Abstract

We demonstrate a tunable Šolc-type filter in periodically poled lithium niobate by UV-light illumination in this paper. Due to the photovoltaic effect, a Šolc-type filter in PPLN can be formed without applying an external electric field. Through this mechanism, a tunable wavelength filter by UV-light illumination is realized. A wavelength shift as large as 15nm is observed under 778mW/cm2 uniform UV illumination. The dependence of wavelength shift on illumination intensity shows a nearly linear relationship and the tuning rate is about 52 mW/cm2 per nm at 20°C.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. Šolc,"Birefringent chain filters," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 621-625 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystal: Propagation and Control of Laser Radiation (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1984).
  3. D. R. Pinnow, R. L. Abrams, J. F. Lotspeich, D. M. Henderson, T. K. Plant, R. R. Stephens, and C. M. Walker, "An electro-optic tunable filter," Appl. Phys. Lett 34, 391-393 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J.H. Shi, X.F. Chen, Y.P. Chen, Y.M. Zhu, Y.X. Xia, Y.L. Chen, "Observation of Šolc-like filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 39, 224-225 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. X.F. Chen, J.H. Shi, Y.P. Chen, Y.M. Zhu, Y.X. Xia, Y.L. Chen, "Electro-optic Šolc-type wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Lett. 28, 2115-2117 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. M. Zhu, X. F. Chen, J. H. Shi, "Wide-range tunable wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Commun. 228, 139-143 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Lijun Chen, Jianhong Shi, Xianfeng Chen, Yuxing xia, "Photovoltaic effect in a periodically poled lithium niobate Šolc-type wavelength filter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121118 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Q. Lu, Z. L. Wan, Q. Wang, Y. X. Xi, and N. B. Ming, "Electro-optic effect of periodically poled optical superlattice LiNbO3 and its applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3719-3721 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Q. Lu, Y. Y. Zhu, Y. F. Chen, S. N. Zhu, N. B. Ming, and Y. Y. Feng, "Optical properties of an ionic-type phononic crystal," Science 284, 1822-1824 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. Arizmendi, "photonic applications of lithium niobate crystals," Phys. Stat. Sol. 201, 253-283 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. I. Sturman, V. M. Fridkin, The photovoltaic and photorefractive effects in noncentrosymmetric materials (Gordo and Breach Science Publishers, 1992).
  12. E. Kratzig and H. Kurz, "photo-induced currents and voltages in LiNbO3," Ferroelectrics 13, 295-296 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Glass, D. von der Linde, T. J. Negran, "High-voltage bulk photovoltaic effect and the photorefractive process in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 233-235 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Simon, St. Wevering, K. Buse and E. Kratzig, "The bulk photovoltaic effect of photorefractive LiNbO3:Fe crystals at high light intensities," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 30, 144-149 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2006

Lijun Chen, Jianhong Shi, Xianfeng Chen, Yuxing xia, "Photovoltaic effect in a periodically poled lithium niobate Šolc-type wavelength filter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

L. Arizmendi, "photonic applications of lithium niobate crystals," Phys. Stat. Sol. 201, 253-283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J.H. Shi, X.F. Chen, Y.P. Chen, Y.M. Zhu, Y.X. Xia, Y.L. Chen, "Observation of Šolc-like filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 39, 224-225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Zhu, X. F. Chen, J. H. Shi, "Wide-range tunable wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Commun. 228, 139-143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X.F. Chen, J.H. Shi, Y.P. Chen, Y.M. Zhu, Y.X. Xia, Y.L. Chen, "Electro-optic Šolc-type wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Lett. 28, 2115-2117 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

Y. Q. Lu, Z. L. Wan, Q. Wang, Y. X. Xi, and N. B. Ming, "Electro-optic effect of periodically poled optical superlattice LiNbO3 and its applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3719-3721 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

Y. Q. Lu, Y. Y. Zhu, Y. F. Chen, S. N. Zhu, N. B. Ming, and Y. Y. Feng, "Optical properties of an ionic-type phononic crystal," Science 284, 1822-1824 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

M. Simon, St. Wevering, K. Buse and E. Kratzig, "The bulk photovoltaic effect of photorefractive LiNbO3:Fe crystals at high light intensities," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 30, 144-149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1979

D. R. Pinnow, R. L. Abrams, J. F. Lotspeich, D. M. Henderson, T. K. Plant, R. R. Stephens, and C. M. Walker, "An electro-optic tunable filter," Appl. Phys. Lett 34, 391-393 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1976

E. Kratzig and H. Kurz, "photo-induced currents and voltages in LiNbO3," Ferroelectrics 13, 295-296 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974

M. Glass, D. von der Linde, T. J. Negran, "High-voltage bulk photovoltaic effect and the photorefractive process in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 233-235 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1965

Abrams, R. L.

