Abstract

A 100-GW optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier system is used to study nonlinear effects in the 1.54 µm regime. When focusing this beam in air, strong third-harmonic generation (THG) is observed, and both the spectra and efficiency are measured. Broadening is observed on only the blue side of the third-harmonic signal and an energy conversion efficiency of 0.2% is achieved. When propagated through a 10-cm block of fused silica, a collimated beam is seen to collapse and form multiple filaments. The measured spectral features span 400–2100 nm. The spectrum is dominated by previously unobserved Stokes emissions and broad emissions in the visible.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, "Self-channeling of high-peak-power femtosecond laser pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 20, 73-75 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. A. C. Bernstein, J. C. Diels, T. S. Luk, T. R. Nelson, A. McPherson, and S. M. Cameron, "Time-resolved measurements of self-focusing pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 28, 2354-2356 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. A. Pitts, T. S. Luk, J. K. Gruetzner, T. R. Nelson, A. McPherson, S. M. Cameron, and A. C. Bernstein, "Propagation of self-focusing laser pusles in atmosphere: experiment versus numerical simulation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 2008-2016 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Sprangle, J. R. Peñano, and B. Hafizi, "Propagation of intense short laser pulses in the atmosphere," Phys. Rev. E 66, 046418, 1-21 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Bergé, S. Skupin, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, S. Frey, E. Salmon, and J. P. Wolf, "Supercontinuum emission and enhanced self-guiding of infrared femtosecond filaments sustained by third-harmonic generation in air," Phys. Rev. E 71, 016602-1-13 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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  13. M. L. Naudeau, J. Bodnar, R. J. Law, T. S. Luk, T. R. Nelson, M. Rivera, J. V. Rudd, and S. M. Cameron are preparing a manuscript to be called "Third harmonic generation in air as a function of wavelength, f-number, and peak power."
  14. V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation)," Appl. Phys. B 77, 149-165 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

W. Liu, S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, and V. P. Kandidov, "Experimental observation and simulations of the self-action of white light laser pulse propagating in air," New J. Phys. 6, 1-22 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Pitts, T. S. Luk, J. K. Gruetzner, T. R. Nelson, A. McPherson, S. M. Cameron, and A. C. Bernstein, "Propagation of self-focusing laser pusles in atmosphere: experiment versus numerical simulation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 2008-2016 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

A. C. Bernstein, J. C. Diels, T. S. Luk, T. R. Nelson, A. McPherson, and S. M. Cameron, "Time-resolved measurements of self-focusing pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 28, 2354-2356 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Aközbek, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Continuum generation of the third-harmonic pulse generated by an intense femtosecond IR laser pulse in air," Appl. Phys. B 77, 177-183 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation)," Appl. Phys. B 77, 149-165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Kolesik, G. Katona, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, "Physical factors limiting the spectral extent and band gap dependence of supercontinuum generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

P. Sprangle, J. R. Peñano, and B. Hafizi, "Propagation of intense short laser pulses in the atmosphere," Phys. Rev. E 66, 046418, 1-21 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1997 (1)

A. B. Fedetov, N. I. Koroteev, M. M. T. Loy, X. Xiao, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Saturation of third-harmonic generation in a plasma of self-induced optical breakdown due to the self-action of 80-fs light pulses," Opt. Commun. 133, 587-595 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Aközbek, N.

N. Aközbek, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Continuum generation of the third-harmonic pulse generated by an intense femtosecond IR laser pulse in air," Appl. Phys. B 77, 177-183 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Becker, A.

N. Aközbek, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Continuum generation of the third-harmonic pulse generated by an intense femtosecond IR laser pulse in air," Appl. Phys. B 77, 177-183 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation)," Appl. Phys. B 77, 149-165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bernstein, A. C.

Bowden, C. M.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation)," Appl. Phys. B 77, 149-165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Aközbek, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Continuum generation of the third-harmonic pulse generated by an intense femtosecond IR laser pulse in air," Appl. Phys. B 77, 177-183 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Braun, A.

