Abstract

We report on the first observation, to our knowledge, of self-focusing without an external electric field in barium titanate crystals under cw laser beam irradiance. This effect we observed at an intensity of 0.2W/cm2 on the 633nm wavelength regime in the case of ordinarily as well as extraordinarily polarized light.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv and B. Fisher, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68,923-926 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. D. Porto, E. J. Sharp and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71,533-536 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, and G. Egidi, Bright photorefractive spatial solitons in tilted BaTiO3, presented at the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the [IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society] (LEOS 98), Orlando, Fla., 3 - 4 December 1998.
  4. J. Andrade-Lucio, M. Iturbe-Castillo, P. Marquez-Aguilar and R. Ramos-Garcia, "Self-focusing in photorefractive BaTiO3 crystal under external DC electric field," Opt. Quantum Electron. 30,829-834 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Guenter and J. Huignard, Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications 1 - Fundamental Phenomena (Springer, Berlin, 1988).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Kaenzig, "Space charge layer near the surface of a ferroelectric," Phys. Rev. 98,549-550 (1955).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. Matusevich, A. Krasnoberski, D. Khmelnitski, A. Kiessling and R. Kowarschik, "Some aspects of fanning, self-focusing and self-defocusing in a photorefractive Ba0.77Ca0.23TiO3 crystal," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6,507-513 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv and M. B. Fejer, "Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 50,R4457-R4460 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Liu, "Existence and stability of rigid photovoltaic solitons in an open-circuit amplifying or absorbing photovoltaic medium," Phys. Rev. E 68,0266071-0266077 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Chen, "Optically induced change of refractive indices in LiNbO3," J. Appl. Phys. 40,3389-3396 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Palfalv, J. Hebling, G. Almasi, A. Peter and K. Polgar, "Refractive index changes in Mg-doped LiNbO3 caused by photorefraction and thermal effects," J. Opt. A 5,S280-S283 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Horowitz, R. Daisy, O. Werner and B. Fischer, "Large thermal nonlinearities and spatial self-phase modulation in SrxBa1−xNb2O6 and BaTiO3 crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 17,475-477 (1992).
  13. D. Nolte, Photorefractive effects and materials (Kluwers Academic Publishers, Boston, 1995).
  14. G. Bacher, M. Chiao, G. Dunning, M. Klein, C. Nelson and B. Wechsler, "Ultralong dark decay measurements in BaTiO3," Opt. Lett. 21,18-20 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

V. Matusevich, A. Krasnoberski, D. Khmelnitski, A. Kiessling and R. Kowarschik, "Some aspects of fanning, self-focusing and self-defocusing in a photorefractive Ba0.77Ca0.23TiO3 crystal," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6,507-513 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, "Existence and stability of rigid photovoltaic solitons in an open-circuit amplifying or absorbing photovoltaic medium," Phys. Rev. E 68,0266071-0266077 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Palfalv, J. Hebling, G. Almasi, A. Peter and K. Polgar, "Refractive index changes in Mg-doped LiNbO3 caused by photorefraction and thermal effects," J. Opt. A 5,S280-S283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. Andrade-Lucio, M. Iturbe-Castillo, P. Marquez-Aguilar and R. Ramos-Garcia, "Self-focusing in photorefractive BaTiO3 crystal under external DC electric field," Opt. Quantum Electron. 30,829-834 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

G. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv and M. B. Fejer, "Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 50,R4457-R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. D. Porto, E. J. Sharp and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71,533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv and B. Fisher, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68,923-926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Horowitz, R. Daisy, O. Werner and B. Fischer, "Large thermal nonlinearities and spatial self-phase modulation in SrxBa1−xNb2O6 and BaTiO3 crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 17,475-477 (1992).

1969 (1)

F. Chen, "Optically induced change of refractive indices in LiNbO3," J. Appl. Phys. 40,3389-3396 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1955 (1)

W. Kaenzig, "Space charge layer near the surface of a ferroelectric," Phys. Rev. 98,549-550 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Almasi, G.

L. Palfalv, J. Hebling, G. Almasi, A. Peter and K. Polgar, "Refractive index changes in Mg-doped LiNbO3 caused by photorefraction and thermal effects," J. Opt. A 5,S280-S283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Andrade-Lucio, J.

J. Andrade-Lucio, M. Iturbe-Castillo, P. Marquez-Aguilar and R. Ramos-Garcia, "Self-focusing in photorefractive BaTiO3 crystal under external DC electric field," Opt. Quantum Electron. 30,829-834 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bacher, G.