D. R. Pinnow, R. L. Abrams, J. F. Lotspeich, D. M. Henderson, T. K. Plant, R. R. Stephens, and C. M. Walker, "An electro-optic tunable filter," Appl. Phys. Lett 34, 391-393 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Arizmendi, L.

L. Arizmendi, "photonic applications of lithium niobate crystals," Phys. Stat. Sol. 201, 253-283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Buse, K.

M. Simon, St. Wevering, K. Buse and E. Kratzig, "The bulk photovoltaic effect of photorefractive LiNbO3:Fe crystals at high light intensities," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 30, 144-149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. F.

Y. M. Zhu, X. F. Chen, J. H. Shi, "Wide-range tunable wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Commun. 228, 139-143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.F.

J.H. Shi, X.F. Chen, Y.P. Chen, Y.M. Zhu, Y.X. Xia, Y.L. Chen, "Observation of Šolc-like filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 39, 224-225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X.F. Chen, J.H. Shi, Y.P. Chen, Y.M. Zhu, Y.X. Xia, Y.L. Chen, "Electro-optic Šolc-type wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Lett. 28, 2115-2117 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. F.

Y. Q. Lu, Y. Y. Zhu, Y. F. Chen, S. N. Zhu, N. B. Ming, and Y. Y. Feng, "Optical properties of an ionic-type phononic crystal," Science 284, 1822-1824 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.L.

X.F. Chen, J.H. Shi, Y.P. Chen, Y.M. Zhu, Y.X. Xia, Y.L. Chen, "Electro-optic Šolc-type wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Lett. 28, 2115-2117 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.H. Shi, X.F. Chen, Y.P. Chen, Y.M. Zhu, Y.X. Xia, Y.L. Chen, "Observation of Šolc-like filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 39, 224-225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.P.

J.H. Shi, X.F. Chen, Y.P. Chen, Y.M. Zhu, Y.X. Xia, Y.L. Chen, "Observation of Šolc-like filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 39, 224-225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X.F. Chen, J.H. Shi, Y.P. Chen, Y.M. Zhu, Y.X. Xia, Y.L. Chen, "Electro-optic Šolc-type wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Lett. 28, 2115-2117 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, Y. Y.

Y. Q. Lu, Y. Y. Zhu, Y. F. Chen, S. N. Zhu, N. B. Ming, and Y. Y. Feng, "Optical properties of an ionic-type phononic crystal," Science 284, 1822-1824 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glass, M.

M. Glass, D. von der Linde, T. J. Negran, "High-voltage bulk photovoltaic effect and the photorefractive process in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 233-235 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, D. M.

D. R. Pinnow, R. L. Abrams, J. F. Lotspeich, D. M. Henderson, T. K. Plant, R. R. Stephens, and C. M. Walker, "An electro-optic tunable filter," Appl. Phys. Lett 34, 391-393 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kratzig, E.

M. Simon, St. Wevering, K. Buse and E. Kratzig, "The bulk photovoltaic effect of photorefractive LiNbO3:Fe crystals at high light intensities," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 30, 144-149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Kratzig and H. Kurz, "photo-induced currents and voltages in LiNbO3," Ferroelectrics 13, 295-296 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

E. Kratzig and H. Kurz, "photo-induced currents and voltages in LiNbO3," Ferroelectrics 13, 295-296 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Lotspeich, J. F.

D. R. Pinnow, R. L. Abrams, J. F. Lotspeich, D. M. Henderson, T. K. Plant, R. R. Stephens, and C. M. Walker, "An electro-optic tunable filter," Appl. Phys. Lett 34, 391-393 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. Q.

Y. Q. Lu, Z. L. Wan, Q. Wang, Y. X. Xi, and N. B. Ming, "Electro-optic effect of periodically poled optical superlattice LiNbO3 and its applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3719-3721 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Lu, Y. Y. Zhu, Y. F. Chen, S. N. Zhu, N. B. Ming, and Y. Y. Feng, "Optical properties of an ionic-type phononic crystal," Science 284, 1822-1824 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ming, N. B.

