 89, 413-416 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Özbay, E. Michel, G. Tuttle, R. Biswas, M. Sigalas, and K. M. Ho, "Micromachined millimeter-wave photonic band-gap crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2059-2061 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Imada, M.

M. Imada, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, S. Kawashima, and S. Noda, "Development of three-dimensional photonic-crystal waveguides at optical-communication wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawashima, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, M. Imada, and S. Noda, "Design of donor-type line-defect waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals," Optics Express 13, 9774-9781 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ogawa, M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto, M. Okano, and S. Noda, "Control of light emission by 3D photonic crystals," Science 305, 227-229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, "A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects," Nature 429, 538-542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joannopoulos, J.

D. Roundy and J. Joannopoulos, "Photonic crystal structure with square symmetry within each layer and a three-dimensional band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3835-3837 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, "A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects," Nature 429, 538-542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Lidorikis, M. L. Povinelli, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Polarization-independent linear waveguides in 3D photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 023902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Povinelli, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Emulation of two-dimensional photonic crystal defect modes in a photonic crystal with a three-dimensional photonic band gap," Phys. Rev. B 64, 075313 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751-5758 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, "A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects," Nature 429, 538-542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Lidorikis, M. L. Povinelli, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Polarization-independent linear waveguides in 3D photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 023902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Povinelli, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Emulation of two-dimensional photonic crystal defect modes in a photonic crystal with a three-dimensional photonic band gap," Phys. Rev. B 64, 075313 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751-5758 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kako, S.

M. Okano, S. Kako, and S. Noda, "Coupling between a point-defect cavity and a line-defect waveguide in three-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. B 68, 235110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kawashima, S.

M. Imada, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, S. Kawashima, and S. Noda, "Development of three-dimensional photonic-crystal waveguides at optical-communication wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawashima, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, M. Imada, and S. Noda, "Design of donor-type line-defect waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals," Optics Express 13, 9774-9781 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolodziejski, L. A.

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751-5758 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, L. H.

M. Imada, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, S. Kawashima, and S. Noda, "Development of three-dimensional photonic-crystal waveguides at optical-communication wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawashima, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, M. Imada, and S. Noda, "Design of donor-type line-defect waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals," Optics Express 13, 9774-9781 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leung, K. M.

K. M. Leung and Y. F. Liu, "Full vector wave calculation of photonic band structures in face-centered-cubic dielectric media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2646-2649 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lidorikis, E.

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, "A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects," Nature 429, 538-542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Lidorikis, M. L. Povinelli, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Polarization-independent linear waveguides in 3D photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 023902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y. F.

K. M. Leung and Y. F. Liu, "Full vector wave calculation of photonic band structures in face-centered-cubic dielectric media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2646-2649 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michel, E.

E. Özbay, E. Michel, G. Tuttle, R. Biswas, M. Sigalas, and K. M. Ho, "Micromachined millimeter-wave photonic band-gap crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2059-2061 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

M. Imada, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, S. Kawashima, and S. Noda, "Development of three-dimensional photonic-crystal waveguides at optical-communication wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawashima, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, M. Imada, and S. Noda, "Design of donor-type line-defect waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals," Optics Express 13, 9774-9781 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ogawa, M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto, M. Okano, and S. Noda, "Control of light emission by 3D photonic crystals," Science 305, 227-229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Okano, S. Kako, and S. Noda, "Coupling between a point-defect cavity and a line-defect waveguide in three-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. B 68, 235110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Chutinan and S. Noda, "Waveguides and Waveguide bends in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 62, 4488-4492 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, "Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths," Science 289, 604-606 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Chutinan and S. Noda, "Highly confined waveguides and waveguide bends in three-dimensional photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3739-3741 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, S.

S. Ogawa, M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto, M. Okano, and S. Noda, "Control of light emission by 3D photonic crystals," Science 305, 227-229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okano, M.

M. Imada, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, S. Kawashima, and S. Noda, "Development of three-dimensional photonic-crystal waveguides at optical-communication wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawashima, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, M. Imada, and S. Noda, "Design of donor-type line-defect waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals," Optics Express 13, 9774-9781 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ogawa, M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto, M. Okano, and S. Noda, "Control of light emission by 3D photonic crystals," Science 305, 227-229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Okano, S. Kako, and S. Noda, "Coupling between a point-defect cavity and a line-defect waveguide in three-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. B 68, 235110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

M. Bayindir and E. Ozbay, "Dropping of electromagnetic waves through localized modes in three-dimensional photonic band gap structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4514-4516 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Özbay, E.