Chen, F.

F. Chen, "Optically induced change of refractive indices in LiNbO3," J. Appl. Phys. 40,3389-3396 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Chiao, M.

Crosignani, B.

G. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv and M. B. Fejer, "Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 50,R4457-R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. D. Porto, E. J. Sharp and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71,533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv and B. Fisher, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68,923-926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daisy, R.

M. Horowitz, R. Daisy, O. Werner and B. Fischer, "Large thermal nonlinearities and spatial self-phase modulation in SrxBa1−xNb2O6 and BaTiO3 crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 17,475-477 (1992).

Dunning, G.

Duree, G. C.

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. D. Porto, E. J. Sharp and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71,533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fejer, M. B.

G. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv and M. B. Fejer, "Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 50,R4457-R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, B.

M. Horowitz, R. Daisy, O. Werner and B. Fischer, "Large thermal nonlinearities and spatial self-phase modulation in SrxBa1−xNb2O6 and BaTiO3 crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 17,475-477 (1992).

Fisher, B.

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv and B. Fisher, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68,923-926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hebling, J.

L. Palfalv, J. Hebling, G. Almasi, A. Peter and K. Polgar, "Refractive index changes in Mg-doped LiNbO3 caused by photorefraction and thermal effects," J. Opt. A 5,S280-S283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Horowitz, M.

M. Horowitz, R. Daisy, O. Werner and B. Fischer, "Large thermal nonlinearities and spatial self-phase modulation in SrxBa1−xNb2O6 and BaTiO3 crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 17,475-477 (1992).

Iturbe-Castillo, M.

J. Andrade-Lucio, M. Iturbe-Castillo, P. Marquez-Aguilar and R. Ramos-Garcia, "Self-focusing in photorefractive BaTiO3 crystal under external DC electric field," Opt. Quantum Electron. 30,829-834 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kaenzig, W.

W. Kaenzig, "Space charge layer near the surface of a ferroelectric," Phys. Rev. 98,549-550 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Khmelnitski, D.

V. Matusevich, A. Krasnoberski, D. Khmelnitski, A. Kiessling and R. Kowarschik, "Some aspects of fanning, self-focusing and self-defocusing in a photorefractive Ba0.77Ca0.23TiO3 crystal," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6,507-513 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kiessling, A.

V. Matusevich, A. Krasnoberski, D. Khmelnitski, A. Kiessling and R. Kowarschik, "Some aspects of fanning, self-focusing and self-defocusing in a photorefractive Ba0.77Ca0.23TiO3 crystal," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6,507-513 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Klein, M.

Kowarschik, R.

V. Matusevich, A. Krasnoberski, D. Khmelnitski, A. Kiessling and R. Kowarschik, "Some aspects of fanning, self-focusing and self-defocusing in a photorefractive Ba0.77Ca0.23TiO3 crystal," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6,507-513 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krasnoberski, A.

V. Matusevich, A. Krasnoberski, D. Khmelnitski, A. Kiessling and R. Kowarschik, "Some aspects of fanning, self-focusing and self-defocusing in a photorefractive Ba0.77Ca0.23TiO3 crystal," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6,507-513 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, "Existence and stability of rigid photovoltaic solitons in an open-circuit amplifying or absorbing photovoltaic medium," Phys. Rev. E 68,0266071-0266077 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marquez-Aguilar, P.

J. Andrade-Lucio, M. Iturbe-Castillo, P. Marquez-Aguilar and R. Ramos-Garcia, "Self-focusing in photorefractive BaTiO3 crystal under external DC electric field," Opt. Quantum Electron. 30,829-834 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Matusevich, V.

V. Matusevich, A. Krasnoberski, D. Khmelnitski, A. Kiessling and R. Kowarschik, "Some aspects of fanning, self-focusing and self-defocusing in a photorefractive Ba0.77Ca0.23TiO3 crystal," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6,507-513 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, C.

Neurgaonkar, R. R.

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. D. Porto, E. J. Sharp and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71,533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palfalv, L.

L. Palfalv, J. Hebling, G. Almasi, A. Peter and K. Polgar, "Refractive index changes in Mg-doped LiNbO3 caused by photorefraction and thermal effects," J. Opt. A 5,S280-S283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peter, A.

L. Palfalv, J. Hebling, G. Almasi, A. Peter and K. Polgar, "Refractive index changes in Mg-doped LiNbO3 caused by photorefraction and thermal effects," J. Opt. A 5,S280-S283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Polgar, K.