Y. Q. Lu, Z. L. Wan, Q. Wang, Y. X. Xi, and N. B. Ming, "Electro-optic effect of periodically poled optical superlattice LiNbO3 and its applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3719-3721 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Lu, Y. Y. Zhu, Y. F. Chen, S. N. Zhu, N. B. Ming, and Y. Y. Feng, "Optical properties of an ionic-type phononic crystal," Science 284, 1822-1824 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Negran, T. J.

M. Glass, D. von der Linde, T. J. Negran, "High-voltage bulk photovoltaic effect and the photorefractive process in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 233-235 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Pinnow, D. R.

D. R. Pinnow, R. L. Abrams, J. F. Lotspeich, D. M. Henderson, T. K. Plant, R. R. Stephens, and C. M. Walker, "An electro-optic tunable filter," Appl. Phys. Lett 34, 391-393 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Plant, T. K.

D. R. Pinnow, R. L. Abrams, J. F. Lotspeich, D. M. Henderson, T. K. Plant, R. R. Stephens, and C. M. Walker, "An electro-optic tunable filter," Appl. Phys. Lett 34, 391-393 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Shi, J. H.

Y. M. Zhu, X. F. Chen, J. H. Shi, "Wide-range tunable wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Commun. 228, 139-143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shi, J.H.

J.H. Shi, X.F. Chen, Y.P. Chen, Y.M. Zhu, Y.X. Xia, Y.L. Chen, "Observation of Šolc-like filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 39, 224-225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X.F. Chen, J.H. Shi, Y.P. Chen, Y.M. Zhu, Y.X. Xia, Y.L. Chen, "Electro-optic Šolc-type wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Lett. 28, 2115-2117 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simon, M.

M. Simon, St. Wevering, K. Buse and E. Kratzig, "The bulk photovoltaic effect of photorefractive LiNbO3:Fe crystals at high light intensities," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 30, 144-149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Šolc, I.

Stephens, R. R.

D. R. Pinnow, R. L. Abrams, J. F. Lotspeich, D. M. Henderson, T. K. Plant, R. R. Stephens, and C. M. Walker, "An electro-optic tunable filter," Appl. Phys. Lett 34, 391-393 (1979).
[CrossRef]

von der Linde, D.

M. Glass, D. von der Linde, T. J. Negran, "High-voltage bulk photovoltaic effect and the photorefractive process in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 233-235 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Walker, C. M.

D. R. Pinnow, R. L. Abrams, J. F. Lotspeich, D. M. Henderson, T. K. Plant, R. R. Stephens, and C. M. Walker, "An electro-optic tunable filter," Appl. Phys. Lett 34, 391-393 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Wan, Z. L.

Y. Q. Lu, Z. L. Wan, Q. Wang, Y. X. Xi, and N. B. Ming, "Electro-optic effect of periodically poled optical superlattice LiNbO3 and its applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3719-3721 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

Y. Q. Lu, Z. L. Wan, Q. Wang, Y. X. Xi, and N. B. Ming, "Electro-optic effect of periodically poled optical superlattice LiNbO3 and its applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3719-3721 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wevering, St.

M. Simon, St. Wevering, K. Buse and E. Kratzig, "The bulk photovoltaic effect of photorefractive LiNbO3:Fe crystals at high light intensities," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 30, 144-149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Xi, Y. X.

Y. Q. Lu, Z. L. Wan, Q. Wang, Y. X. Xi, and N. B. Ming, "Electro-optic effect of periodically poled optical superlattice LiNbO3 and its applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3719-3721 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.X.

X.F. Chen, J.H. Shi, Y.P. Chen, Y.M. Zhu, Y.X. Xia, Y.L. Chen, "Electro-optic Šolc-type wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Lett. 28, 2115-2117 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.H. Shi, X.F. Chen, Y.P. Chen, Y.M. Zhu, Y.X. Xia, Y.L. Chen, "Observation of Šolc-like filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 39, 224-225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S. N.

Y. Q. Lu, Y. Y. Zhu, Y. F. Chen, S. N. Zhu, N. B. Ming, and Y. Y. Feng, "Optical properties of an ionic-type phononic crystal," Science 284, 1822-1824 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, Y. M.

Y. M. Zhu, X. F. Chen, J. H. Shi, "Wide-range tunable wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Commun. 228, 139-143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y. Y.

