Abstract

We describe the modeling, fabrication and characterization of a silica-core photonic bandgap fiber based on a 2-d array of raised-index cladding rings. The use of rings to form the cladding is shown to re-order the cladding modes in such a way as to broaden the photonic band gaps and reduce bend sensitivity. We compare the performance of the ring fiber with that of a similar fiber made using solid rods.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, D. C. Allen, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Argyros, T. A. Birks, S. G. Leon-Saval, C. M. B. Cordeiro, F. Luan, P. St.J. Russell, "Photonic bandgap with an index step of one percent," Opt. Express 13, 309-314 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. Bouwmans, L. Bigot, Y. Quiquempois, F. Lopez, L. Provino, M. Douay, "Fabrication and characterization of an all-solid 2D photonic bandgap fiber with a low-loss region (< 20 dB/km) around 1550 nm," Opt. Express 13, 8452-8459 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. M. Litchinitser, S. C. Dunn, B. Usner, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, "Resonances in microstructured optical waveguides," Opt. Express 11, 1243-1251 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. A. Birks, F. Luan, G. J. Pearce, A. Wang, J. C. Knight, D. M. Bird, "Bend loss in all-solid bandgap fibres," Opt. Express 14,5688 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. sections I and II of G. J. Pearce, T. D. Hedley, D.M. Bird, "Adaptive curvilinear coordinates in a plane-wave solution of Maxwell’s equations in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 71, 195108 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Luan, A. K. George, T. D. Hedley, G. J. Pearce, D. M. Bird, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, "All-solid photonic band gap fiber," Opt. Lett. 29, 2369-2371 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight and P. St. J. Russell, "Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 22961-963 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. W. J. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, F. Biancalana, P. St.J. Russell, "Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 12, 299-309 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

2004

2003

1999

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, D. C. Allen, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

Allen, D. C.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, D. C. Allen, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Argyros, A.

Biancalana, F.

Bigot, L.

Bird, D. M.

Birks, T. A.

Bouwmans, G.

Cordeiro, C. M. B.

Cregan, R. F.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, D. C. Allen, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Sterke, C. M.

Douay, M.

Dunn, S. C.

Eggleton, B. J.

George, A. K.

Hedley, T. D.

Joly, N.

Knight, J. C.

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Litchinitser, N. M.

Lopez, F.

Luan, F.

Mangan, B. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, D. C. Allen, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McPhedran, R. C.

Pearce, G. J.

Provino, L.

Quiquempois, Y.

Roberts, P. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, D. C. Allen, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. St. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, D. C. Allen, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight and P. St. J. Russell, "Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 22961-963 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. St.J.

Usner, B.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wang, A.

White, T. P.

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

sections I and II of G. J. Pearce, T. D. Hedley, D.M. Bird, "Adaptive curvilinear coordinates in a plane-wave solution of Maxwell’s equations in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 71, 195108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, D. C. Allen, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Photonic DOS for a triangular lattice of high-index inclusions (Δn=1.09%) in a low-index background (n=1.457, representing undoped silica). Specific guided modes occurring above the blue line are identified at the top of (a). The vertical axis is effective index neff =β/k; the horizontal axis is normalized frequency kΛ. The images to the right show the structure of the inclusions. Where shown, the ‘core line’ (the locus of the fundamental core-guided mode) is yellow.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Photonic DOS as shown in Fig. 1, but for a range of rings with D=0.6d to D=0.91d. The diameter of the thinnest rings (D=0.91d) was chosen so as to be similar to our experimental fiber. Note the change of both vertical and horizontal scales relative to Fig. 1; D=0.6d has been repeated here to assist in comparison.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The ring fiber. a) Optical micrograph of the fabricated fiber. The outer diameter is 200µm. High-index regions appear lighter in the image. b) Scanning electron micrograph of the rings close to the core. The individual germanium doped rods can just be identified within each ring. c) Near-field image at the fiber output face when the fiber input is illuminated by a broadband supercontinuum source. Fiber length is 90cm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Transmission spectra for a) the ring fiber and b) a rod fiber with a similar pitch and d/Λ. The overall shape of the transmitted spectra is due to the supercontinuum light source used in the experiments. The blue traces are the transmission through straight sections of fiber and the red traces are transmission through fibers with a bend diameter of 7.5cm. The numbers indicate the number of bright lobes measured in the high-l mode crossings at the indicated wavelengths. The peak at 1064 nm in b) and the intensity drop at ~470 nm in a) are due to the supercontinuum pump source and the short wavelength edge of the supercontinuum respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Near field images of unconfined modes excited by leakage from the core between bandgaps in the ring fiber (left, at a wavelength of 506 nm) and a rod fiber (right, at 736 nm). The same high-l mode (with 16 lobes; l=8) is observed at these wavelengths in the two structures.

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