Cameron, S. M.

Chin, S. L.

A. Saliminia, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallée, "Ultra-broad and coherent white light generation in silica glass by focused femtosecond pulses at 1.5 µm," Opt. Express 13, 5731-5738 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Liu, S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, and V. P. Kandidov, "Experimental observation and simulations of the self-action of white light laser pulse propagating in air," New J. Phys. 6, 1-22 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Aközbek, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Continuum generation of the third-harmonic pulse generated by an intense femtosecond IR laser pulse in air," Appl. Phys. B 77, 177-183 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation)," Appl. Phys. B 77, 149-165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Diels, J. C.

Du, D.

Fedetov, A. B.

A. B. Fedetov, N. I. Koroteev, M. M. T. Loy, X. Xiao, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Saturation of third-harmonic generation in a plasma of self-induced optical breakdown due to the self-action of 80-fs light pulses," Opt. Commun. 133, 587-595 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ferland, B.

W. Liu, S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, and V. P. Kandidov, "Experimental observation and simulations of the self-action of white light laser pulse propagating in air," New J. Phys. 6, 1-22 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fibich, G.

Gaeta, A. L.

Golubtsov, I. S.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation)," Appl. Phys. B 77, 149-165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gruetzner, J. K.

Hafizi, B.

P. Sprangle, J. R. Peñano, and B. Hafizi, "Propagation of intense short laser pulses in the atmosphere," Phys. Rev. E 66, 046418, 1-21 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hosseini, S. A.

W. Liu, S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, and V. P. Kandidov, "Experimental observation and simulations of the self-action of white light laser pulse propagating in air," New J. Phys. 6, 1-22 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kandidov, V. P.

W. Liu, S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, and V. P. Kandidov, "Experimental observation and simulations of the self-action of white light laser pulse propagating in air," New J. Phys. 6, 1-22 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation)," Appl. Phys. B 77, 149-165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Katona, G.

M. Kolesik, G. Katona, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, "Physical factors limiting the spectral extent and band gap dependence of supercontinuum generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolesik, M.

M. Kolesik, G. Katona, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, "Physical factors limiting the spectral extent and band gap dependence of supercontinuum generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korn, G.

Koroteev, N. I.

A. B. Fedetov, N. I. Koroteev, M. M. T. Loy, X. Xiao, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Saturation of third-harmonic generation in a plasma of self-induced optical breakdown due to the self-action of 80-fs light pulses," Opt. Commun. 133, 587-595 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kosareva, O. G.

W. Liu, S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, and V. P. Kandidov, "Experimental observation and simulations of the self-action of white light laser pulse propagating in air," New J. Phys. 6, 1-22 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation)," Appl. Phys. B 77, 149-165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Law, R. J.

Liu, W.

W. Liu, S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, and V. P. Kandidov, "Experimental observation and simulations of the self-action of white light laser pulse propagating in air," New J. Phys. 6, 1-22 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation)," Appl. Phys. B 77, 149-165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Loy, M. M. T.

A. B. Fedetov, N. I. Koroteev, M. M. T. Loy, X. Xiao, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Saturation of third-harmonic generation in a plasma of self-induced optical breakdown due to the self-action of 80-fs light pulses," Opt. Commun. 133, 587-595 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Luk, T. S.

Luo, Q.

W. Liu, S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, and V. P. Kandidov, "Experimental observation and simulations of the self-action of white light laser pulse propagating in air," New J. Phys. 6, 1-22 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McPherson, A.

Moloney, J. V.

M. Kolesik, G. Katona, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, "Physical factors limiting the spectral extent and band gap dependence of supercontinuum generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mourou, G.

Nelson, T. R.

Panov, N. A.

W. Liu, S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, and V. P. Kandidov, "Experimental observation and simulations of the self-action of white light laser pulse propagating in air," New J. Phys. 6, 1-22 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Peñano, J. R.