Y. Q. Lu, Y. Y. Zhu, Y. F. Chen, S. N. Zhu, N. B. Ming, and Y. Y. Feng, "Optical properties of an ionic-type phononic crystal," Science 284, 1822-1824 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, Y.M.

X.F. Chen, J.H. Shi, Y.P. Chen, Y.M. Zhu, Y.X. Xia, Y.L. Chen, "Electro-optic Šolc-type wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Lett. 28, 2115-2117 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.H. Shi, X.F. Chen, Y.P. Chen, Y.M. Zhu, Y.X. Xia, Y.L. Chen, "Observation of Šolc-like filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 39, 224-225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett

D. R. Pinnow, R. L. Abrams, J. F. Lotspeich, D. M. Henderson, T. K. Plant, R. R. Stephens, and C. M. Walker, "An electro-optic tunable filter," Appl. Phys. Lett 34, 391-393 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Lijun Chen, Jianhong Shi, Xianfeng Chen, Yuxing xia, "Photovoltaic effect in a periodically poled lithium niobate Šolc-type wavelength filter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Lu, Z. L. Wan, Q. Wang, Y. X. Xi, and N. B. Ming, "Electro-optic effect of periodically poled optical superlattice LiNbO3 and its applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3719-3721 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Glass, D. von der Linde, T. J. Negran, "High-voltage bulk photovoltaic effect and the photorefractive process in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 233-235 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

J.H. Shi, X.F. Chen, Y.P. Chen, Y.M. Zhu, Y.X. Xia, Y.L. Chen, "Observation of Šolc-like filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 39, 224-225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics

E. Kratzig and H. Kurz, "photo-induced currents and voltages in LiNbO3," Ferroelectrics 13, 295-296 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.

M. Simon, St. Wevering, K. Buse and E. Kratzig, "The bulk photovoltaic effect of photorefractive LiNbO3:Fe crystals at high light intensities," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 30, 144-149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

Y. M. Zhu, X. F. Chen, J. H. Shi, "Wide-range tunable wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Commun. 228, 139-143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Stat. Sol.

L. Arizmendi, "photonic applications of lithium niobate crystals," Phys. Stat. Sol. 201, 253-283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science

Y. Q. Lu, Y. Y. Zhu, Y. F. Chen, S. N. Zhu, N. B. Ming, and Y. Y. Feng, "Optical properties of an ionic-type phononic crystal," Science 284, 1822-1824 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

B. I. Sturman, V. M. Fridkin, The photovoltaic and photorefractive effects in noncentrosymmetric materials (Gordo and Breach Science Publishers, 1992).

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystal: Propagation and Control of Laser Radiation (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1984).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of a PPLN Šolc filter

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The spectrum of the PPLN filter under 143mw/cm2 UV illumination (empty square symbol) and without UV light illumination (red circle symbol)

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The center wavelength shift of a PPLN filter: measurement (red dot) and fitting curve (solid line).

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

θ γ 51 E y ( 1 n e 2 ) ( 1 n o 2 )
{ n x = n o + γ 22 E y n o 3 2 n y = n o γ 22 E y n o 3 2 n z = n e
{ n x = n o γ 13 n o 3 E z 2 n y = n o γ 13 n o 3 E z 2 n z = n e γ 33 n e 3 E z 2 ,
λ ν = ( n o n e ) Λ ( 2 ν + 1 ) = δ n Λ ( 2 ν + 1 ) , ν = 0 , 1 , 2 , ,
[ J 1 J 2 J 3 ] = α [ 0 0 0 0 G 15 G 22 G 22 G 22 0 G 15 0 0 G 31 G 31 G 33 0 0 0 ] [ E 1 E 1 * E 2 E 2 * E 3 E 3 * E 3 E 2 * E 3 E 1 * E 1 E 2 * ]
[ J 1 J 2 J 3 ] = α [ 0 G 22 G 31 ] E 2 E 2 *
[ J 1 J 2 J 3 ] = α [ 0 0 G 33 ] E 3 E 3 *
[ J 1 J 2 J 3 ] = α [ G 22 E 1 E 2 * 0 G 31 E 1 E 1 * + G 31 E 2 E 2 * ]
J = σ E sat
σ = σ d + σ ph I
E sat Z = α G 31 I σ ,
δ n = n o n e = ( n o n e ) 1 2 ( n o 3 γ 33 n e 3 γ 13 ) E sat z
= ( n o n e ) + 1 2 α ( n o 3 γ 33 n e 3 γ 13 ) G 31 I σ

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