L. Palfalv, J. Hebling, G. Almasi, A. Peter and K. Polgar, "Refractive index changes in Mg-doped LiNbO3 caused by photorefraction and thermal effects," J. Opt. A 5,S280-S283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Porto, P. D.

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. D. Porto, E. J. Sharp and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71,533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramos-Garcia, R.

J. Andrade-Lucio, M. Iturbe-Castillo, P. Marquez-Aguilar and R. Ramos-Garcia, "Self-focusing in photorefractive BaTiO3 crystal under external DC electric field," Opt. Quantum Electron. 30,829-834 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Salamo, G. J.

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. D. Porto, E. J. Sharp and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71,533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Segev, M.

G. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv and M. B. Fejer, "Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 50,R4457-R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. D. Porto, E. J. Sharp and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71,533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv and B. Fisher, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68,923-926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharp, E. J.

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. D. Porto, E. J. Sharp and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71,533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shultz, J. L.

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. D. Porto, E. J. Sharp and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71,533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valley, G.

G. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv and M. B. Fejer, "Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 50,R4457-R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wechsler, B.

Werner, O.

M. Horowitz, R. Daisy, O. Werner and B. Fischer, "Large thermal nonlinearities and spatial self-phase modulation in SrxBa1−xNb2O6 and BaTiO3 crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 17,475-477 (1992).

Yariv, A.

G. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv and M. B. Fejer, "Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 50,R4457-R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. D. Porto, E. J. Sharp and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71,533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv and B. Fisher, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68,923-926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

F. Chen, "Optically induced change of refractive indices in LiNbO3," J. Appl. Phys. 40,3389-3396 (1969).
[CrossRef]

M. Horowitz, R. Daisy, O. Werner and B. Fischer, "Large thermal nonlinearities and spatial self-phase modulation in SrxBa1−xNb2O6 and BaTiO3 crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 17,475-477 (1992).

J. Opt. A (1)

L. Palfalv, J. Hebling, G. Almasi, A. Peter and K. Polgar, "Refractive index changes in Mg-doped LiNbO3 caused by photorefraction and thermal effects," J. Opt. A 5,S280-S283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

V. Matusevich, A. Krasnoberski, D. Khmelnitski, A. Kiessling and R. Kowarschik, "Some aspects of fanning, self-focusing and self-defocusing in a photorefractive Ba0.77Ca0.23TiO3 crystal," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6,507-513 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Andrade-Lucio, M. Iturbe-Castillo, P. Marquez-Aguilar and R. Ramos-Garcia, "Self-focusing in photorefractive BaTiO3 crystal under external DC electric field," Opt. Quantum Electron. 30,829-834 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

W. Kaenzig, "Space charge layer near the surface of a ferroelectric," Phys. Rev. 98,549-550 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

G. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv and M. B. Fejer, "Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 50,R4457-R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

J. Liu, "Existence and stability of rigid photovoltaic solitons in an open-circuit amplifying or absorbing photovoltaic medium," Phys. Rev. E 68,0266071-0266077 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv and B. Fisher, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68,923-926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. D. Porto, E. J. Sharp and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71,533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, and G. Egidi, Bright photorefractive spatial solitons in tilted BaTiO3, presented at the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the [IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society] (LEOS 98), Orlando, Fla., 3 - 4 December 1998.

P. Guenter and J. Huignard, Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications 1 - Fundamental Phenomena (Springer, Berlin, 1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Nolte, Photorefractive effects and materials (Kluwers Academic Publishers, Boston, 1995).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental set-up: La: He-Ne-laser, I: intensity filter, P: Glan-Thompson-polarizer, O: micro-objective, K: crystal, L: telescope system, C: CCD-matrix.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Dependence of the crystals transmission on the wavelength.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison of self-focusing in nominal pure, Rh and Co doped crystals. The beam diameter w at the rear face of the crystal is normalized at the output diameter w at the beginning of the measurement.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Comparison of self-focusing in 0° and 45°cut crystals of undoped barium titanate. The beam diameter w at the rear face of the crystal is normalized at the output diameter w at the beginning of the measurement.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Direction of polarizations of the laser beam and edge length of the crystal that was used in experiment.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Beam diameter at

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Samples (1–19) of the barium titanate crystals with edge lengths a/b/c, color, absorption coefficients α at 633nm, doping and cut

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