P. Sprangle, J. R. Peñano, and B. Hafizi, "Propagation of intense short laser pulses in the atmosphere," Phys. Rev. E 66, 046418, 1-21 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pitts, T. A.

Rudd, J. V.

Saliminia, A.

Scalora, M.

N. Aközbek, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Continuum generation of the third-harmonic pulse generated by an intense femtosecond IR laser pulse in air," Appl. Phys. B 77, 177-183 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sprangle, P.

P. Sprangle, J. R. Peñano, and B. Hafizi, "Propagation of intense short laser pulses in the atmosphere," Phys. Rev. E 66, 046418, 1-21 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

Vallée, R.

Wright, E. M.

M. Kolesik, G. Katona, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, "Physical factors limiting the spectral extent and band gap dependence of supercontinuum generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, X.

A. B. Fedetov, N. I. Koroteev, M. M. T. Loy, X. Xiao, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Saturation of third-harmonic generation in a plasma of self-induced optical breakdown due to the self-action of 80-fs light pulses," Opt. Commun. 133, 587-595 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zheltikov, A. M.

A. B. Fedetov, N. I. Koroteev, M. M. T. Loy, X. Xiao, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Saturation of third-harmonic generation in a plasma of self-induced optical breakdown due to the self-action of 80-fs light pulses," Opt. Commun. 133, 587-595 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

N. Aközbek, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Continuum generation of the third-harmonic pulse generated by an intense femtosecond IR laser pulse in air," Appl. Phys. B 77, 177-183 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation)," Appl. Phys. B 77, 149-165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

New J. Phys. (1)

W. Liu, S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, and V. P. Kandidov, "Experimental observation and simulations of the self-action of white light laser pulse propagating in air," New J. Phys. 6, 1-22 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. B. Fedetov, N. I. Koroteev, M. M. T. Loy, X. Xiao, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Saturation of third-harmonic generation in a plasma of self-induced optical breakdown due to the self-action of 80-fs light pulses," Opt. Commun. 133, 587-595 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

P. Sprangle, J. R. Peñano, and B. Hafizi, "Propagation of intense short laser pulses in the atmosphere," Phys. Rev. E 66, 046418, 1-21 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Kolesik, G. Katona, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, "Physical factors limiting the spectral extent and band gap dependence of supercontinuum generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, (Academic Press, 1995), p. 318.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, S. Frey, E. Salmon, and J. P. Wolf, "Supercontinuum emission and enhanced self-guiding of infrared femtosecond filaments sustained by third-harmonic generation in air," Phys. Rev. E 71, 016602-1-13 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P.W. Milonni and J. H. Eberly, Lasers, (John Wiley & Sons, 1988), p 673-676.

M. L. Naudeau, J. Bodnar, R. J. Law, T. S. Luk, T. R. Nelson, M. Rivera, J. V. Rudd, and S. M. Cameron are preparing a manuscript to be called "Third harmonic generation in air as a function of wavelength, f-number, and peak power."

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Third-harmonic generation in air: experimental setup.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Third-harmonic efficiency, in percentage, generated in air as a function of pulse energy. The four sets of data correspond to different focal length lenses used to focus the 1.54 µm beam.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Third-harmonic generated by focusing the 100 GW beam in air with f=100 mm lens. a)Digital camera image: the blue portion is due to spectral broadening around the third-harmonic peak. b)Spectrum of the third-harmonic showing the broadening generated on the blue side of the 511 nm peak.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

White-light continuum generated from whole beam collapse during propagation through 10 cm of fused silica. a) Digital camera image taken without filters. b) Spectral data from three different spectrometers: Black: NIR256-2.1, Red: NIR512, Green: USB2000. The response function of the spectrometer is uncorrected and all intensities are relative. Dotted blue line is the original spectrum of the laser pulse.

Equations (2)

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P cr = α λ o 2 4 π n 0 n 2 ,
z s f = π w o 2 λ P P cr 1 = 42.6 cm ,

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