E. Özbay, E. Michel, G. Tuttle, R. Biswas, M. Sigalas, and K. M. Ho, "Micromachined millimeter-wave photonic band-gap crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2059-2061 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Povinelli, M. L.

E. Lidorikis, M. L. Povinelli, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Polarization-independent linear waveguides in 3D photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 023902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Povinelli, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Emulation of two-dimensional photonic crystal defect modes in a photonic crystal with a three-dimensional photonic band gap," Phys. Rev. B 64, 075313 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Qi, M.

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, "A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects," Nature 429, 538-542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rakich, P. T.

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, "A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects," Nature 429, 538-542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roundy, D.

D. Roundy and J. Joannopoulos, "Photonic crystal structure with square symmetry within each layer and a three-dimensional band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3835-3837 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Satpathy, S.

Z. Zhang and S. Satpathy, "Electromagnetic wave propagation in periodic structures: Bloch wave solution of Maxwell’s equations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2650-2653 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sigalas, M.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, "Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: new layer-by-layer periodic structures," Solid State Commun. 89, 413-416 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Özbay, E. Michel, G. Tuttle, R. Biswas, M. Sigalas, and K. M. Ho, "Micromachined millimeter-wave photonic band-gap crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2059-2061 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H. I.

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, "A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects," Nature 429, 538-542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, "Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: new layer-by-layer periodic structures," Solid State Commun. 89, 413-416 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sözüer, H. S.

H. S. Sözüer and J. P. Dowling, "Photonic band calculations for woodpile structures," J. Mod. Opt. 41, 231-239 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tomoda, K.

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, "Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths," Science 289, 604-606 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tuttle, G.

E. Özbay, E. Michel, G. Tuttle, R. Biswas, M. Sigalas, and K. M. Ho, "Micromachined millimeter-wave photonic band-gap crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2059-2061 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751-5758 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, N.

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, "Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths," Science 289, 604-606 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshimoto, S.

S. Ogawa, M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto, M. Okano, and S. Noda, "Control of light emission by 3D photonic crystals," Science 305, 227-229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang and S. Satpathy, "Electromagnetic wave propagation in periodic structures: Bloch wave solution of Maxwell’s equations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2650-2653 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

A. Chutinan and S. Noda, "Highly confined waveguides and waveguide bends in three-dimensional photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3739-3741 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Roundy and J. Joannopoulos, "Photonic crystal structure with square symmetry within each layer and a three-dimensional band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3835-3837 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Bayindir and E. Ozbay, "Dropping of electromagnetic waves through localized modes in three-dimensional photonic band gap structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4514-4516 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Imada, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, S. Kawashima, and S. Noda, "Development of three-dimensional photonic-crystal waveguides at optical-communication wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Özbay, E. Michel, G. Tuttle, R. Biswas, M. Sigalas, and K. M. Ho, "Micromachined millimeter-wave photonic band-gap crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2059-2061 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

H. S. Sözüer and J. P. Dowling, "Photonic band calculations for woodpile structures," J. Mod. Opt. 41, 231-239 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, "A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects," Nature 429, 538-542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic representation of a novel 3D PC waveguide composed of three defect layers and outer 3D PC cladding. The line defects created by simultaneously introducing both acceptor-type defect (white rod) and donor-type line defects (red rods). (b) Top view of the upper and lower layers with additional dielectric defects (left), and top view of the middle layer with an air defect (right). (c) Schematic vertical cross-section of the waveguide structure.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) The dispersion relations of the 3D PC waveguide. (b) Vertical cross-section, orthogonal to the guided direction, of the magnetic-field component (Hx ) at ky =0.375 (2π/a).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Schematic vertical cross-section of the modified waveguide structure, showing the rods (green) adjacent to either side of the air-line defect. d and W denote the shifts and widths of the modified rods, respectively. (b) Changes in the normalized single-mode bandwidth Δf/f mid with changing values of d and W.

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